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  • 1.
    Beiron, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Drifterfarenheter från ett superisolerat flerbostadshus: Kv SEGLET, Karlstad2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seglet är ett 12-vånings punkthus med 44 lägenheter beläget i Karlstad. Byggherre är Karlstads Bostads AB. Huset är byggt med mycket höga ambitioner när det gäller kvalitet och resurshushållning och togs i drift i börjanav 2007.

    Denna rapport redovisar klimatskalets egenskaper och funktion samt utformningen av installationssystemen för värme, ventilation och tappvatten.Rapporten beskriver också drifterfarenheterna från de första årens drift samt de förbättringsåtgärder som utförts.

    Seglets lösningar visar att energieffektivisering och inneklimat kan gå hand ihand. Konceptet med en enkel förvärmning av tilluften löser två problem. Dels kan tilluften tillföras lägenheten utan risk för drag och dels saknar det FTX-systemets nackdelar med utökat servicebehov för filterbyten och ökad elanvändning för tilluftsfläkten. Det välisolerade och täta klimatskalet ger en komfortabel inomhusmiljö. Den befarade risken med höga rumstemperaturer sommartid har inte besannats. Tack vare genomtänkta fönsterplaceringar med solskyddsglas där så är befogat samt goda möjligheter till effektiv vädring har lägenheterna samma temperaturnivå sommartid som motsvarande lägenheter i normalisolerade byggnader. Byggnaden är mycket resurseffektiv med låga förbrukningstal på både energi och vatten. Då största delen av värmebehovet täcks med fjärrvärme står sig byggnaden mycket väl i en jämförande miljöbedömning.

    Nyckeltal för klimatskal och energianvändning

    Medelvärde för klimatskalets värmeisolering, Um, W/m2,K ca 0,21

    Luftläckage, läckflöde vid provtryckning till 50 Pa, l/s,m2Aomg 0,13

    Specifik energianvändning, kWh/m2,år 58

     

     

  • 2. Bengtsson, J.
    et al.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Effects of whole-tree harvesting on the amount of soil carbon: model results1993In: New Zealand Journal of Forest Science 23: 380-389, 1993Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Lindh, Helena
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Design Sci, Packaging Logist, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Williams, Helen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Olsson, Annika
    Lund Univ, Dept Design Sci, Packaging Logist, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Wikstrom, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Elucidating the Indirect Contributions of Packaging to Sustainable Development: A Terminology of Packaging Functions and Features2016In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 29, no 4-5, p. 225-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging has great potential to contribute to sustainable development through its functions. Previous research has indicated a need for increased knowledge among consumers, suppliers, authorities and media of how packaging functions and features influence sustainable development. Previous research also shows the need for a common terminology of packaging functions and features in order to facilitate and improve communication and understanding in development and decision processes. This conceptual paper sets out to identify, collect, analyse and systemize packaging functions and features and evaluate them based on their indirect contributions to sustainable development. The systemized functions and features are expressed in generic terminology. Three clusters of packaging functions were identified from the literature: protect, facilitate handling and communicate. Nineteen packaging features were also identified. They were grouped under the three functions and elaborated based on their indirect contributions to the environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainable development. Fourteen potential positive indirect effects were identified including decreased product waste, reduced risk for human health hazards, increased handling and transport efficiency. Decreased product waste was generated by 13 of the features and was thus the most frequently appearing. Reducing waste is thereby indicated to be a manifold matter, but also one of great potential. The proposed terminology can contribute to an increased understanding of how packaging can actually contribute to sustainable development. In a theoretical context, this paper attempts to complement earlier work in sustainable packaging development by its emphasis on the indirect contributions of packaging to sustainable development.

  • 4.
    Molina-Besch, Katrin
    et al.
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund .
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The environmental impact of packaging in food supply chainsdoes life cycle assessment of food provide the full picture?2019In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 37-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeDue to the urgency and the magnitude of the environmental problems caused by food supply chains, it is important that the recommendations for packaging improvements given in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of food rest on a balanced consideration of all relevant environmental impacts of packaging. The purpose of this article is to analyse the extent to which food LCAs include the indirect environmental impact of packaging in parallel to its direct impact. While the direct environmental impact of food packaging is the impact caused by packaging materials' production and end-of-life, its indirect environmental impact is caused by its influence on the food product's life cycle, e.g. by its influence on food waste and on logistical efficiency.MethodsThe article presents a review of 32 food LCAs published in peer-reviewed scientific journals over the last decade. The steps of the food product's life cycle that contribute to the direct and indirect environmental impacts of packaging provide the overall structure of the analytical framework used for the review. Three aspects in the selected food LCAs were analysed: (1) the defined scope of the LCAs, (2) the sensitivity and/or scenario analyses and (3) the conclusions and recommendations.Results and discussionWhile in packaging LCA literature, there is a trend towards a more systematic consideration of the indirect environmental impact of packaging, it is unclear how food LCAs handle this aspect. The results of the review show that the choices regarding scope and sensitivities/scenarios made in food LCAs and their conclusions about packaging focus on the direct environmental impact of packaging. While it is clear that not all food LCAs need to analyse packaging in detail, this article identifies opportunities to increase the validity of packaging-related conclusions in food LCAs and provides specific recommendations for packaging-related food LCA methodology.ConclusionsOverall, we conclude that the indirect environmental impact of packaging is insufficiently considered in current food LCA practice. Based on these results, this article calls for a more systematic consideration of the indirect environmental impact of packaging in future food LCAs. In addition, it identifies a need for more packaging research that can provide the empirical data that many food LCA practitioners currently lack. In particular, LCA practitioners would benefit if there were more knowledge and data available about the influence of certain packaging characteristics (e.g. shape, weight and type of material) on consumer behaviour.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Olsson, Annika
    Lunds universitet.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Toward sustainable goods flow: a framework from a packaging perspective2011In: Conference Proceedings of Nofoma 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Renström, Roger
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Lindquist, L.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Study of the environmental impact of wood fuel processing2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Stawreberg, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Does the energy labelling system for domestic tumble dryers serve its purpose?2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, p. 1300-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Swedish Perspective on Wood Fuel Pellets for Household Heating: A Modified Standard for Pellets Could Reduce End-User Problems2009In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 803-809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood fuel pellets has increased significantly over the past few years, and since 2006 the households use the major part of the pellets available in Sweden. During the same period, the oil heating has decreased. Many former oil users that were used to almost maintenance-free heating systems now use pellets. Despite significant improvements of pellet quality and storage and burner equipment, there are still some problems that the household pellets user encounters. In this work, common end-user problems are identified. The cause of each problem, as well as whether a modified Swedish standard for pellets could reduce some of the problems encountered, is analysed. The results show that the most serious problems originate from the crumbling of pellets. We conclude that many of the problems could be avoided by modifying the Swedish standard, e.g., the quality parameters could be set using intervals instead of threshold values.

  • 9.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wood Fuel Pellet Technology Research: Quality and Environmental AspectsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Wickholm, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Lindström, Annika
    Innventia.
    Lorentzon, Ann
    Innventia.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Innovative packaging for reduction of food waste from producer to consumer2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing population and environmental changes poses a significant pressure on the global food supply chain. With the large quantities of food waste that’s been reported over the past couple of years packaging can play a more significant role in reducing the food wastage. Together with actors along the entire value chain we are developing new innovative packaging solutions to reduce food waste throughout the value chain, from food producers to consumers. The purpose of the study is to design and optimize new packaging system solutions so that no part of the chain is optimized at the expense of any other part. In the fall of 2015 the food wastage was examined in three supply chains, salsa in glass jar (A), rice pudding in plastic packaging (B) and lettuce in plastic packaging (C), by using waste audits in the businesses, collecting, comparing and analyzing data. For consumer insights ethnographic studies was used in ten Swedish households. Interviews have also been conducted with consumers in retail stores. The supply chain study indicates little wastage for A and B and higher for C. Consumer report some handling difficulties with the food packaging and reasons why food is wasted. The main reasons being that the food gets bad, difficulties to empty the packaging and that the amount of food is higher than their needs. A majority of the consumer state that they often view packaging as something unnecessary. Consumers do not give packaging functions many thoughts in general and many have difficulties in judging the packaging functions.

  • 11.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    A theoretical explanation of the Piper-Steenbjerg effect1994In: Plant, Cell and Environment 17: 1053-1060, 1994Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Allocation of mass in trees under nitrogen and magnesium limitation1995In: Tree Physiology 15, 339-344, 1995Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Att undervisa i och examinera abstrakt tänkande2006In: Proceedings 2005: utvecklingskonferensen 16-18 november i Karlstad / [ed] Ingrid Järnefelt, Lund: Lunds universitet , 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Beräkningar av näringsbalanser och kväveförluster vid helträdsutnyttjande1992In: Vattenfall Bioenergi Research, U(B) 1992/16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    The Potential of Energy Utilization from Logging Residues With Regard to the Availability of Ashes2007In: Biomass and Bioenergy 2007; 31: 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Karli, Verghese
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Rafael, Auras
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Olsson, Annika
    Lund University, Lund.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wever, Renee
    Linköping University.
    Grönman, Kaisa
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Kvalvåg Pettersen, Marit
    Nofima AS,Ås, Norway.
    Møller, Hanne
    Ostfold Research, Kråkeröy, Norway.
    Risto, Soukka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Packaging Strategies That Save Food: A Research Agenda for 20302019In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 532-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Thoroughly considering and optimizing packaging systems can avoid food loss and waste. We suggest a number of issues that must be explored and review the associated challenges. Five main issues were recognized through the extensive experience of the authors and engagement of multiple stakeholders. The issues promoted are classified as follows: (1) identify and obtain specific data of packaging functions that influence food waste; (2) understand the total environmental burden of product/package by considering the trade‐off between product protection and preservation and environmental footprint; (3) develop understanding of how these functions should be treated in environmental footprint evaluations; (4) improve packaging design processes to also consider reducing food waste; and (5) analyze stakeholder incentives to reduce food loss and waste. Packaging measures that save food will be important to fulfill the United Nations Sustainable Development goal to halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and to reduce food losses along production and supply chains.

  • 17.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hållbar utveckling i skogslandskapet ' med energi i fokus2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hållbar utveckling i Värmland - Strategier för lokal och regional hållbar utveckling av energisystem i ett femtioårsperspektiv2002Report (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Olsson, A
    Nilsson, F
    Hellström, D
    Bra förpackning skyddar och säljer i hållbart system2011In: Miljöforskning, ISSN 2000-8627, no januariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ger mindre förpackningsmaterial mindre avfall?2010In: Återvinnare för industrin 2010 / [ed] Kjell-Arne Larsson, Stockholm: Rekord Media och Produktion , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Packaging and Food Waste Behavior2017In: Reference Module in Food Sciences, Elsevier, 2017, p. 1-4Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Packaging saves food by protecting the content from physical and chemical degradation during the distribution and storage processes. However, packaging can do much more than that. This article explores how the design of a package may help, or indeed hinder, the consumer to avoid wasting food. A number of packaging attributes influence consumer behavior. The influence is different depending on the product‘s characteristics and the needs of the consumer. For many products, it might be better to add packaging material, for example, by creating smaller sizes of the product to reduce food waste and the overall environmental impact.

  • 22.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Potential environmental gains from reducing food losses through development of new packaging – a life cycle model.2010In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 403-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental concern and development issues regarding packaging has for 20 years to a high extent been on packaging when it has become waste. To reduce the environmental impact from the whole food packaging system it is also important to develop the packaging’s ability to reduce food waste. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the environmental impact of packaging in order to reduce food waste. In this paper, the environmental impact of packaging and food losses and the balance between the two has been examined for five different food items. The results show that packaging’s that reduce food waste can be an important tool to reduce the total environmental impact, even if there is an increase in impact from the packaging itself. This is especially true for food items where the environ- mental impact of the food is high relative the packaging, for example cheese, and for food items with high losses, for example bread. It is important to analyse the risk of increasing food losses when pack- aging design changes, for example, when the aim is less packaging material, which is the main intention of the packaging and packaging waste directive of the European Union.

  • 23.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The influence of packaging attributes on recycling and food waste behaviour – An environmental comparison of two packaging alternatives2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 137, p. 895-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how user behaviour influences the environmental comparison of two different packages for minced meat - a lightweight tube and a tray. The direct and indirect environmental effects are evaluated using simplified LCA. A number of packaging attributes with regard to food waste and recycling behaviour are analysed for the packages, and then used for the scenario calculations. The results show that the tube is the superior environmental alternative when only the direct effects are considered. When indirect effects and user behaviour are included in the comparison, the tray is the better alternative due to higher recycling rates and, most importantly, less food waste during the process of emptying. However, the environmental impacts due to the food waste in the tube may be compensated for, if the longer shelf-life of the tube results in lower wastage in the households. It is concluded that indirect environmental effects and user behaviour should be included in environmental assessments of packaging to obtain meaningful results.

  • 24.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Rowe, Zane
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The importance of packaging functions for food waste of different products in households2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 1-16, article id 2641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations sustainability goal SDG 12.3 is to reduce the amount of food that is wasted by half, due to environmental and social reasons. This paper aims to analyse the most important packaging functions that affect food waste in households for different products, as the reason for wastage can be expected to differ between different products. The reasons for food wastage of different categories and products have been compiled through literature studies, and possible improvements of packaging functions to reduce food waste have been identified. In addition, an expert workshop judged the most important packaging functions to reduce food waste for a number of products. They also discussed the obstacles and possibilities to realise the packaging improvements. This study confirms that how packaging functions influence food waste on the product level is a highly unexplored question. Most likely, there is high potential to reduce food waste through better adaptions of packaging functions to user needs and habits. Both the literature study and the expert workshop show that less food per pack and better information regarding food safety and storage have high potential to reduce food waste, but also that product specific considerations are necessary.

  • 25.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Verghese, Karli
    RMIT University, Melbourne.
    Clune, Stephen
    RMIT University, Melbourne.
    The influence of packaging attributes on consumer behaviour in food-packaging LCA studies: a neglected topic2012In: 8th International Conference on Life cycle assessment in the agri-food sector / [ed] Corson, M.S., van der Werf, H.M.G., 2012, p. 287-293Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Williams, Helén
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Verghese, Karli
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Clune, Stephen
    Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
    The influence of packaging attributes on consumer behaviour in food-packaging life cycle assessment studies - a neglected topic2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 73, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of packaging systems to reduce food waste is rarely modelled in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. This means that a packaging system format with a lower environmental impact that causes high food waste, may appear to be a better alternative than a packaging system with a higher environmental impact that reduces food waste. This can be contradictory to the purpose of using LCA to reduce overall environmental impacts, because food generally has a higher environmental impact than the packaging system. This paper highlights packaging attributes that may influence food waste, and demonstrates via six packaging scenarios how the environmental impact for the functional unit of “eaten food” can be calculated when food waste is included. The results show that the function of “avoiding food waste” is a critical packaging issue. The connection between packaging design and food waste should be acknowledged and valued by relevant stakeholders such as: food producers, manufacturers, brand owners, retailers and consumers, and also in packaging regulations. To fully explore the potential for packaging systems to reduce their overall environmental impact, food waste should be included. 

  • 27.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Ågren, G.I.
    The relationship between the growth rate of young plants and their total-N concentration is unique and simple: a comment1995In: Annals of Botany 75(1995) 541-544Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Verghese, Karli
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Lockrey, Simon
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Crossin, Enda
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Clune, Stephen
    ImaginationLancaster, Lancaster University, UK.
    Rio, Maud
    Centre for Design and Society, School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University, Australia.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The greenhouse gas profile of a “Hungry Planet”; quantifying the impacts of the weekly food purchases including associated packaging and food waste of three families2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) have estimated that 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted across the supply chain, while food security emerges as one of the leading challenges facing a growing global population. Life cycle assessment (LCA) can illustrate the environmental implications of food production, consumption and waste. In 2005, Peter Menzel and Faith D’Aluisio presented a photographic study in “Hungry Planet – What the World Eats” documenting what thirty families across twenty-four countries ate during the course of one week. The weekly food purchasing inventories of three of these families have been combined with LCA data to report the greenhouse gas intensity of these food purchases. The greenhouse gas emission profile including those of 128 varieties of fresh food, along with data on packaging material production and household food waste, have been used in the calculations. The paper will present the findings illustrating the contribution each component has: food, packaging and food waste; and will also discuss the implications for food packaging design. 

  • 29.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Environmental impact of packaging and food losses in a life cycle perspective: a comparative analysis of five food items2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 43-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental concern and development issues regarding packaging has for 20 years to a high extent been on packaging when it has become waste. To reduce the environmentalimpact from the whole foodpackaging system it is also important to develop the packaging’s ability to reduce food waste. In some cases it may be necessary to increase the environmentalimpactofpackagingin order to reduce food waste. In this paper, the environmentalimpactofpackagingandfoodlossesand the balance between the two has been examined for five different food items. The results show that packaging’s that reduce food waste can be an important tool to reduce the total environmentalimpact, even if there is an increase inimpact from the packaging itself. This is especially true for food items where the environmentalimpactof the food is high relative the packaging, for example cheese, and for food items with high losses, for example bread. It is important to analyse the risk of increasing foodlosses when packaging design changes, for example, when the aim is less packaging material, which is the main intention of the packagingandpackaging waste directive of the European Union.

  • 30.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    From sustainable packaging to packaging for sustainable development2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract

    From sustainable packaging to packaging for sustainable development

    By moving from:

    Packaging waste, Production-oriented, Product-oriented (packaging), Selective and Regulations on packaging reduction

    to:

    Food waste, Consumption-oriented, Service-oriented(packaging functions), Comprehensive and

    Regulations on packaging optimization

  • 31.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Potential Environmental Gains from Reducing Food Losses Through Development of New Packaging: A Life-Cycle Model2010In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 403-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food losses are seldom included in life cycle analyses of the food packaging system, nor are they included in the debat on sustainable packaging. The development of packaging that decreases food losses does, however, provide an opportunity to reduce the overall environmental impact. In this paper, we present a model that calculates the environmental impact of the food packaging system as a function of food losses. The model can be used to analyse the potential environmental gains from developing packaging that reduce food losses. The model includes food production and processing, transports, packaging, retailer and consumer issues and waste handling. The results show that it can be environmentally motivated to increase the environmental impact of packaging, if necessary, when new packaging design helps to reduce food losses. However, the waste handling systems of food and packaging are important to consider if packaging are developed in order to reduce the environmental impact of the food-packaging system

  • 32.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Hellström, Daniel
    Division of Packaging Logistics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund Univerisity.
    Olsson, Annika
    Division of Packaging Logistics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund Univerisity.
    Sustainable Packaging Development: One Step FurtherManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Lindström, Annika
    RICE, Sweden.
    Wickholm, Kristina
    RICE, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, Ann
    RICE, Sweden.
    Investigation of consumer attitudes, practices and food waste for three food items, to use as input in new packaging designs that aim to reduce food waste2017In: 28th IAPRI World Symposium on Packaging, 2017, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of measures is required to tackle the global food waste problem. Innovative packaging, which helps to reduce food waste, is one important measure. The data for food waste is often presented in a summarised way. However, different food products are wasted for different reasons. In a Swedish project, actors along the entire value chain collaborated to develop new packaging solutions to reduce food waste of three products: salsa in glass jars, mixed lettuce in plastic packaging and rice pudding in plastic packaging. Waste levels and reasons for waste were examined in waste audits of the businesses, in ethnographic studies and in interviews with consumers at retail stores.

    This study showed that consumers wasted the products to a much higher extent than the waste which occurred during filling, transport and retail. Waste levels among consumers varied from 0-75%, which is notably high, given that consumers tend to underestimate or not admit to wasting food. The mixed lettuce and rice pudding are both intended to be packaged in appropriate serving sizes; however, only 27% of the mixed lettuce and 50% of the rice pudding was consumed in one sitting. Respondents mentioned some material features and several handling functions of packaging, but very few commented on the protection that the packaging provides. Few, if any, expressed any recognition of packaging attributes, which helped to avoid food waste.

    The respondents mentioned that wasting food was a waste of money and that it can have a negative effect on conscience; despite that, respondents also said that they wanted a variety of meals and to not have the same food several days during the same week.

  • 34.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    A life cycle perspective on environmental effects of customer focused packaging development2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 853-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the possibilities of increasing customer satisfaction and reducing the environmental impact from food-packaging systems in alifecycleperspective using results from a study on consumers' demands on packaging based on Kano's Theory of Attractive Quality. It assesses the environmentaleffects of potential improvements in quality attributes. The results show that there are obvious potentials to increase customer satisfaction and at the same time decrease in the environmental impact of the food-packaging system, especially when the packaging design helps to decrease food losses. There were many connections between quality attributes and environmental impacts.

  • 35.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Norway.
    Reasons for household food waste with special attention to packaging2012In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 24, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of food waste needs to be reduced in order to sustain the world's limited resources and secure enough food to all humans. Packaging plays an important role in reducing food waste. The knowledge about how packaging affects food waste in households, however, is scarce. This exploratory study examines reasons for food waste in household and especially how and to what extent packaging influences the amount of food waste. Sixty-one families measured their amount of food waste during seven days and noted in a diary why each item was wasted. Thirty of the families had participated earlier in an environmental project including education in environmental issues of everyday life. About 20-25% of the households' food waste could be related to packaging. Three packaging aspects dominate the packaging related waste: packages that the consumer noted as being too big and packages that were difficult to empty, and wastage because of passed "best before date". The environmentally educated households wasted less, especially of prepared food. They also wasted less food due to passed "best before date". These households were more observant to packaging aspects in relation to food waste. The observations made could be used to learn more about packaging attributes that affect food waste. Although they recognised packaging influence on food waste, these households expressed lower satisfaction with packaging functions and wanted packaging to a lower extent. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 36. Ågren, G.I.
    et al.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Modelling carbon allocation - a review1993In: New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 23(3): 343-353 (1993)Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 36 of 36
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