Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1 - 27 av 27
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    A Discursive Approach to Mediatisation: Corporate Technology Discourse and the Trope of Media Indispensability2018Ingår i: Media and Communication, ISSN 2083-5701, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 15-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hitherto, and mainly by way of ethnographic studies, mediatisation research has informed us regarding the relevance, influence, and role of media in various spheres of social life. Less is known, however, about how mediatisation is discursively constructed. The relevance of constructivist approaches to mediatisation has been explicated, e.g., by Krotz (2017), who calls for critical mediatisation studies that consider the economic interests of mediatisation stakeholders, including the ICT industry. Against this backdrop, this article scrutinizes what the alleged 'mobility revolution' entails according to some who would benefit most from such a revolution. More concretely, the article studies the discursive practices of three leading corporations in the mobile communications sector: IBM, Huawei,and Ericsson. Stimulated by critical mediatisation theory as well as related accounts of the (technology) discourse-reality relationship, the article asks: if mobile media changes 'everything' in life-whose lives are being changed? If mobile media are 'indispensable' to modern ways of living-what are they supposed to do? Ultimately, the article speaks to the theme of this thematic issue by interrogating how contemporary mobile technology discourse contributes to the (re-)production of social space. Findings suggest that mediatisation is constructed as the response to an internal human drive for connectivity and as an inexorable natural force. Three sub-discourses on mobile technology are identified: 'technologies of cosmos', 'technologies of self', and, ultimately, 'technologies of life'. Altogether, these sub-discourses disclose and reinforce the hegemonic nature of mediatisation by communicating the indispensability of mobile media in modern-notably, urban and privileged-lives. In addition to providing answers to the study's empirical questions, the article includes a discussion about the potential implications of existing discourse overlaps between ICT companies and mediatisation theorists, as well as a sketch for an agenda for the 'discursive turn' in mediatisation studies.

  • 2.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    'In the end they do what they want - so why even ask us?': Perspectives on the production and consumption of transmedia entertainment2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s converging entertainment industries create transmedial brand worlds in which consumers are expected to become deeply immersed. Integrated marketing campaigns connected to these worlds invite consumers to act as ‘co-producers’. While such an altered consumer identity has been taken as evidence of enhanced consumer agency, it has also been recognized as a source of consumer exploitation.

    The conference presentation was based on findings from the author's thesis, More than meets the eye: Transmedial entertainment as a site of pleasure resistance and exploitation (2012), which analyzes the increasingly ambivalent power relationships that exist between agents in the contemporary entertainment industry and their most dedicated customers – the fans. The study employs a multiperspectival theoretical framework, in that cultural studies theory is combined with perspectives from political economy. Existing theory on transmedial textuality, branding, and fandom is applied to one particular franchise, Hasbro’s Transformers. This world, home of both industrial and fan-based creativity, is studied through analyses of official and unofficial content as well as through interviews with professionals and fans.

    The case study shows that companies and fans contribute to the building and promotion of the Transformers brand world – in collaboration and in conflict. While fan productivity occasionally takes place without direct encouragement from the companies involved, it is also largely anticipated and desired by marketers. The findings suggest that consumer enjoyment potentially translates into industrial benefits, including free brand promotion. Ultimately, the study acknowledges transmedial brand worlds as, simultaneously, sites of pleasure, resistance, and exploitation.

  • 3.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Marketing for the Active Consumer in the Era of Media Convergence: Transformers and the Sector Seven Campaign2013Ingår i: Making Sense of Consumption: Selections from the 2nd Nordic Conference on Consumer Research 2012 / [ed] Lena Hansson, Ulrika Holmberg & Helene Brembeck, Gothenburg, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    More Than Meets The Eye: The Marketing of Transmedial Brands In the 21st Century2008Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Convergence has become a buzzword to explain all sorts of processes in contemporary society. Predominantly, the concept has been used to signify ongoing changes in how media content is being produced, distributed and consumed. In this paper, I present some initial

    findings from my ongoing dissertation project. The entertainment franchise Transformers, which is used as a case-study in my research, seem to indicate that present-day marketing practices used to promote transmedial brands (such as the Transformers brand) contribute to a convergence of media content. By the utilization of various activities to extend and promote

    the brand, such as transmedia storytelling, licensing, cross-promoting and a mixture of clever marketing initiatives, the boundaries between entertainment and advertising tend to become indistinct, if not dissolved entirely

  • 5.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    More than Meets the Eye: Transmedial entertainment as a site of pleasure, resistance and exploitation2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s converging entertainment industry creates ‘transmedial’ brand worlds in which consumers are expected to become immersed. Integrated marketing campaigns connected to these worlds encourage various kinds of consumer productivity and invite consumers to partake in brand-building processes. Consumers, thus, are increasingly counted on to act as co-producers of contemporary entertainment. While such an altered consumer identity has been taken as evidence of enhanced consumer agency, it has also been recognized as a source of consumer exploitation. 

    This thesis aims to further our understanding of the increasingly ambivalent power-relationship that exists between agents in the entertainment industry and their most dedicated customers – the fans. The study employs a multiperspectival theoretical framework, in that cultural studies theory is enriched with perspectives from political economy. This integrated approach to the object of study yields a better understanding of the values of consumer activity, and fan productivity in particular, to industry and consumers respectively.

    The study applies existing theory on transmedial textuality, branding, and fandom to one particular franchise, Hasbro’s Transformers. This brand world, home of both industrial and fan-based creativity, is studied through analyses of official and unofficial contents, and through interviews with professionals and fans. The focus is on the brand environment established around the first live action film ever made within the franchise. Special attention is given to the all-encompassing film marketing campaign that contributed to forming this environment and to fan productivity taking place in relation to it. 

    The case study shows that companies and fans contribute to the building and promotion of the Transformers brand world – in collaboration and in conflict. While fan productivity occasionally takes place without direct encouragement from the companies involved, it is also largely anticipated and desired by marketing campaigns. The findings suggest that consumer enjoyment potentially translates into industrial benefits, including free brand promotion. Ultimately, the thesis acknowledges transmedial worlds of entertainment as concurrent sites of pleasure, resistance, and exploitation.

  • 6.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Play Labour and the Search for Mass Fandom: A Transformers Brand Experience2013Ingår i: Digital Games and Playful Media (TWG), 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s entertainment industries encourage consumer activity as a way to gain brand loyalty. Participatory marketing campaigns are calculated to promote such activity, especially when designed as transmedia entertainment and require various types of play labor. This paper seeks to add to our mounting yet still limited understanding of industry branding practices in an era of media convergence and against the background of recent theoretizations on the ‘new’ active consumer. Ultimately, awareness of such practices will help us understand the increasingly complicated relationship between producers and consumers of mediated entertainment. The paper is based on empirical data that were generated by the author in relation to her PhD thesis. Focusing on a specific marketing campaign that was launched in support of Michael Bay’s and Steven Spielberg’s 2007 Transformers film, the paper argues for the need to make manifest the interplay between the pleasurable and, at the same time, potentially exploitive traits of consumer activity in general and of fan productivity in particular.

  • 7.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Selling (the idea of) mediatization: Contemporary technology discourse and the indispensability of mobile media in work/life2017Ingår i: NordMedia: Mediated Realities – Global Challenges, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hitherto, and mainly by way of ethnographic studies, mediatization research has informed us about the relevance, influence, and role of media in various spheres of social life. Less is known, however, about how mediatization is discursively constructed. The relevance of constructivist approaches to mediatization has been explicated e.g. by Krotz (2017), who calls for critical mediatization studies that consider the economic interests of mediatization stakeholders, including the ICT industry. Against this backdrop, this paper scrutinizes what the alleged ‘mobility revolution’ entails according to some of those who would benefit the most from such a revolution. More concretely, the paper studies the discursive practices of three leading corporations in the mobile communications sector: IBM, Huawei, and Ericsson. Stimulated by critical mediatization theory as well as related accounts of the (technology) discourse-reality relationship, the paper asks: if mobile media changes ‘everything’ in life – whose lives are being changed? If mobile media are ‘indispensable’ to modern ways of living – what are they supposed to do? Ultimately, the paper speaks to the theme of this special issue by interrogating how contemporary mobile technology discourse contributes to the (re-)production of social space. Findings suggest that mediatization is constructed as the response to an internal human drive for connectivity and as an inexorable natural force. Three sub-discourses on mobile technology are identified: ‘technologies of cosmos’, ‘technologies of self’, and, ultimately, ‘technologies of life’. Altogether, these sub-discourses disclose and reinforce the hegemonic nature of mediatization by communicating the indispensability of mobile media in modern – notably, urban and privileged – lives. In addition to providing answers to the study’s empirical questions, the paper includes a discussion about the potential implications of existing discourse overlaps between ICT companies and mediatization theorists, as well as a sketch for an agenda for the ‘discursive turn’ in mediatization studies.

  • 8.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    There is no place like work: The mediatization of international labor2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, mobile media technologies have come to transform the ways in which we organize life and work. Inventions like the smartphone and the spreading of free Wi-Fi networks – technologies which allow us to “stay connected” while on the move – affect how we plan and perform our everyday activities as well as how we handle relationships. Employing a theoretical framework centered on the notion of ‘the mediatization of labor’, my conference contribution focuses on the overarching question of how mobile media technologies impact on working life itself and on work/life balance. For the specific category of people who work partly internationally, access to new media can be assumed to be particularly crucial for the organization of personal- as well as working life. The empirical data upon which my contribution is based consist of 10-15 qualitative interviews, conducted with international business elites working in the private sector. For this group of workers, the time spent away from both workplace and home seems to become a time of self-negotiation; a time when questions of who to stay in touch with, when, and to what extent need to be answered in ways that please all parties involved. My preliminary results indicate that expectations of connectivity are set by both employers and family members, and that the connectivity enabled by mobile media technologies is understood by the respondents as a precondition for an international high-level career.

  • 9.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    World-Building vs. Brand-Building: Transformers as a Marvel Outcast and Hollywood Star2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Durable media franchises are inevitably sites of change. For creative or commercial purposes, they tend to change both in terms of what commodities they hold and what stories they contain. This paper analyses Hasbro’s Transformers by way of a combined theoretical framework that considers franchise changes in relation to both ‘world-building’ and ‘brand-building’. While each concept has gained increased scholarly attention recently, they are rarely or only superficially combined in the existent literature on media franchising. The paper argues that this combination of theory allows us to, on the one hand, understand how franchises like Transformers are constituted both as ‘story-worlds’ and ‘brand-worlds’, and, on the other hand, detect potential power asymmetries in the industry/fan relationship. The Transformers case study makes evident that the processes of world-building and brand-building are not always easy to combine in ways that satisfy both companies and audiences.

  • 10.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Jansson, AndréKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).Lindell, JohanKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).Ryan Bengtsson, LindaKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).Tesfahuney, MekonnenKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds2018Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Tesfahuney, Mekonnen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för geografi och turism.
    Introducing Geomedia Studies2018Ingår i: Geomedia Studies: Spaces and Mobilities in Mediatized Worlds / [ed] Fast, Karin; Jansson, André; Lindell, Johan; Ryan Bengtsson, Linda; Tesfahuney, Mekonnen, London: Routledge, 2018Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013). Södertörns högskola.
    Kaun, Anne
    Södertörns högskola.
    Mediatization of culture and everyday life2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The report Mediatization of Culture and Everyday Life commissioned by the sector committee Mediatization of culture and everyday life of the Riksbanken Jubileumsfond provides a comprehensive overview of current Swedish mediatization research focusing on culture and everyday life in and beyond the field of media and communication studies. Based on a broad mapping of research projects financed in Sweden that are tackling questions of media-related change, the report provides insight into a still evolving area of investigation. The two parts of the report firstly provide a discussion of the state of the art of mediatization research and a review of relevant Swedish research projects to secondly present a number of outstanding research environments engaging in research of mediatization of culture and everyday life. The report concludes with outlining topics that have been overlooked in the area so far. Especially the discussion of temporal aspects of media-related change is pointed out as a gap in current research efforts.

  • 13.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Elastic mobility: Negotiating the ’home’ and ’away’ continuum2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out provide an understanding of internationally mobile life-conducts from a perspective that takes into account social costs that come with being away from localized, everyday life. We show that mobile elites are oftentimes reluctant travellers. A way of coping with the existential dilemmas of being away is to stay connected with family and friends with technologies of communication, which are deployed by the mobile elite under the regime of what Tomlinson calls “technologies of the hearth”. Furthermore, few informants ascribe any value to travelling in itself. Cosmopolitanism can here be understood as a form capital rather than a way of immersing the self into the culture of the other. We arrive at the concept of elastic mobility, which highlights central push-and-pull processes within mobile life-conducts. The concept forwards a perspective on the social consequences of globalization that goes beyond contemporary “flow speak”.

  • 14.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    The elastic mobility of business elites: Negotiating the 'home' and 'away' continuum2016Ingår i: European Journal of Cultural Studies, ISSN 1367-5494, E-ISSN 1460-3551, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 435-449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out to provide an understanding of internationally mobile elites from a perspective that takes into account the social costs that come with being away from localized, everyday life. We show that mobile elites are often reluctant travellers and employ Bude and Dürrschmidt’s notion of ‘transclusion’ to understand the often-unrecognized ambivalence of mobile lifestyles. One way of coping with

    the existential dilemma of being away is to stay connected with family and friends through technologies of communication, which are deployed by the mobile elite under the regime of what Tomlinson calls ‘technologies of the hearth’. We arrive at the concept of ‘elastic mobility’, which highlights central push-and-pull processes in mobile lifestyles. The concept forwards a perspective on the social consequences of globalization that goes beyond contemporary ‘flow speak’.

  • 15.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    A spatial approach to fan labor: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo (2015) on Spotify, she mobilized her fans through an immersive marketing campaign that stretched across and beyond media platforms: an 8-bit game, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, Dreamhack, and a major Swedish music festival were key campaign platforms. The campaign construction was hardly unique, but rather illustrative of current trends in cultural production, including transmedia marketing and the increasing reliance on fan labor.This paper argues that informed spatial approaches to fan labor, and business strategies aimed to cultivate such labor, are missing in the existing research on cultural production. While descriptions of our transmediatized culture often-times do include spatial metaphors, such as “flow”, “stream”, “fluid”, and “liquid”, our conviction is that a more serious engagement with geography is vital for understanding, mapping, and ultimately critiquing industry practices that potentially are exploitive, unethical, and even harmful.Therefore, this paper suggests a theoretical framework for exploring the geographies of fan labor and presents exemplifying cartographies of authentic music marketing campaigns. The framework is influenced by two recent ‘turns’ in media and communication studies: the labor turn and the spatial turn. From labor theory, we borrow the idea that consumer engagement can be read as labor that is typically unpaid, affective, and voluntarily given. Spatial theory, next, provides us with a conceptual toolbox to disentangle the spatiality of transmedia marketing, including the relationship between physical and virtual elements.The notion of ‘transmediascape’ is brought in to describe the embodiment of transmedia marketing – in mediated and non-mediated spaces and flows. Such transmediascapes, the paper argues, can be read as the perfect soil for fan labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble fan affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Due to its multifaceted connotation – pointing towards both affectivity and mobility – the term ‘mobilization’ fruitfully bridges labor theory and spatial theory and serves, ultimately, as a key concept for analyzing contemporary forms of cultural production.

  • 16.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    A spatial approach to fan labour: Conceptualizing fan mobilization in transmedia marketing2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo (2015) on Spotify, she mobilized her fans through an immersive marketing campaign that stretched across and beyond media platforms: an 8-bit game, Spotify, Facebook, Twitter, Dreamhack, and a major Swedish music festival were key campaign platforms. The campaign construction was hardly unique, but rather illustrative of current trends in cultural production, including transmedia marketing and the increasing reliance on fan labor.This paper argues that informed spatial approaches to fan labor, and business strategies aimed to cultivate such labor, are missing in the existing research on cultural production. While descriptions of our transmediatized culture often-times do include spatial metaphors, such as “flow”, “stream”, “fluid”, and “liquid”, our conviction is that a more serious engagement with geography is vital for understanding, mapping, and ultimately critiquing industry practices that potentially are exploitive, unethical, and even harmful.Therefore, this paper suggests a theoretical framework for exploring the geographies of fan labor and presents exemplifying cartographies of authentic music marketing campaigns. The framework is influenced by two recent ‘turns’ in media and communication studies: the labor turn and the spatial turn. From labor theory, we borrow the idea that consumer engagement can be read as labor that is typically unpaid, affective, and voluntarily given. Spatial theory, next, provides us with a conceptual toolbox to disentangle the spatiality of transmedia marketing, including the relationship between physical and virtual elements.The notion of ‘transmediascape’ is brought in to describe the embodiment of transmedia marketing – in mediated and non-mediated spaces and flows. Such transmediascapes, the paper argues, can be read as the perfect soil for fan labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble fan affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Due to its multifaceted connotation – pointing towards both affectivity and mobility – the term ‘mobilization’ fruitfully bridges labor theory and spatial theory and serves, ultimately, as a key concept for analyzing contemporary forms of cultural production

  • 17.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Geographies of free labor: Mobilizing consumers across immersive transmediascapes2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When Swedish artist Tove Styrke released her album Kiddo on Spotify in 2015, she simultaneously released an 8-bit game for her fans to play on kiddogame.com. By sharing high scores, users could win merchandise especially put together by the artist. The game was also promoted by one of the most well-known Swedish gaming streamers, posting his own Kiddo Game competition to his followers. A week after the release, Tove performed at Dreamhack, which also shared the game on their website and on Twitter. Later that summer, a live version of the game was staged at a major Swedish music festival, where Tove also performed. The game was easily shared via Facebook and twitter, and while playing the game the album played via Spotify.Worldwide, the music industry struggles to come to terms with how to make profit in times of illegal downloading, streaming, and Spotifyication. One apparent strategy is to rely on consumer engagement. The Tove Styrke campaign could be read as a contemporary example of so called transmedia marketing; that is, as a “holistic content creation approach” (Zeiser, 2015: xv) that simultaneously involves multiple content platforms. The attraction of transmedia marketing lies in its potential to foster engaged consumers who are ready to “haunt” a brand experience across several content platforms. In this paper, we join with the burgeoning critical scholarship that interprets consumer “engagement” as a form of labor. Since much of this labor gets paid in affect rather than money, such labor has rightfully been recognized as a form of free labor.While both transmedia marketing and free labor has been subjected to many studies over the last decade, there is a lack of research initiatives that explicitly address the spatiality of both of these phenomena (though see e.g. Stork’s [2014] engagement with the “transmedia geography” of the Glee franchise). What is more; if it is rare to talk about the geographies of transmediality in the first place, it is equally rare to talk about transmediality, at all, in relation to music. Perhaps not so surprisingly but all the more inaccurately, there seems to be a prevailing perception that transmedia productions are exclusive to, at least traditionally, more narrative-bound franchises such as television, film, game, or comic books. However, storytelling is becoming all the more important also to music brands. Consequently, we identify a need for studies that acknowledge that 1) the notion of transmediality is applicable also to music, and 2) that the spatiality of transmedia endeavors is worthy scholarly review. Our conviction is that just as work-places constitute obvious research objects in relation to other kinds of labor, so do the transmedia “social factories” warrant scholarly attention.As to compensate for the identified research lack then, this paper investigates several actual cases of transmedia marketing in the music industry – and the free labor that such marketing potentially engenders – by way of qualitative content analyses that employ a cross-disciplinary conceptual framework. The framework combines theoretical perspectives from the ‘spatial turn’ and the ‘labor turn’ in media studies and allows us to approach, and visually present, transmedia marketing as a landscape – what we call a transmediascape. Such transmediascapes, our results indicate, can be read as the perfect soil for free labor since they mobilize consumers in more than one respect: they assemble consumer affect and, at the same time, encourage physical as well as virtual fan movement. Thus, due to its multifaceted connotation, pointing towards both affectivity and mobility, we find that the term ‘mobilization’ serves as a fruitful link between spatial theory and labor theory and a key concept for analyzing the geographies of free labor.

    The era of transmediatization is marked by increased reliance, in all the more societal spheres, on content that transcend singular media platforms and, accordingly, by new modes of media consumption. Much research has recognized, confirmed, and explored this transformation, and ‘transmediality’ has hitherto been subjected to relatively extensive theorization. Nonetheless, the spatiality of transmediality remains largely undertheorized. As to correct for this shortage, this paper proposes transmediascape as an analytical tool for discerning the complex topographies of media ownership, technologies, texts, meanings, and practices that constitute today’s transmediatized culture. With inspiration from work in both the ‘spatial turn’ and ‘labor turn’ in media studies, we recognize the transmediascape as an arena of labour, where both paid and unpaid forms of work are carried out. Ultimately, we argue, the concept of transmediascape works as a tool for mapping geographies of free labour across institutional, technological, and textual levels. The present study illuminates current modes of ‘transmediascaping’ – or the practice of cultivating good “soil” for profitable consumer engagement – by focusing the transmedia marketing campaign that launched British/Irish boyband One Direction’s album ‘Made in the A.M’, in 2015.

  • 18.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Transmedia world-building: The Shadow (1931–present) and Transformers (1984–present)2017Ingår i: International journal of cultural studies, ISSN 1367-8779, E-ISSN 1460-356X, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 636-652Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of transmedia storytelling has in recent years turned towards a more historicized understanding of its object of study, and also shifted to a wider perspective on narrative and narrative elements, focusing more on the transmediality of story-worlds and world-building rather than just narratives (‘plots’) in the stricter sense. This article combines these interrelated perspectival shifts in an analysis of story-worlds/world-building in two transmedia franchises: The Shadow (1931–present) and Transformers (1984–present), with a focus on the mechanics and processes of world-building in relation to transmedial change (i.e. how world elements are transformed over time as well as when story-worlds move across media platforms).

  • 19.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Metaphors of free labor: A typology of unpaid work in the media sector2016Ingår i: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 38, nr 7, s. 963-978Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, free labor has emerged as a key analytical tool for understanding new or semi-new forms of labor in the contemporary digital economy. This article critiques and develops this concept, with specific reference to work in the media industries, by presenting a historically grounded typology of free labor that also highlights some of the analytical problems with the current use of the concept. Our typology presents seven metaphors of free labor based on historical instances of roles people have taken on when performing unpaid labor: those of The Slave, The Carer, The Apprentice, The Prospector, The Hobbyist, The Volunteer, and The Patsy. A key conclusion is that free labor is performed by different actors at either end of increasingly complex and temporally stretched out value chains. This necessitates a more fine-grained and historicized use of the concept of free labor.

  • 20.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för HumanIT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Metaphors of Free Labor: A Typology of Unpaid Work in the Media Sector2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, free labor has emerged as a key analytical tool for understanding new or semi-new forms of labor in the contemporary digital economy. This paper critiques and develops this concept, with specific reference to work in the media industries, by presenting a historically grounded typology of free labor that also highlights some of the analytical problems with the current use of the concept. Our typology presents eight metaphors of free labor based on historical instances of roles people have taken on when performing unpaid labor: those of The Slave, The Carer, The Apprentice, The Prospector, The Hobbyist, The Volunteer, The Agent and The Patsy. A key conclusion is that free labor is performed by different actors at either end of increasingly complex and temporally stretched out value chains. This should motivate, or so we argue, a more fine-grained scholarly use of the concept of free labor.

  • 21.
    Jansson, André
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    The Cultural Forms of Polymedia: A Comparative Study of Connected Presence among Mobile Elite Groups2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Mapping the space of journalistic labor in the new media environment: a model2016Ingår i: Communicating with Power: 66th Annual International Communication Association Conference, Japan, Fukuoka, June 9-13, 2016, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för HumanIT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Möller, Cecilia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    OMNIBUS NEWS: Engagement or bussed?2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the summer of 2013 the municipal public bus system, Karlstadbuss, installed television sets (BUSS-TV) on all city buses. These TV sets are airing user-generated content, and traffic information, weather forecasts as well as news from the hybrid commercial/public service broadcaster TV4. This paper addresses the phenomenon from the theoretical intersection of communication geography and journalism studies. This means understanding the city-buses, at once mobile and semi-public spaces, as decorated with a new “communicative texture” that is renegotiating the time-space nexus traditionally tied to news consumption. Furthermore, it potentially implies that a basic news diet become more or less dispersed amongst commuters across the city, and across previous class-demarcations that would engender divergent news diets. This constitutes a potential challenge to the notion of the fragmented news audience and related worries over the increased number of “news avoiders”. From previous research we know that news consumption, even accidental, is linked with political and civic engagement. In an era where media consumption is increasingly fragmented or even avoided, the buss-news reinstalls the almost inescapable news of the 1970’s albeit in a highly situated and limited context. Nevertheless, this new space of ‘news on the move’ is yet to be explored theoretically and empirically. Thus, we ask about the role of Karlstadbuss as a carrier of omnibus news in the media ecology. The paper uses data derived from representative surveys (Värmlands-SOM) conducted before (2010) and after (2014) the introduction of BUSS-TV to study the impact of travelling with the city-buses on political interest and civic engagement as well as general news interest and consumption.

  • 24.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Transmedielandskapets geografi: Förädling av musikkonsumentens engagemang2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknadsföring av musik och artister blir i dagens medielandskap en aktivitet allt mer knuten till konsumenten. Konsumenter ombeds dela innehåll i sina nätverk, skapa eget innehåll som blir till marknadsföringsmaterial och besöka vissa specifika platser, både fysiska och digitala. Denna kvalitativa studie av 15 marknadsföringskampanjer åskådliggör hur konsumenternas engagemang blir värdeskapande för musikbranschen och hur konsumenternas aktiviteter kan ses som en form av (gratis)arbete. Studien visar också hur kampanjerna blir till vad vi har valt att benämna 'transmedielandskap' där konsumenter mobiliseras för att röra sig över detta landskap. Landskapsmetaforer hjälper oss att identifiera hur konsumenter uppmanas att följa tydligt utstakade stigar till olika fysiska och digitala platser (medieplattformar, events, konserter etc.) för att utföra väl specificerade uppgifter, och på så vis kultivera transmedielandskapet. Det synliggörs också hur samarbeten byggs mellan olika kommersiella aktörer för att mobilisera konsumenter där olika aktiviteter knyts till både tid och rum och ger ett kontinuerligt flöde i en kampanj. Genom denna studie bidrar vi till teoriutveckling kring konsumentengagemang som arbete och visa på engagemangets spatiala och temporala aspekter genom att teckna fram transmedielanskapets geografi.

  • 25.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Share! Like! Create! How fan is cultivated and practiced in the contemporary music industry2017Ingår i: 2017: AoIR Selected Papers of Internet Research, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When the band One Direction released their sixth album “Made in the A.M.” they marketed it through several joint events within different digital platforms. They used google streetview to create a fictional room, in which fans discovered new material and share it within their social networks using #MadeintheAM. In a joint event with Twitter they launched a 24-hour competition, asking which “country” loves One Direction the most. The 10 countries that were able to mobilize the most Twitter-activity on their country’s hashtag during a set period of time were rewarded with their own One Direction emoji. Just before the album release One Direction joined with Apple Music to stage an international competition that ran across several social media platforms and offered fans the chance to win tickets to an exclusive performance by the band. Connecting the music industry with media platforms combining social media happenings and live events, the campaign mobilized fans be part of the marketing of the album.

     

    Recently the music industry has struggled with how to make profit in times of illegal downloading, streaming, and Spotifycation. One overarching strategy developed in response is to rely on consumer engagement, making the One Direction campaign a contemporary example of transmedia marketing involving multiple platforms simultaneously. The willingness of the music industry to use transmedia marketing is related to its potential to foster consumers’ engagement in brand experiences across several content platforms (cf. Jenkins, 2006). Like other actors in the entertainment industries, labels and artists are increasingly interested in exploring the potentials of transmedia entertainment and how consumers – without payment – contribute to the production and circulation of content across and beyond media platforms. In this paper, we understand online consumer engagement as a form of labor that reconfigures users as digital publics. Since much of this labor is paid for in affect rather than money, such labor has been recognized as a form of free labor (se for example Andrejevic, 2008; Baym 2009; Fuchs, 2014; Fast, 2012).

     

    But the One Direction campaign also illustrates the spatial qualities of such campaigns through the diversity of initiatives taken to mobilize consumers to perform different actions and move between different media platforms. While both transmedia marketing and free labor have been subjected to many studies very few studies address the spatiality of both of these phenomena (though see e.g. Stork’s [2014] “transmedia geography” and “performance space” of the Glee franchise). Spatial metaphors offer both a way to represent and visualize the movements of the consumers, as well as to understand how marketing campaigns construct immersive worlds where free labor is promoted and exploited. Using spatial metaphors also enables a methodological approach to transmedia marketing, positioning actions and actors in relation to each other in time and space. We develop the concept of transmediascape to refer to such contexts, a term directly inspired by Appadurai’s (1996: 35) ‘scape’-metaphor, which accentuates the global flows of people, technology, capital, media content, discourses, and ideas. Indeed, we suggest that the music industry purposely constructs digital narratives that spill over from one media platform to another forming transmediascapes.

     

    This paper explores how music consumers perform and act within music marketing campaigns, posing the question: How do music consumers navigate across the transmediascapes constituted by marketing campaigns? In this study we follow the music audience movement within the promotional campaign of one internationally known artist, capturing the audiences’ actions and interactions by using the artist’s hashtag and additional hashtags specified by the campaign. A network analysis allows us to map how the audience moves through the campaign in time and space, and how the prepared trails guide the consumer to various media platforms (e.g. from the official website, to Instagram, to Spotify, etc.) It is important to note that the analysis includes the trails that run from online to offline spaces, or from virtual to physical places (e.g. from Facebook to festival site, or vice versa). However, we also seek to understand users engagement in the production of content, and how this content is then recirculates within the campaign. Thus we have chosen a nethnographic approach to the campaign material. The quantitative material guides us to instances where content production occurs, allowing a close study of these specific events. Thus this is an exploratory study, following the case study approach (Yin, 2003), to approach one specific campaign in depth by adopting a multi-method approach rooted in digital methods (se for example Kozinets 2009; Hjort & Sharp 2014).

     

    Our preliminary results indicate that consumers within the music industry are mobilized as they assemble consumer affect and promote physical as well as virtual fan movement. The consumer follows a path constructed by the marketing campaign, making consumers migrating between various spaces located in different platforms. We identify audience engagement in these events and how audiences both produce and share content with the campaign as well as within their own networks – thus giving the campaign access to their social media networks and their productions. We also detect instances of resistance, where the audience use the hashtag or distributed material in a way that was not intended by the campaign. Finally, our paper also contributes with methodological development where acknowledging the spatial dimensions of free labor and transmedia marketing provide an analytical approach to media consumers within the contemporary transmediascapes.

  • 26.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Transmedia histories: Disjunctions and continuities2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents two case studies of transmedial entertainment, one of the pulp franchise The Shadow and one of the contemporary franchise Transformers. The article argues that previous studies of transmedia entertainment have focused too much on narrative in a strict sense (plot/story), ignoring the interplay between the contexts of production and reception as well as narrative elements other than plot, notably those that create the greater narrative ‘world’. The article therefore focuses on an integrated analysis of the production/reception of the two transmedia properties, and the narrative disjunctions created by extending a transmedia world across different media platforms. The study finds that transmedia narratives cannot be understood without taking media industry objectives into account, and that previous studies have overemphasized the narrative integration of transmedial properties.

  • 27.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation.
    The labor of journalism: Challeneges of technological and economic restructuring2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will analyze how the technological and economic restructuring of journalistic labor impacts on three key theoretical concepts in journalism:  routines, professionalism and autonomy. Journalistic labor will be analyzed along three dichotomous dimensions: paid/unpaid, skilled/unskilled and individual/collective.

    For most of the 20th century, defining journalism in terms of labor (for the purposes of this paper, “labor” is defined as exertion that generates surplus value, organized through a contractual employer-employee relationship) was straightforward: journalistic labor was done by those who were employed, commonly on permanent, full-time contracts, by traditional media organizations. It was essentially not possible to conduct the work of a journalist outside this system.

    Many of the key journalism scholars of the postwar era imported concepts and theories from the sociology of work and used them to analyze journalism – among them routines (e.g. Gans 1979, Tuchman 1978), professionalism and the related concept of professional roles  (e.g. Johnstone, Slawski & Bowman 1976, Tunstall 1971) and autonomy (e.g. Breed 1955, Merrill 1974). However, when reading these works today, it is striking that the intellectual foundation of these concepts is that journalism is conducted by people who are in stable contractual relationships with likewise stable, large organizations. This, as we know, is not true anymore.

    The introduction of digital technologies and networked communications poses many challenges to the understanding of journalism as labor. The barriers of entry for performing journalistic work (though not necessarily labor, see below) have all but disappeared. It is now possible for individuals to produce and distribute news content without the need for a large organization and expensive production equipment. Conversely, as distribution channels multiply and become more fragmented, audiences can also increasingly chose to not consume journalistic content, or to consume journalistic content that is available at no cost to the end-user. It is at once easier to perform journalistic work and harder to get (adequately) paid for it, i.e. to perform journalistic labor. Permanent full-time jobs in journalism are getting fewer in most of the Western world, and freelancing, part-time work and occupational fluidity (e.g. journalists producing news one day and PR material the next) are becoming more common. While journalism scholarship has had much to say about the challenges of the new digital, networked environment, less attention has been paid to the validity of the many underlying concepts and theories that presuppose a particular way of organizing journalistic labor (Deuze 2007, 2011 being notable exceptions).

                                 We focus here on three concepts in particular – routines,  professionalism, and autonomy.  The theoretical challenges to these concepts are examined using three dichotomous dimensions: paid vs. unpaid labor (and its close companion, work time vs. free time), skilled vs unskilled labor, and individual vs. collective labor. What types of journalistic labor can you be expected to be paid for, and what do you increasingly have to do for free? If journalism can be outsourced and journalists replaced by algorithms and software (see Clerwall, 2014), how “skilled” is journalistic labor? As employers shift risk and responsibility to employees, individual journalists have to spend more time on personal branding and marketing. This has consequences for the possibilities of doing collective work (as in a traditional newsroom setting) when you may be competing with colleagues for scarce resources. We argue that ongoing fundamental changes to how journalistic labor is organized also require fundamentally rethinking many of the key concepts of journalism studies.

1 - 27 av 27
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf