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  • 1.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Designing for Usable Privacy and Transparency in Digital Transactions2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People engage with multiple online services and carry out a range of different digital transactions with these services. Registering an account, sharing content in social networks, or requesting products or services online are a few examples of such digital transactions. With every transaction, people take decisions and make disclosures of personal data. Despite the possible benefits of collecting data about a person or a group of people, massive collection and aggregation of personal data carries a series of privacy and security implications which can ultimately result in a threat to people's dignity, their finances, and many other aspects of their lives. For this reason, privacy and transparency enhancing technologies are being developed to help people protect their privacy and personal data online. However, some of these technologies are usually hard to understand, difficult to use, and get in the way of people's momentary goals.

    The objective of this thesis is to explore, and iteratively improve, the usability and user experience provided by novel privacy and transparency technologies. To this end, it compiles a series of case studies that address identified issues of usable privacy and transparency at four stages of a digital transaction, namely the information, agreement, fulfilment and after-sales stages. These studies contribute with a better understanding of the human-factors and design requirements that are necessary for creating user-friendly tools that can help people to protect their privacy and to control their personal information on the Internet.

  • 2.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Usable privacy for digital transactions: Exploring the usability aspects of three privacy enhancing mechanisms2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of personal identifiable information that people distribute over different online services has grown rapidly and considerably over the last decades. This has led to increased probabilities for identity theft, profiling and linkability attacks, which can in turn not only result in a threat to people’s personal dignity, finances, and many other aspects of their lives, but also to societies in general. Methods and tools for securing people’s online activities and protecting their privacy on the Internet, so called Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs), are being designed and developed. However, these technologies are often seen by ordinary users as complicated and disruptive of their primary tasks.

     

    In this licentiate thesis, I investigate the usability aspects of three main privacy and security enhancing mechanisms. These mechanisms have the goal of helping and encouraging users to protect their privacy on the Internet as they engage in some of the steps necessary to complete a digital transaction. The three mechanisms, which have been investigated within the scope of different research projects, comprise of (1) graphical visualizations of service providers’ privacy policies and user-friendly management and matching of users’ privacy preferences “on the fly”, (2) methods for helping users create appropriate mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials, and (3) employing touch-screen biometrics as a method to authenticate users into mobile devices and verify their identities during a digital transaction.

     

    Results from these investigations suggest that these mechanisms can make digital transactions privacy-friendly and secure while at the same time delivering convenience and usability for ordinary users.

  • 3.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Usable Transparency through network representations and analyses2015In: The Future of Networked Privacy: Challenges and opportunities, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore how concepts from the field of network science can be employed to inform Internet users about the way their personal identifiable information (PII) is being used and shared by online services. We argue that presenting users with graphical interfaces that display information about the network structures that are formed by PII exchanges can have an impact on the decisions users take online, such as the services they choose to interact with and the information they decide release.

  • 4.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Users as Prosumers of PETs: The Challenge of Involving Users in the Creation of Privacy Enhancing Technologies2013In: Frameworks of IT Prosumption for Business Development / [ed] Małgorzata Pańkowska, IGI Global, 2013, p. 178-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequent contact with online businesses requires Internet users to distribute large amounts of personal information. This spreading of users’ information through different Websites can eventually lead to increased probabilities for identity theft, profiling and linkability attacks, as well as other harmful consequences. Methods and tools for securing people’s online activities and protecting their privacy on the Internet, called Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs), are being designed and developed. However, these technologies are often perceived as complicated and obtrusive by users who are not privacy aware or are not computer or technology savvy. This chapter explores the way in which users’ involvement has been considered during the development process of PETs and argues that more democratic approaches of user involvement and data handling practices are needed. It advocates towards an approach in which people are not only seen as consumers of privacy and security technologies, but where they can play a role as the producers of ideas and sources of inspiration for the development of usable PETs that meet their actual privacy needs and concerns.

  • 5.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Berthold, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Elkhiyaoui, Kaoutar
    EURECOM.
    Fernandez Gago, M. Carmen
    University of Málaga.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    David, Nunez
    University of Málaga.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University.
    Reuben, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University.
    Van Rompay, Cédric
    EURECOM.
    Santana de Oliveira, Anderson
    SAP Labs.
    Önen, Melek
    EURECOM.
    D:D-5.3 User-Centric Transparency Tools V22015Report (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Ulrich, König
    HCI for Policy Display and Administration2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Jan Camenish, Simone Fischer-Hübner and Kai Rannenberg, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 1, p. 261-277Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PrimeLife Policy Language (PPL) has the objective of helping end users make the data handling practices of data controllers more transparent, allowing them to make well-informed decisions about the release of personal data in exchange for services. In this chapter, we present our work on user interfaces for the PPL policy engine, which aims at displaying the core elements of a data controller's privacy policy in an easily understandable way as well as displaying how far it corresponds with the user's privacy preferences. We also show how privacy preference management can be simplified for end users.

  • 7.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Towards Usable Privacy Policy Display & Management2012In: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, Vol. 20, p. 4-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the approach taken within the PrimeLife project for providing user-friendly privacy policy interfaces for the PrimeLife Policy Language (PPL).We present the requirements, design process and usability testing of the “Send Data?” prototype, a browser extension designed and developed to deal with the powerful features provided by PPL. Our interface introduces the novel features of “on the fly” privacy management, predefined levels of privacy settings, and simplified selectionof anonymous credentials. Results from usability tests showed that users understand and appreciate these features and perceive them as being privacy-friendly, and they are therefore suggested as a good approach towards usable privacy policy display and management. Additionally, we present our lessons learnt in the design process of privacy policy interfaces.

  • 8.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Usable Transparency with the Data Track: A Tool for Visualizing Data Disclosures2015In: CHI EA '15 Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems / [ed] Bo Begole, Jinwoo Kim, Kori Inkpen, Woontack Woo, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, p. 1803-18098Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a prototype of the user interface of a transparency tool that displays an overview of a user's data disclosures to different online service providers and allows them to access data collected about them stored at the services' sides. We explore one particular type of visualization method consisting of tracing lines that connect a user's disclosed personal attributes to the service to which these attributes have been disclosed. We report on the ongoing iterative process of design of such visualization, the challenges encountered and the possibilities for future improvements.

  • 9.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Towards Usable Privacy Policy Display & Management: The PrimeLife Approach2011In: Proceedings of 5th International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance / [ed] Steven Furnell, Plymouth: University of Plymouth , 2011, p. 108-118Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Ortlieb, Martin
    Google.
    “WTH..!?!” Experiences, reactions, and expectations related to online privacy panic situationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring Touch-Screen Biometrics for User Identification on Smart Phones2011In: Privacy and Identity Managementfor Life: Proceedings of the 7th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6 International Summer School 2011 / [ed] an Camenisch, Bruno Crispo, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Ronald Leenes, and Giovanni Russello, Springer, 2011, p. 130-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile smart devices for storing sensitive informationand accessing online services is increasing. At the same time, methods for authenticating users into their devices and online services that are not only secure, but also privacy and user-friendly are needed. In this paper, we present our initial explorations of the use of lock pattern dynamics as a secure and user-friendly two-factor authentication method. We developed an application for the Android mobile platform to collect data on the way individuals draw lock patterns on a touchscreen. Using a Random Forest machine learning classier this method achieves an average Equal Error Rate (EER) of approximately 10.39%, meaning that lock patterns biometrics can be used for identifying users towards their device, but could also pose a threat to privacy if the users' biometric information is handled outside their control.

  • 12.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Identity Management for online transactions - Using ‘Profiles’ to segregate personal information2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Identity Management through “Profiles”: Prototyping an Online Information Segregation Service2013In: Human-Computer Interaction. Users and Contexts of Use: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part III / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, Vol. 8006, p. 10-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas in real everyday life individuals have an intuitive approach at deciding which information to disseminate to others, in the digital world it becomes difficult to keep control over the information that is distributed to different online services. In this paper we present the design of a user interface for a system that can help users decide which pieces of information to distribute to which type of service providers by allowing them to segregate their information attributes into various personalized profiles. Iterative usability evaluations showed that users understand and appreciate the possibility to segregate information, and revealed possible improvements, implications and limitations of such an interface.

  • 14.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Profiles: prototyping an online information segregation service2013In: Human-Computer Interaction: Users and Contexts of Use, volume 8006, Proceedings Part III, / [ed] Kurosu, M.,, Springer, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gullberg, Peter
    Gemalto, Gothenburg.
    Kling, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Tavemark, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Understanding the user experience of secure mobile online transactions in realistic contexts of use2012In: Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2012, Washington D.C.,USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Possible attacks on mobile smart devices demand higher security for applications handling payments or sensitive information. The introduction of a tamper-proof area on future generations of mobile devices, called Trusted Execution Environment (TEE), is being implemented. Before devices with embedded TEEs can be deployed to the public, investigations on usability aspects of Trusted User Interfaces (TUI) are needed. This article describes the process we have followed at gathering requirements, prototyping and testing suitable designs for TUIs in combination with a touch-screen biometric system. At the end, we present relevant findings of a pilot study that we have conducted using an Experience Sampling Method (ESM) as part of our ongoing work.

  • 16.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Johan, Högberg
    What Would It Take for You to Tell Your Secrets to a Cloud?: Studying decision factors when disclosing information to cloud services2014In: Secure IT Systems: 19th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2014, Tromsø, Norway, October 15-17, 2014, Proceedings, Springer, 2014, Vol. 8788, p. 129-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the end users’ behaviours and attitudes with regards to the control they place in the personal information that they disclose to cloud storage services. Three controlled experiments were carried out to study the influence in users’ decisions to retain or surrender control over their personal information depending on different factors. The results of these experiments reveal, among other things, the users’ willingness to surrender control over personal information that is perceived as non-sensitive in exchange for valuable rewards, and that users would value the possibility of knowing and controlling the parties who are granted access to their data in the cloud. Based on the results from the experiments we provide implications for the design of end-user tools that can promote transparency and accountability in cloud computing environments.

  • 17. Fernández Gago, M. Carmen
    et al.
    Tountopoulos, Vassilis
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Nuñez, David
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Koulouris, Theo
    Tools for Cloud Accountability: A4Cloud Tutorial2015In: Privacy and Identity Management for the Future Internet in the Age of Globalisation: 9th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.5, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6/SIG 9.2.2 International Summer School, Patras, Greece, September 7-12, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Jan Camenisch, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Marit Hansen, Cham: Springer, 2015, p. 219-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is becoming a key IT infrastructure technology being adopted progressively by companies and users. Still, there are issues and uncertainties surrounding its adoption, such as security and how users data is dealt with that require attention from developers, researchers, providers and users. The A4Cloud project tries to help solving the problem of accountability in the cloud by providing tools that support the process of achieving accountability. This paper presents the contents of the first A4Cloud tutorial. These contents include basic concepts and tools developed within the project. In particular, we will review how metrics can aid the accountability process and some of the tools that the A4Cloud project will produce such as the Data Track Tool (DTT) and the Cloud Offering Advisory Tool (COAT).

  • 18.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Karegar, Farzaneh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Transparency, Privacy and Trust: Technology for Tracking and Controlling my Data Disclosures – Does this work?2016In: Proceedings of the 10th IFIPTM Conference 2016: Trust Management X / [ed] Sheikh Mahbub Habib, Julita Vassileva, Sjouke Mauw, Max Mühlhäuser, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    et al.
    Angulo, Julio
    Pulls, Tobias
    How can Cloud Users be Supported in Deciding on, Tracking and Controlling How their Data are Used?2014In: Privacy and Identity Management for Emerging Services and Technologies: 8th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.5, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6 International Summer School, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, June 17-21, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer , 2014, p. 77-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency is a basic privacy principle and factor of social trust. However, the processing of personal data along a cloud chain is often rather intransparent to the data subjects concerned. Transparency Enhancing Tools (TETs) can help users in deciding on, tracking and controlling their data in the cloud. However, TETs for enhancing privacy also have to be designed to be both privacy-preserving and usable. In this paper, we provide requirements for usable TETs for the cloud. The requirements presented in this paper were derived in two ways; at a stakeholder workshop and through a legal analysis. Here we discuss design principles for usable privacy policies and give examples of TETs which enable end users to track their personal data. We are developing them using both privacy and usability as design criteria.

  • 20.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    HCI requirements for Transparency and Accountability Tools for Cloud Service Chains2015In: Accountability and Security for the Cloud: First Summer School, Cloud Acountability Project, A4Cloud / [ed] Massimo Felici, Carmen Fernández-Gago, Cham: Springer, 2015, p. 81-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper elaborates HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) requirementsfor making cloud data protection tools comprehensible and trustworthy.The requirements and corresponding user interface design principles are derivedfrom our research and review work conducted to address in particular the followingHCI challenges: How can the users be guided to better comprehend theflow and traces of data on the Internet and in the cloud? How can individual endusers be supported to do better informed decisions on how their data can be usedby cloud providers or others? How can the legal privacy principle of transparencyand accountability be enforced by the user interfaces of cloud inspectiontools? How can the user interfaces help users to reassess their trust/distrust inservices? The research methods that we have used comprise stakeholderworkshops, focus groups, controlled experiments, usability tests as well as literatureand law reviews. The derived requirements and principles are groupedinto the following functional categories: (1) ex-ante transparency, (2) exercisingdata subject rights, (3) obtaining consent, (4) privacy preference management,(5) privacy policy management, (6) ex-post transparency, (7) audit configuration,(8) access control management, and (9) privacy risk assessment. This broadcategorization makes our results accessible and applicable for any developerwithin the field of usable privacy and transparency-enhancing technologies forcloud service chains.

  • 21. Gilje Jaatun, Martin
    et al.
    Cruzes, Daniela S.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Accountability Through Transparency for Cloud Customers2016In: CLOUD COMPUTING AND SERVICES SCIENCE, CLOSER 2015, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016, 1, Vol. 581, p. 38-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public cloud providers process data on behalf of their customers in data centres that typically are physically remote from their users. This context creates a number of challenges related to data privacy and security, and may hinder the adoption of cloud technology. One of these challenges is how to maintain transparency of the processes and procedures while at the same time providing services that are secure and cost effective. This chapter presents results from an empirical study in which the cloud customers identified a number of transparency requirements to the adoption of cloud providers. We have compared our results with previous studies, and have found that in general, customers are in synchrony with research criteria for cloud service provider transparency, but there are also some extra pieces of information that customers are looking for. We further explain how A4Cloud tools contribute to addressing the customers’ requirements.

  • 22.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Evoking Comprehensive Mental Models of Anonymous Credentials2012In: Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP WG 11.4 international conference on Open Problems in Network Security / [ed] Camenisch J., Kesdogan, D., Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7039, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous credentials are a fundamental technology for preserving end users' privacy by enforcing data minimization for online applications. However, the design of user-friendly interfaces that convey their privacy benefits to users is still a major challenge. Users are still unfamiliar with the new and rather complex concept of anonymous credentials, since no obvious real-world analogies exists that can help them create the correct mental models. In this paper we explore different ways in which suitable mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials can be evoked on end users. To achieve this, we investigate three different approaches in the context of an e-shopping scenario: a card-based approach, an attribute-based approach and an adapted card-based approach. Results show that the adapted card-based approach is a good approach towards evoking the right mental models for anonymous credential applications. However, better design paradigms are still needed to make users understand that attributes can be used to satisfy conditions without revealing the value of the attributes themselves.

  • 23.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Graf, Conny
    Hochleitner, Christina
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Final HCI Research Report: Deliverable D4.1.52011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable provides an overview of recent research results of Activity 4 ‘Usability’ of PrimeLife, where an emphasis is put on those results, which have not been reported in the same detail in other HCI-related PrimeLife deliverables yet. The first part reports about our results in the area of User Interface (UI) Representation of Privacyenhancing Identity Management Concepts and presents research on PET methodologies, mental models for anonymous credentials and the results from the final round of end-user evaluations of the UI prototypes developed during the PrimeLife project. The second part reports about our work in the area of usable privacy policies and presents the final results of Activity 4’s research on policy icons and on a user-friendly management and display of PPL (PrimeLife Policy Language) policies.

  • 24.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Graf, Cornelia
    Hochleitner, Christina
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Angulo, Julio
    Towards Usable Privacy Enhancing Technologies: Lessons Learned from the PrimeLife Project2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this deliverable, we present lessons learnt from the PrimeLife HCI (Human Computer Interaction) Activity by discussing typical HCI challenges and fallacies that we experienced during the PrimeLife project. We also provide guidance on how these issues can be addressed in order to develop usable privacy-enhancing technology solutions.

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