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  • 1.
    Enmark, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad Univ, INTERACT, Dept Engn & Chem Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Asberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad Univ, INTERACT, Dept Engn & Chem Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Leek, Hanna
    AstraZeneca R&D, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, Innovat Med, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Ohlen, Kristina
    AstraZeneca R&D, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, Innovat Med, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Klarqvist, Magnus
    AstraZeneca R&D, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, Innovat Med, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Samuelsson, Jorgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad Univ, INTERACT, Dept Engn & Chem Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad Univ, INTERACT, Dept Engn & Chem Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Evaluation of scale-up from analytical to preparative supercritical fluid chromatography2015In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1425, p. 280-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach for reliable transfer from analytical to preparative scale supercritical fluid chromatography was evaluated. Here, we accounted for the conditions inside the columns as well as to the fact that most analytical instruments are volume-controlled while most preparative scale units are mass-controlled. The latter is a particular problem when performing pilot scale experiments and optimizations prior to scaling up to production scale. This was solved by measuring the mass flow, the pressure and the temperature on the analytical unit using external sensors. Thereafter, it was revealed with a design of experiments approach that the methanol fraction and the pressure are the two most important parameters to control for preserved retention throughout the scale-up; for preserved selectivity the temperature was most important in this particular system. Using this approach, the resulting chromatograms from the preparative unit agreed well with those from the analytical unit while keeping the same column length and particles size. A brief investigation on how the solute elution volume varies with the volumetric flow rate revealed a complex dependency on pressure, density and apparent methanol content. Since the methanol content is a parameter of great importance to control during the scale up, we must be careful when changing operational and column design conditions which generates deviations in pressure, density and methanol content between different columns. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Enmark, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Co-Solvent on a Chiral Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Separation2014In: Chromatography Today, ISSN 1752-8070, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 14-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Enmark, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Åsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Shalliker, Andrew
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A closer study of peak distortions in supercritical fluid chromatography as generated by the injection2015In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1400, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract In SFC the sample cannot be dissolved in the mobile phase, so it is often dissolved in pure modifier, or another liquid, sometimes resulting in serious distortions of the eluted peak profiles already at moderately high injection volumes. It is suspected the reasons for these effects are solvent strength mismatch and/or viscosity mismatch. This study presents a systematic and fundamental investigation of the origin of these peak deformations due to the injection solvent effects in SFC, using both systematic experiments and numerical modeling. The first set of experiments proved that the injection volume and the elution strength of the sample solution had a major impact of the shapes of the eluted peaks. Secondly, the sample band elution profile was numerically modeled on a theoretical basis assuming both un-retained and retained co-solvent injection plugs, respectively. These calculations quantitatively confirmed our first set of experiments but also pointed out that there is also an additional significant effect. Third, viscous fingering experiments were performed using viscosity contrast conditions imitating those encountered in SFC. These experiments clearly proved that viscous fingering effects play a significant role. A new method for determination of adsorption isotherms of solvents was also developed, called the “Retention Time Peak Method” (RTPM). The RTPM was used for fast estimation of the adsorption isotherms of the modifier and required using only two experiments.

  • 4.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Lesko, Marek
    Rzeszow University of Technology.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Forssén, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Rzeszow University of Technology.
    New Procedure for Predictions of Overloaded Profiles in Gradient Elution2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To simulate the separation process in liquid chromatography, the competitive adsorption isotherms need to be known. In gradient elution, the adsorption isotherms are determined with isocratic experiments on different mobile-phase plateaus, levels covering the range used in the gradient program. This can lead to extreme retention times for some mobile-phase compositions and therefore it might even be impossible to determine all necessary adsorption data using the traditional isocratic approach. In this talk, we will present a method where single and competitive nonlinear adsorption isotherms are determined directly from overloaded elution profiles in gradient elution. The numerical coefficients in the adsorption isotherms are determined by the inverse method that minimizes the difference between calculated and experimental elution profiles. This is a new method where the need for tedious/impossible isocratic experiments is eliminated. The method is systematically verified using both synthetic and experimental data. Finally the new method is used to successfully predict elution profiles for a two-component mixture in gradient elution. The new method open up the opportunity to study the adsorption of substances whose retention factor vary strongly with the mobile-phase composition, like peptides and proteins, where the classic methods will fail. We also intend to transfer the metholology for SFC in near future; but there are some problems to be solved first (see our SFC posters). This is a contribution from the Fundamental Separation Science Group www.FSSG.se

  • 5.
    Lesko, Marek
    et al.
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Poland.
    Choice of Model for Estimation of Adsorption Isotherm Parameters in Gradient Elution Preparative Liquid Chromatography2015In: Chromatographia, ISSN 0009-5893, E-ISSN 1612-1112, Vol. 78, no 19-20, p. 1293-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inverse method is a numerical method for fast estimation of adsorption isotherm parameters directly from a few overloaded elution profiles and it was recently extended to adsorption isotherm acquisition in gradient elution conditions. However, the inverse method in gradient elution is cumbersome due to the complex adsorption isotherm models found in gradient elution. In this case, physicochemically correct adsorption models have very long calculation times. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using a less complex adsorption isotherm model, with fewer adjustable parameters, but with preserved/acceptable predictive abilities. We found that equal or better agreement between experimental and predicted elution profiles could be achieved with less complex models. By being able to select a model with fewer adjustable parameters, the calculation times can be reduced by at least a factor of 10. 

  • 6.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Eiriksson, F. F.
    University of Iceland.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Thorsteinsdóttir, M.
    University of Iceland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Determining gradient conditions for peptide purification in RPLC with machine-learning-based retention time predictions2019In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1598, p. 92-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy for determining a suitable solvent gradient in silico in preparative peptide separations is presented. The strategy utilizes a machine-learning–based method, called ELUDE, for peptide retention time predictions based on the amino acid sequences of the peptides. A suitable gradient is calculated according to linear solvent strength theory by predicting the retention times of the peptides being purified at three different gradient slopes. The advantage of this strategy is that fewer experiments are needed to develop a purification method, making it useful for labs conducting many separations but with limited resources for method development. The preparative separation of met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin was used as model solutes on two stationary phases: XBridge C18 and CSH C18. The ELUDE algorithm contains a support vector regression and is pre-trained, meaning that only 10–50 peptides are needed to calibrate a model for a certain stationary phase and gradient. The calibration is done once and the model can then be used for new peptides similar in size to those in the calibration set. We found that the accuracy of the retention time predictions is good enough to usefully estimate a suitable gradient and that it was possible to compare the selectivity on different stationary phases in silico. The absolute relative errors in retention time for the predicted gradients were 4.2% and 3.7% for met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin, respectively, on the XBridge C18 column and 2.0% and 2.8% on the CSH C18 column. The predicted retention times were also used as initial values for adsorption isotherm parameter determination, facilitating the numerical calculation of overloaded elution profiles. Changing the trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) concentration from 0.05% to 0.15% in the eluent did not seriously affect the error in the retention time predictions for the XBridge C18 column, an increase of 1.0 min (in retention factor, 1.3). For the CSH C18 column the error was, on average, 2.6 times larger. This indicates that the model needs to be recalibrated when changing the TFA concentration for the CSH column. Studying possible scale-up complications from UHPLC to HPLC such as pressure, viscous heating (i.e., temperature gradients), and stationary-phase properties (e.g., packing heterogeneity and surface chemistry) revealed that all these factors were minor to negligible. The pressure effect had the largest effect on the retention, but increased retention by only 3%. In the presented case, method development can therefore proceed using UHPLC and then be robustly transferred to HPLC.

  • 7.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ņsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Forssén, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Modeling Competitive Adsorption Isotherms in Gradient Elution Nonlinear Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several important studies – based on firm theory ground - have been made on the different parameters of importance in chromatographic process optimizations during the recent years. In this presentation we take an holistic view by investigating i) the relative importance of the operational parameters and column properties and ii) how these effect the optimal column design. For optimization we used an advanced global response surface method combined with local gradient methods. As a model system we used the practical problem of purification of one or both optical isomers of a racemate. In the first part, we investigated the relative importance of stationary phase characteristics such as: (i) the retention factor, (ii) the selectivity, (iii) the saturation capacity (iv), the efficiency and (v) the maximum allowed operational pressure. In the second part we investigated how the optimal column design for a preparative separation problem is affected by column properties, such as particle size, and optimization constraints, such as required yield. The investigation showed – in contrast to what is generally believed – that the saturation capacity of the stationary phase is of minor importance, instead the maximum allowed operational pressure is one of the most important parameter. Moreover, smaller size packing materials always shows much lower solvent consumption. This is a great environmental and economical advantage of using smaller packing materials. Rules of thumbs, derived from the holistic optimizations, will be given for industrial preparative settings in the batch mode.

  • 8.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fundamental and Regulatory Aspects of UHPLC in Pharmaceutical Analysis2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) provides a considerable increase in throughput compared to HPLC and a reduced solvent consumption. The implementation of UHPLC in pharmaceutical analysis, e.g. quality control, has accelerated in recent years and there is currently a mix of HPLC and UHPLC instrumentation within pharmaceutical companies. There are, however, technical and regulatory challenges converting a HPLC method to UHPLC making it difficult to take full advantage of UHPLC in regulatory-focused applications like quality control in pharmaceutical production.

    Using chromatographic modelling and fundamental theory, this thesis investigated method conversion between HPLC and UHPLC. It reports on the influence of temperature gradients due to viscous heating, pressure effects and stationary phase properties on the separation performance. It also presents a regulatory concept for less regulatory interaction for minor changes to approved methods to support efficient life cycle management.

    The higher pressure in UHPLC gave a retention increase of up to 40% as compared to conventional HPLC while viscous heating, instead, reduced retention and the net result was very solute dependent. Selectivity shifts were observed even between solutes with similar structure when switching between HPLC and UHPLC and an experimental method to predict such selectivity shifts was therefore developed. The peak shape was negatively affected by the increase in pressure for some solutes since secondary interactions between the solute and the stationary phase increased with pressure.

    With the upcoming ICH Q12 guideline, it will be possible for the industry to convert existing methods to UHPLC in a more flexible way using the deeper understanding and the regulatory concept presented here as a case example.

  • 9.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Chutkowski, Marcin
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Polen.
    Leśko, Marek
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Polen.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Polen.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A practical approach for predicting retention time shifts due to pressure and temperature gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography2017In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1479, p. 107-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large pressure gradients are generated in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using sub–2 μm particles causing significant temperature gradients over the column due to viscous heating. These pressure and temperature gradients affect retention and ultimately result in important selectivity shifts. In this study, we developed an approach for predicting the retention time shifts due to these gradients. The approach is presented as a step-by-step procedure and it is based on empirical linear relationships describing how retention varies as a function of temperature and pressure and how the average column temperature increases with the flow rate. It requires only four experiments on standard equipment, is based on straightforward calculations, and is therefore easy to use in method development. The approach was rigorously validated against experimental data obtained with a quality control method for the active pharmaceutical ingredient omeprazole. The accuracy of retention time predictions was very good with relative errors always less than 1% and in many cases around 0.5% (n = 32). Selectivity shifts observed between omeprazole and the related impurities when changing the flow rate could also be accurately predicted resulting in good estimates of the resolution between critical peak pairs. The approximations which the presented approach are based on were all justified. The retention factor as a function of pressure and temperature was studied in an experimental design while the temperature distribution in the column was obtained by solving the fundamental heat and mass balance equations for the different experimental conditions. We strongly believe that this approach is sufficiently accurate and experimentally feasible for this separation to be a valuable tool when developing a UHPLC method. After further validation with other separation systems, it could become a useful approach in UHPLC method development, especially in the pharmaceutical industry where demands are high for robustness and regulatory oversight.

  • 10.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    An Experimental and Theoretical investigation on Mobile PhaseEffects on Competitive Adsorption Isotherms in Preparative LC2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This poster serves as background information to the corresponding lecture. Mobile phase gradients have been used in LC since the 1950s and are still an important programming technique in both analytical and preparative LC. Improving the resolution, and thereby making the separation of complex samples possible, and reducing the separation time, which increases the productivity, are the two main advantages of gradient elution. The modelling of band profiles and the optimization of preparative separations has largely been studied under isocratic conditions. The shape of the gradient and the behaviour of the solutes are often determined experimentally with scarce knowledge about the underlying physicochemical equations. This "trial and error" approach results in time consuming and, possibly, expensive experiments. The goal of this work is to investigate the dependence of the adsorption behaviour on the mobile phase composition in reversed phase LC. By knowing the adsorption isotherm as a function of the concentrations of both the solute and the strong organic modifier, the band profiles are modelled under gradient elution conditions.Our aim is to make it possible to use modelling tools so one can optimize a separation and especially the gradient shape. Recent studies have shown that a significant improvement in productivity can be achieved if the gradient shapes are designed carefully [1,2].In this study we discuss how to obtain the adsorption isotherm data experimentally for two substances using the perturbation peak method. The substances which are investigated are cyclohexanone and cycloheptanone on a Kromasil C18-column with methanol-water as the mobile phase. The fitting of the nonlinear experimental data to appropriate theoretical isotherm models will also be discussed.For practical reasons, we will also be looking at how different key parameters, e.g. the column hold-up time, the column efficiency, the retention factor and the equilibrium constant, change with the mobile phase composition.With the experimentally determined adsorption isotherm as a basis, we will simulate overloaded band profiles under gradient elution conditions and compare the simulated results with experimentally obtained band profiles.A contribution from the Fundamental Separation Science Group www.separationscience.se

  • 11.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Evaluation of co-solvent fraction, pressure and temperature effects in analytical and preparative supercritical fluid chromatography2014In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1374, p. 254-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract A chemometric approach is used for studying the combined effect of temperature, pressure and co-solvent fraction in analytical and preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). More specifically, by utilizing design of experiments coupled with careful measurements of the experimental conditions the interaction between pressure, temperature and co-solvent fraction was studied with respect to productivity, selectivity and retention in chiral SFC. A tris-(3,5-dimethylphenyl) carbamoyl cellulose stationary phase with carbon dioxide/methanol as mobile phase and the two racemic analytes trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) and 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) were investigated. It was found for the investigated model system that the co-solvent fraction and pressure were the parameters that most affected the retention factors and that the co-solvent fraction and column temperature were most important for controlling the selectivity. The productivity in the preparative mode of SFC was most influenced by the co-solvent fraction and temperature. Both high co-solvent fraction and temperature gave maximum productivity in the studied design space.

  • 12.
    Ņsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Modelling of Overloaded Gradient Elution in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile phase gradients have been used in LC since the 1950s and are still an important programming technique in both analytical and preparative LC. Improving the resolution, and thereby making the separation of complex samples possible - and thus reducing the separation time which increases the productivity- are the two main advantages of gradient elution. The modelling of band profiles and the optimization of preparative separations has largely been studied under isocratic conditions. The shape of the gradient and the behaviour of the solutes are often determined experimentally with scarce knowledge about the underlying physicochemical equations. This “trial and error” approach results in time consuming and, possibly, expensive experiments. The goal of this work is to investigate the dependence of the adsorption behaviour on the mobile phase composition in reversed phase LC. By knowing the adsorption isotherm as a function of the concentrations of both the solute and the strong organic modifier, the band profiles can be modelled under gradient elution conditions. Our aim is to make it possible to use modelling tools for a more reliable computer-assisted optimization, accounting for the gradient shape. Recent studies have shown that a significant improvement in productivity can be achieved if the gradient shapes are designed carefully [1,2]. In this presentation we will discuss how to obtain the adsorption isotherm data experimentally for two substances using the perturbation peak method. The substances investigated are cyclohexanone and cycloheptanone on a system comprising of a Kromasil C18-column and methanol-water as mobile phase. The fitting of the nonlinear experimental data to appropriate theoretical isotherm models will also be discussed. For practical reasons, we will also be looking at how different key parameters, e.g. the column hold-up time, the column efficiency, the retention factor and the equilibrium constant, change with the mobile phase composition. With the experimentally determined adsorption isotherm as a basis, we will simulate overloaded band profiles under gradient elution conditions and compare the simulated results with experimentally obtained band profiles. A contribution from the Fundamental Separation Science Group www.separationscience.se

  • 13.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Anders
    AstraZeneca R and D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Poland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Analytical method development in the quality by design framework2014In: American Laboratory, ISSN 0044-7749, Vol. 46, no 9, p. 12-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of analytical methods in the Quality by Design (QbD) framework is currently gaining great momentum in the pharmaceutical industry. Presented here is a case study in which a pharmaceutical Quality Control (QC) method was developed using HPLC. The possibilities of continuous improvements during the method’s lifetime are demonstrated by switching to ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC).

  • 14.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Lesko, Marek
    Rzeszow University of Technology.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Forssén, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Rzeszow University of Technology.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Prediction of Overloaded Profiles in Gradient Elution Chromatography2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This poster is a compliment to the oral presentation “A new procedure for improved predictions of overloaded profiles in gradient elution”. In order to simulate the separation process in liquid chromatography the competitive adsorption isotherms need to be known. In gradient elution the adsorption isotherms are determined with isocratic experiments on different mobile-phase plateaus that covers the range used in the gradient program. This can lead to extreme retention times for some mobile-phase compositions and therefore it might even be impossible to determine all necessary adsorption data using the traditional isocratic approach. We present a method where single and competitive nonlinear adsorption isotherms are determined directly from overloaded elution profiles in gradient elution. The numerical coefficients in the adsorption isotherms are determined by the inverse method that minimizes the difference between the calculated and the experimental elution profiles. This is an extension of the inverse method where the need for tedious/impossible isocratic experiments is eliminated. The method is systematically verified using both synthetic and experimental data. Finally the new method is used to successfully predict elution profiles for a two-component mixture in gradient elution. The new method makes it possible to study the adsorption of substances whose retention factor vary strongly with the mobile-phase composition, like peptides and proteins, where the classic methods will fail. A similar situation occurs in SFC and the proposed approach could with modifications probably be used also there. This is a contribution from the Fundamental Separation Science Group www.FSSG.se

  • 15.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Lesko, Marek
    Leek, Tomas
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Estimation of Nonlinear Adsorption Isotherms in Gradient Elution RP-LC of Peptides in the Presence of an Adsorbing Additive2017In: Chromatographia, ISSN 0009-5893, E-ISSN 1612-1112, Vol. 80, no 6, p. 961-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In electrostatic repulsive interaction chromatography, using a charged surface hybrid sorbent carrying positive charges can improve the peak shape of peptides in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC), especially in overloaded conditions, compared with standard C-18 sorbents. However, the positive surface charges can interact with anionic additives commonly used in peptide separations, e.g., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), complicating adsorption isotherm estimation. We investigated how the competition for available adsorption sites between TFA and two peptides influenced the adsorption isotherm in gradient elution. A model accounting for the competition with TFA was compared with a model neglecting TFA adsorption. We found that the two models predicted elution profiles with the same accuracy. We also found that the adsorption isotherms were extremely similar in shape, leading to the conclusion that neglecting the competition with TFA is a valid approximation enabling faster and more robust adsorption isotherm estimation for the studied type of sorbent.

  • 16.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Leśko, Marek
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, Rzeszów, Poland.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, Rzeszów, Poland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Fast estimation of adsorption isotherm parameters in gradient elution preparative liquid chromatography. I: The single component case2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1299, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inverse method is a numeric method for fast estimation of adsorption isotherm parameters directly from overloaded elution profiles. However, it has previously only been used for isocratic experiments. Here we will extend the inverse method so it can be used for gradient elution too. This extended inverse method will make it possible to study the adsorption of substances whose retention factor vary strongly with the mobile-phase composition, like peptides and proteins, where the classic methods will fail. Our extended inverse method was verified using both simulations and real experiments. For simulated overloaded elution profiles we were able to determine almost exact Langmuir adsorption isotherm parameters with the new approach. From real experimental data, bi-Langmuir adsorption parameters were estimated using both the perturbation peak method and the extended inverse method. The shape of the acquired adsorption isotherms did match over the considered concentration range; however, the adsorption isotherm parameters found with the two methods were not the same. This is probably due to the fact that adsorption isotherm estimated with the inverse method is only a good approximation up to the highest eluted concentration in the used chromatograms. But this is not a serious drawback from a process point of view where the main objective is to make accurate predictions of elution profiles. The bi-Langmuir adsorption isotherm obtained with both methods could accurately predict the shape of overloaded elution profiles.

  • 17.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Leśko, Marek
    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Fast estimation of adsorption isotherm parameters in gradient elution preparative liquid chromatography. II: The competitive case2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1314, no Nov, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Experimental competitive adsorption isotherms were successfully determined directly from overloaded elution profiles in gradient elution mode using an extended inverse method. This approach differs from the existing methods in one important aspect – no isocratic experiments are necessary which makes it possible to study adsorption of substances whose retention factors vary strongly with the mobile-phase composition. The approach was verified with simulated binary data and with experimental data from gradient separations of a cyclohexanone/cycloheptanone mixture. For the synthetic data, the original adsorption isotherm parameters were found using a two-step estimation procedure. In the first step analytical peaks were used to estimate the “analytical” part of the Langmuir equation and in the second step the association equilibrium parameters were estimated from two simulated overloaded elution profiles. For the experimental data, a three-step approach was used. The two first steps were used to reduce the calculation time so that parameter estimation could be performed on an ordinary computer. In the first step, analytical peaks were used to estimate the “analytical” part of the bi-Langmuir equation. In the second step, initial guesses for all other parameters were determined separately for each solute using the faster Rouchon algorithm. In the final and third step, the more accurate orthogonal collocation on finite elements algorithm, was used to fine-tune the isotherm parameters. The model could accurately predict the shape of overloaded elution profiles. The shape of the adsorption isotherms agreed well with those determined with the standard isocratic method, although the numerical values were not the same. The extended inverse method is well suited for process optimization where few experiments and accurate predictions are important.

  • 18.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Leśko, Marek
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, PL-35 959 Rzeszów, Poland.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, PL-35 959 Rzeszów, Poland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. I. A thermodynamic perspective2014In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1362, p. 206-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first investigation in a series that aims to enhance the scientific knowledge needed for reliable analytical method transfer between HPLC and UHPLC using the quality by design (QbD) framework. Here, we investigated the differences and similarities from a thermodynamic point of view between RP-LC separations conducted with 3.5 μm (HPLC) and 1.7 μm (UHPLC) C18 particles. Three different model solutes and one pharmaceutical compound were used: the uncharged cycloheptanone, the cationic benzyltriethylammonium chloride, the anionic sodium 2-naphatlene sulfonate and the pharmaceutical compound omeprazole, which was anionic at the studied pH. Adsorption data were determined for the four solutes at varying fractions of organic modifier and in gradient elution in both the HPLC and UHPLC system, respectively. From the adsorption data, the adsorption energy distribution of each compound was calculated and the adsorption isotherm model was estimated. We found that the adsorption energy distribution was similar, with only minor differences in degree of homogeneity, for HPLC and UHPLC stationary phases. The adsorption isotherm model did not change between HPLC and UHPLC, but the parameter values changed considerably especially for the ionic compounds. The dependence of the organic modifier followed the same trend in HPLC as in UHPLC. These results indicates that the adsorption mechanism of a solute is the same on HPLC and UHPLC stationary phases which simplifies design of a single analytical method applicable to both HPLC and UHPLC conditions within the QbD framework.

  • 19.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Leśko, Marek
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Anders
    AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Mölndal.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Combining Chemometric Models with Adsorption Isotherm Measurements to Study Omeprazole in RP-LC2016In: Chromatographia, ISSN 0009-5893, E-ISSN 1612-1112, Vol. 79, no 19, p. 1283-1291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of the proton-pump inhibitor omeprazole was investigated using RP-LC with chemometric models combined with adsorption isotherm modelling to study the effect of pH and type of organic modifier (i.e., acetonitrile or methanol). The chemometric approach revealed that omeprazole was tailing with methanol and fronting with acetonitrile along with increased fronting at higher pH. The increased fronting with higher pH for acetonitrile was explored using a pH-dependent adsorption isotherm model that was determined using the inverse method and it agreed well with the experimental data. The model indicated that the peaks exhibit more fronting at high pH due to a larger fraction of charged omeprazole molecules. This model could accurately predict the shape of elution profiles at arbitrary pH levels in the studied interval. Using a two-layer adsorption isotherm model, the difference between acetonitrile and methanol was studied at the lowest pH at which almost all omeprazole molecules are neutral. Omeprazole had adsorbate–adsorbate interactions that were similar in strength for the acetonitrile and methanol mobile phases, while the solute–adsorbent interactions were almost twice as strong with methanol. The difference in the relative strengths of these two interactions likely explains the different peak asymmetries (i.e., tailing/fronting) in methanol and acetonitrile. In conclusion, thermodynamic modelling can complement chemometric modeling in HPLC method development and increase the understanding of the separation.

  • 20.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Mikael
    Olsson, Susanne
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Svensson, Olof
    Klick, Silke
    Ennis, Julie
    Butterworth, Paul
    Watt, Denise
    Iliadou, Stavroula
    Karlsson, Angelica
    Walker, Joanne T.
    Arnot, Kate
    Ealer, Norb
    Hernqvist, Kerstin
    Svensson, Karin
    Grinell, Ali
    Quist, Per-Ola
    Karlsson, Anders
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A quality control method enhancement concept: Continual improvement of regulatory approved QC methods2016In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 129, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality Control methods (QC-methods) play an important role in the overall control strategy for drug manufacturing. However, efficient life-cycle management and continual improvement are hindered due to a variety of post-approval variation legislations across territories and a lack of harmonization of the requirements. As a result, many QC-methods fall behind the technical development. Developing the QC-method in accordance with the Quality by Design guidelines gives the possibility to do continual improvements inside the original Method Operable Design Region (MODR). However, often it is necessary to do changes outside the MODR, e.g. to incorporate new technology that was not available at the time the original method was development. Here, we present a method enhancement concept which allows minor adjustments, within the same measuring principle, outside the original MODR without interaction with regulatory agencies. The feasibility of the concept is illustrated by a case study of a QC-method based on HPLC, assumed to be developed before the introduction of UHPLC, where the switch from HPLC to UHPLC is necessary as a continual improvement strategy. The concept relies on the assumption that the System Suitability Test (SST) and failure modes are relevant for other conditions outside the MODR as well when the same measuring principle is used. It follows that it should be possible to move outside the MODR as long as the SST has passed. All minor modifications of the original, approved QC-method must be re-validated according to a template given in the original submission and a statistical equivalence should be shown between the original and modified QC-methods. To summarize, revalidation is handled within the pharmaceutical quality control system according to internal change control procedures, but without interaction with regulating agencies.

  • 21.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    A fundamental study of the impact of pressure on the adsorption mechanism in reversed-phase liquid chromatography2016In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1457, p. 97-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental investigation of the pressure effect on individual adsorption sites was undertaken based on adsorption energy distribution and adsorption isotherm measurements. For this purpose, we measured adsorption equilibrium data at pressures ranging from 100 to 1000 bar at constant flow and over a wide concentration range for three low-molecular-weight solutes, antipyrine, sodium 2-naphthalenesulfonate, and benzyltriethylammonium chloride, on an Eternity C18 stationary phase. The adsorption energy distribution was bimodal for all solutes, remaining clearly so at all pressures. The bi-Langmuir model best described the adsorption in these systems and two types of adsorption sites were identified, one with a low and another with a high energy of interaction. Evidence exists that the low-energy interactions occur at the interface between the mobile and stationary phases and that the high-energy interactions occur nearer the silica surface, deeper in the C18 layer. The contribution of each type of adsorption site to the retention factor was calculated and the change in solute molar volume from the mobile to stationary phase during the adsorption process was estimated for each type of site. The change in solute molar volume was 2-4 times larger at the high-energy site, likely because of the greater loss of solute solvation layer when penetrating deeper into the C18 layer. The association equilibrium constant increased with increasing pressure while the saturation capacity of the low-energy site remained almost unchanged. The observed increase in saturation capacity for the high-energy site did not affect the column loading capacity, which was almost identical at 50- and 950-bar pressure drops over the column. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Lesko, Marek
    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, PL-35 959 Rzeszów, Poland.
    Cavazzini, Alberto
    Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, IT-44 121 Ferrara, Italy.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Rzeszów University of Technology, PL-35 959 Rzeszów, Poland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects2015In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1401, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 degrees C and a difference of 2 degrees C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (tau(s)) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in tau(s) which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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