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  • 1.
    Adamczyk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Søndenå, Rune
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    You, Chang Chuan
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    Stokkan, Gaute
    Sintef Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Di Sabatino, Marisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Recombination Strength of Dislocations in High-Performance Multicrystalline/Quasi-Mono Hybrid Wafers During Solar Cell Processing2018Inngår i: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, nr 2, artikkel-id 1700493Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafers from a hybrid silicon ingot seeded in part for High Performance Multicrystalline, in part for a quasi-mono structure, are studied in terms of the effect of gettering and hydrogenation on their final Internal Quantum Efficiency.The wafers are thermally processed in different groups – gettered and hydrogenated. Afterwards, a low temperature heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer cell process is applied to minimize the impact of temperature. Such procedure made it possible to study the effect of different processing steps on dislocation clusters in the material using the Light Beam Induced Current technique with a high spatial resolution. The dislocation densities are measuredusing automatic image recognition on polished and etched samples. The dislocation recombination strengths are obtained by a correlation of the IQE with the dislocation density according to the Donolato model. Different clusters are compared after different process steps. The results show that for the middle of the ingot, the gettering step can increase the recombination strength of dislocations by one order of magnitude. A subsequent passivation with layers containing hydrogen can lead to a decrease in the recombination strength to levels lower than in ungettered samples.

  • 2.
    Boulfrad, Yacine
    et al.
    Aalto University.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Aalto University.
    Inglese, Alessandro
    Aalto University.
    Yli-Koski, Marko
    Aalto University.
    Savin, Hele
    Aalto University.
    Reduction of Light-induced Degradation of Boron-doped Solar-grade Czochralski Silicon by Corona Charging2013Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 38, s. 531-535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This study aims at the reduction of light-induced degradation of boron-doped solar-grade Czochralski silicon wafers by corona charging. The method consists of deposition of negative charges on both surface sides of wafer and keeping the wafer in dark for 24 hours to allow the diffusion of positively-charged interstitial copper towards the surfaces. This method proves to be useful to reduce or eliminate light-induced degradation caused by copper. The degradation was significantly reduced in both intentionally (copper-contaminated) and “clean” samples. The amount of the negative charge was found to be proportional to the reduction strength

  • 3.
    Boulfrad, Yacine
    et al.
    Finland.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Finland.
    Wagner, Matthias
    Germany.
    Wolny, Franziska
    Germany.
    Yli-Koski, Marko
    Finland.
    Savin, Hele
    Finland.
    Experimental evidence on removing copper and light-induced degradation from silicon by negative charge2014Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, nr 18, artikkel-id 182108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Haarahiltunen, Antti
    et al.
    Aalto University.
    Yli-Koski, Marko
    Aalto University.
    Talvitie, Heli
    Aalto University.
    Vähänissi, Ville
    Aalto University.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Aalto Universitet, Dept Micro & Nanoscience.
    Savin, Hele
    Aalto University.
    Gettering of iron in CZ-silicon by polysilicon layer2011Inngår i: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 751-754Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Inglese, Alessandro
    et al.
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Focareta, Alessia
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Schindler, Florian
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Schön, Jonas
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Schubert, Martin C.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
    Savin, Hele
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Light-induced degradation in multicrystalline silicon: the role of copper2016Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAICS (SILICONPV 2016) / [ed] Ribeyron, PJ; Cuevas, A; Weeber, A; Ballif, C; Glunz, S; Poortmans, J; Brendel, R; Aberle, A; Sinton, R; Verlinden, P; Hahn, G, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 92, s. 808-814Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, we provide an insight into the light-induced degradation of multicrystalline (mc-) silicon caused by copper contamination. Particularly we analyze the degradation kinetics of intentionally contaminated B- and Ga-doped mc-Si through spatially resolved photoluminescence (PL) imaging. Our results show that even small copper concentrations are capable of causing a strong LID effect in both B- and Ga-doped samples. Furthermore, the light intensity, the dopant and the grain quality were found to strongly impact the degradation kinetics, since faster LID was observed with stronger illumination intensity, B-doping and in the grains featuring low initial lifetime. Interestingly after degradation we also observe the formation of bright denuded zones near the edges of the B-doped grains, which might indicate the possible accumulation of copper impurities at the grain boundaries.

  • 6.
    Inglese, Alessandro
    et al.
    Aalto University.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik. Aalto University.
    Savin, Hele
    Aalto University.
    Accelerated light-induced degradation for detecting copper contamination in p-type silicon2015Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 107, nr 5, artikkel-id 052101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Inglese, Alessandro
    et al.
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Vahlman, Henri
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Savin, Hele
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Recombination activity of light-activated copper defects in p-type siliconstudied by injection- and temperature-dependent lifetime spectroscopy2016Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 120, nr 12, artikkel-id 125703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.
    Copper-related light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University.
    Iron gettering with aluminium and back-surface passivation of single crystalline silicon2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik. Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University.
    Boulfrad, Yacine
    Yli-Koski, Marko
    Savin, Hele
    Preventing light-induced degradation in multicrystalline silicon2014Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 115, nr 15, artikkel-id 154902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University.
    Fenning, David P.
    Backlund, Daniel J.
    Verlage, Erik
    Gorgulla, Angelika
    Estreicher, Stefan K.
    Savin, Hele
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    Nickel: A very fast diffuser in silicon2013Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, nr 20, artikkel-id 204906Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Petter, Kai
    Hanwha Q CELLS GmbH.
    Sporleder, Kai
    Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP.
    Turek, Marko
    Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP.
    Pacho, Paolo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Light beam induced current of light-induced degradation in high-performance multicrystalline Al-BSF cells.2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Silicon Photovoltaics, SiliconPV 2017, 3-5 April 2017, Freiburg, Germany / [ed] Ralf Preu, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 124, s. 99-106Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sponge-LID decreases the Al-BSF cell efficiency by up to 10 %rel. and is only partially recoverable at 200°C. This contributionshows that Sponge-LID occurs at and near most grain boundaries, but only in the centre of the affected cell.  Furthermore,Sponge-LID is not the only type of LID in the silicon bulk. High-resolution Light Beam Induced Current mapping reveals localinternal quantum efficiency losses of up to 8 %rel. at dislocation clusters and small angle grain boundaries, which recover(nearly) fully at 200°C. Nevertheless, this dislocation-related LID appears to reduce the Al-BSF efficiency by less than 1 %rel.

  • 13.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Finland.
    Savin, Hele
    Finland.
    Formation kinetics of copper-related light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon2014Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, nr 23, artikkel-id 234901Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik. Finland.
    Savin, Hele
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Review of light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon solar cells2016Inngår i: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 147, s. 115-126Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although several advances have been made in the characterization and the mitigation of light-induced degradation (LID), industrial silicon solar cells still suffer from different types of light-induced efficiency losses. This review compiles four decades of LID results in both electronic- and solar-grade crystalline silicon. The review focuses on the properties and the defect models of boron-oxygen LID and copper-related LID. Current techniques for LID mitigation are presented in order to reduce cell degradation and separate copper-related LID from boron-oxygen LID. Finally, the review summarizes recent observations of severe LID in modern multicrystalline silicon solar cells.

  • 15.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University.
    Yli-Koski, Marko
    Haarahiltunen, Antti
    Savin, Hele
    Room-temperature method for minimizing light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon2012Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, nr 23, artikkel-id 232108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    et al.
    Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University.
    Yli-Koski, Marko
    Haarahiltunen, Antti
    Schubert, Martin C.
    Savin, Hele
    Light-induced degradation in copper-contaminated gallium-doped silicon2013Inngår i: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 262-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Vähänissi, Ville
    et al.
    Aalto University School of Science and Technology.
    Haarahiltunen, Antti
    Aalto University School of Science and Technology.
    Talvitie, Heli
    Aalto University School of Science and Technology.
    Yli-Koski, Marko
    Aalto University School of Science and Technology.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Aalto University School of Science and Technology.
    Savin, Hele
    Aalto University School of Science and Technology.
    Physical mechanisms of boron diffusion gettering of iron in silicon2010Inngår i: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 4, nr 5-6, s. 136-138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the boron diffusion gettering (BDG) of iron in single crystalline silicon. The results show that iron is gettered efficiently by electrically inactive boron, which leads to gettering efficiencies comparable to phosphorus diffusion gettering (PDG). In addition we discuss the different physical mechanisms behind BDG. We also consider the possibilities of using boron diffusion gettering in solar cell fabrication and discuss the role of boron and iron concentration in the optimization of gettering efficiency.

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