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  • 1.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Transmedia world-building: The Shadow (1931–present) and Transformers (1984–present)2017In: International journal of cultural studies, ISSN 1367-8779, E-ISSN 1460-356X, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 636-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of transmedia storytelling has in recent years turned towards a more historicized understanding of its object of study, and also shifted to a wider perspective on narrative and narrative elements, focusing more on the transmediality of story-worlds and world-building rather than just narratives (‘plots’) in the stricter sense. This article combines these interrelated perspectival shifts in an analysis of story-worlds/world-building in two transmedia franchises: The Shadow (1931–present) and Transformers (1984–present), with a focus on the mechanics and processes of world-building in relation to transmedial change (i.e. how world elements are transformed over time as well as when story-worlds move across media platforms).

  • 2.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Metaphors of free labor: A typology of unpaid work in the media sector2016In: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 963-978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, free labor has emerged as a key analytical tool for understanding new or semi-new forms of labor in the contemporary digital economy. This article critiques and develops this concept, with specific reference to work in the media industries, by presenting a historically grounded typology of free labor that also highlights some of the analytical problems with the current use of the concept. Our typology presents seven metaphors of free labor based on historical instances of roles people have taken on when performing unpaid labor: those of The Slave, The Carer, The Apprentice, The Prospector, The Hobbyist, The Volunteer, and The Patsy. A key conclusion is that free labor is performed by different actors at either end of increasingly complex and temporally stretched out value chains. This necessitates a more fine-grained and historicized use of the concept of free labor.

  • 3.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Metaphors of Free Labor: A Typology of Unpaid Work in the Media Sector2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, free labor has emerged as a key analytical tool for understanding new or semi-new forms of labor in the contemporary digital economy. This paper critiques and develops this concept, with specific reference to work in the media industries, by presenting a historically grounded typology of free labor that also highlights some of the analytical problems with the current use of the concept. Our typology presents eight metaphors of free labor based on historical instances of roles people have taken on when performing unpaid labor: those of The Slave, The Carer, The Apprentice, The Prospector, The Hobbyist, The Volunteer, The Agent and The Patsy. A key conclusion is that free labor is performed by different actors at either end of increasingly complex and temporally stretched out value chains. This should motivate, or so we argue, a more fine-grained scholarly use of the concept of free labor.

  • 4.
    Grip, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Möller, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalism as Livelihood: gender, space and mobility2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a large body of research on how journalistic work has changed in the past few decades, very little attention has been paid to what journalists do outside work (e.g. their lifestyles, personal networks, family situations, overall work and life situation), nor to how journalists negotiate their work lives and their private lives, despite the fact that such factors also may have an impact on the ability of journalists to fulfil some kind of public/democratic function. Such questions are arguably becoming more and more salient as journalistic work is becoming more mobile, more contingent, and more insecure.

    In this paper we propose a multi-disciplinary approach to analyzing the interplay between journalistic work and lifestyles/life situation that combines intersectional feminist theories and methods in human geography with media studies through the concept of livelihood (rather than paid work, profession, occupation, etc.) at the center. We argue that this concept better captures aspects of mobility, place restraints, contingency and mutual interrelation between the public and private spheres in relation to journalistic work. The livelihood concept provides a tool for critically analyzing the gendered spaces and mobilities of journalism and the consequences for men’s and women’s daily life.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Hyperlinking practices in Swedish online news 2006-2012,2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although hyperlinks is essential both in the Internet architecture and pointing out pertinent material in an ocean of information abundance remarkably little research have been committed to this area. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted scrutinizing the long-term impact of communication technology on journalism and journalistic practices. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the research on one specific area of online journalism – the practice of hyperlinking. The study utilizes a longitudinal content analysis of hyperlinking practices in Swedish online news from 2006 to 2012 that allows for comparison if and to what extent publishing tradition and ownership shapes journalistic practice. Five hypotheses are posed and three research questions are asked, all relating to how the news sites make use of hyperlinks, and to what extent. The findings show an erratic pattern in the use of hyperlinks as well for internal as external, and between publishing traditions. The general conclusion is that hyperlinks are not an important aspect of online journalism practice.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Hyperlinking practices in Swedish online news 2007-20132014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperlinks are considered vital to both Internet and digital journalism. This study utilizes a longitudinal content analysis of hyperlinking practices in Swedish online news from 2007 to 2013 to see how hyperlinking evolves over time. It also compares if and to what extent publishing tradition shapes journalistic practice. The findings primarily shows that the over all impact of hyperlinks remain rather unchanged over time but that internal links, while still being most common, decrease in relative importance while external links increase. The general conclusion is that hyperlinks are not an important aspect of online journalism practice.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Hyperlinking practices in Swedishonline news 2007–2013: the rise, fall,and stagnation of hyperlinking as ajournalistic tool2015In: Information, Communication and Society, ISSN 1369-118X, E-ISSN 1468-4462, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 847-863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperlinks are considered vital to both the Web and to digital journalism. This study utilizes alongitudinal content analysis of hyperlinking practices in Swedish online news from 2007 to2013 to see how hyperlinking evolves over time. It also compares if and to what extentpublishing tradition shapes journalistic practice. The findings primarily show that the overallimpact of hyperlinks remains largely unchanged over time but that internal links, while stillbeing most common, decrease in relative importance while external links increase. Thegeneral conclusion is that hyperlinks, so far, are not an important aspect of onlinejournalism practice.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Mapping the space of journalistic labor in the new media environment: a model2016In: Communicating with Power: 66th Annual International Communication Association Conference, Japan, Fukuoka, June 9-13, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Löfgren Nilsson, Monica
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalism Under Threat: Intimidation and harassment of Swedish journalists2016In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 880-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of intimidation and harassment of journalists have (rightly) focused on non-democratic and authoritarian nations and/or transitional/emerging democracies. In this article, we examine the situation in Sweden, a country with strong de facto and de jure safeguards of journalistic freedom and autonomy. We report the findings from a representative survey of Swedish journalists where three themes are analysed: the extent of harassment, the forms of harassment, and the consequences of intimidation and harassment. The results show that a third of the respondents had experienced threats at work in the past year, and an overwhelming majority said they had received offensive and insulting comments. Intimidation and harassment also had consequences, both professionally and personally, such as fear and self-censorship. We therefore argue that it is time to add the dimension of external pressure and threats to the discussion of journalistic autonomy—including in countries like Sweden.

  • 10.
    Stetka, Vaclav
    et al.
    University of Oxford.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Investigative journalism in Central and Eastern Europe: Autonomy, Business Models, and Democratic Roles2013In: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 413-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a comparative overview of investigative journalism in eight countries in the Central and Eastern European region (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). The purpose is both descriptive and analytical. Descriptively, the article charts the presence and provision of investigative journalism across the region and inventories and assesses the various funding forms that exist against the background of the recent (2008-09) financial crisis. Analytically, the article focuses on assessing the relative autonomy (defined as autonomy from external actors) and effects (defined as the removal from office and sentencing of political actors revealed to be engaged in legal and moral transgressions, commonly various forms of corruption). The article finds investigative journalism across the region in general to be weak in terms of autonomy and effects, but stronger in countries that have had more stable and richer media markets (notably Estonia, Poland, and the Czech Republic). The article further finds that alternative news sources online in some countries (notably Romania and Bulgaria) play an important role as providers of investigative journalism.

  • 11.
    Stetka, Vaclav
    et al.
    University of Oxford.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Media, communication and democracy: Global and national environments - an introduction2012In: Communication, Politics and Culture, ISSN 2200-6796, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 55-59Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Alias2009In: The Essential Cult Television Reader / [ed] David Lavery, Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky , 2009, p. 22-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of Oxford, England.
    Alternate Reality Games and Convergence Culture: The Case of Alias2007In: International journal of cultural studies, ISSN 1367-8779, E-ISSN 1460-356X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 445-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) are a form of internet-based mystery game in which participants are immersed in a fictional                     world and engage in collective problem-solving. This article studies three ARGs connected to the TV series Alias (ABC, 2001—6), two of them launched by the network ABC as part of the marketing of the TV series, the third produced by fans.                     Previous research on ARGs has not sufficiently problematized the fact that many ARGs are marketing tools. While ARGs can be                     analysed as part of a wider context of convergence culture and fan culture, such an analysis must take into account the underlying                     commercial logic of popular culture production. Despite the differences found between industry-produced and fan-produced ARGs,                     they still share a framework of consumption that conforms to corporate goals of marketing and brand-building as well as fan                     audiences' goals of pleasurable interaction with fictional worlds

  • 14.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Anything you can do, I can do better?: Professional journalists vs. citizen journalistsin six European countries2013In: International Communication Gazette, ISSN 1748-0485, E-ISSN 1748-0493, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 35-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on 63 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with professional journalists across career stages and across media in six European countries (UK, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden), and is concerned with how journalists answer the question: How is what you do different from what citizen journalists do? Based on existing literature on journalistic authority and the professional project, three areas where claims to professional legitimacy and distinction from amateurs are identified: expertise, duty and autonomy. The interview data show that while claims based on expertise and duty are common when professional journalists want to demarcate the boundary between them and citizen journalism, claims based on direct reference to autonomy are non-existent. However, claims based indirectly on reference to autonomy, but institutional or collective rather than individual autonomy, are common. Indeed the key result of this study is that legitimacy claims based on the collective nature of the journalistic endeavour are very common, in contrast to earlier constructions of journalistic professionalism, which emphasized individualism and individual autonomy.

  • 15.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Clientelism, Elites and the Media in Central and Eastern Europe2012In: The International Journal of Press/Politics, ISSN 1940-1612, E-ISSN 1940-1620, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 497-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that the traditional political science definition of clientelism is insufficient for explaining how the media fit in with clientelistic systems in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). It is suggested that a broader understanding of clientelism, looking in particular at how media are used as elite-to-elite communication tools as well as elite-to-mass communication tools, better explains the place of the media in the clientelistic systems of the CEE nations. Empirically, it is based on a set of 272 elite and expert interviews conducted across ten CEE countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia) in 2010 and 2011. The article presents some general findings on the nature and character of the linkages between political elites and the media, and the extent to which such linkages can be considered clientelistic. Then follows a discussion of specific practices of media instrumentalization, charting the many ways in which the media can function as a resource in conflicts and negotiations between clientelistic elite networks, directly as well as indirectly. Particular attention is given to the phenomena of advertorials and kompromat.

  • 16.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Comparative Journalism Research: an Overview2012In: Sociology Compass, ISSN 1751-9020, E-ISSN 1751-9020, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 769-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview focuses on the most common type of comparative journalism research, which is cross-national comparative research. The overview presents a typology for different types of comparative journalism research, based on whether the research interest is in journalism as an activity or as a product; and, in the case of journalism as an activity, whether the interest is in the system level, the organizational level, or the individual level of journalism. The overview finds that the analysis of journalism on the individual level and of journalism as a product are the most common types of comparative research, whereas comparative analysis of journalism on the organizational level is much under-studied.

  • 17.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Det journalistiska arbetets förändring2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson & Jesper Strömbäck, Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 497-513Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Epistemologies and Professional Roles2017In: Journalistic Role Performance: Concepts, Contexts, and Methods / [ed] Claudia Mellado, Lea Hellmueller & Wolfgang Donsbach, New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 75-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    University of Oxford faculty Politics and Int Relations.
    Introduction: Questioning European Journalism2009In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 2-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that previous research on European journalism (widely defined) to a large extent tells a story of failure. Journalism is characterised as having “failed Europe” in three ways: through failure of representation, failure of production and failure of participation. However, this image of media failure rests on certain descriptive and normative assumptions about Europe and about journalism—assumptions that are sometimes explicit but more often implicit. This article suggests some new ways of questioning these assumptions in order to move research on European journalism forward.

  • 20.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalism as institution and work in Europe, circa 1860: A comparative history of journalism2013In: Media History, ISSN 1368-8804, E-ISSN 1469-9729, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 393-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a comparative historical analysis of the relationship between journalism as institution (i.e., a particular set of organizations in society) and journalism as work (i.e., an activity practiced by individuals) in four European countries: Britain, Sweden, Germany, and Estonia. The analysis compares the institutional context of journalistic work in these four countries around 1860, focusing in particular on the organization of journalistic labor at the national newspaper of record. The historical comparison reveals how exceptional the British case is. The study finds that British journalism circa 1860 exhibited a high division of labor, high labor specialization, and was increasingly focused on news gathering and production. Swedish and German journalism exhibited an emerging division of labor and labor specialization, and was focused on political debate (rather than news gathering and production). Estonian journalism exhibited hardly any division of labor or labor specialization, and was focused on raising national awareness.

  • 21.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalism as Institution and Work in Europe, Circa 1860: A Comparative History of Journalism2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the relationship between journalism as institution (i.e. the collective of organizations involved in the production of journalism) and journalism as work (i.e. as an activity performed by individuals) by comparing and contrasting journalism – as exemplified by the ‘newspaper of record’ in each respective country – in four European countries, Britain, Sweden, Germany and Estonia, around 1860. The focus is on the organization of journalistic work and on journalism as salaried labour. In particular Britain has been studies extensively in this regard before, so this paper uses Britain and the Times as its prime example but also highlights the exceptional nature of this case and uses comparative analysis to demonstrate key differences in the journalism-as-work/journalism-as-institution relationship between these four countries.

  • 22.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalistic Ideals Versus Journalistic Practice: The Relationship Between Role Perception and Valued Skills Among Journalists in Six European Countries2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into the role perceptions of journalism is well-established, but there is significantly less research on whether such perceptions translate into actual journalistic practice. This presentation explores this link between journalistic ideals and journalistic practice by studying the relationship between role perceptions and valued skills among journalists. Do the skills journalists place value on somehow match the perceptions they have of their societal role? This is examined using comparative survey data from six Europan countries: Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden.

  • 23.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Journalists, PR Professionals and the Practice of Paid News in Central and Eastern Europe: An Overview2016In: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 5-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Newsworkers: A Comparative European Perspective2016Book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Participation or outsourcing?: Some reflections on the space and status of newswork in the digital news ecosystem.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When discussing the contemporary changing media environment, participation is often viewed as a good in and of itself (e.g Rosen 1999, Bruns, Allan 2013) – various forms of citizen participation in various news/journalistic ventures are viewed as a type of fulfillment of the normative ideals of journalism as a democratic institution. Many researchers have noted the limits of such participation, as well as analyzed the problems (of quality, of trustworthiness, of inclusion, etc) inherent in different forms of ‘pro-am’ production of news content and news texts (e.g. Singer et al 2011, Paterson & Domingo 2005, Reich 2008, to mention but a few examples), but the overall perspective on participation is positive.

    I am here presenting an alternative view on participation on journalism, arguing that the democratic good of participation can easily become the democratic problem of outsourcing. Today, many forms of journalistic labour are unpaid or paid at very low rates, as well as produced outside the news organization per se: journalistic production is becoming outsourced. Based on existing research on outsourcing and on contemporary journalistic production, I argue that the shift to fluid, casual labor where more of the risk is borne by the individual employee (Benner 2002; Deuze 2007) that is increasingly characterizing news work in the new digital ecosystem will thus have far-reaching consequences for the emergence and continued health of something usually considered to be a key part of journalism as a democratic institution: professional values.

  • 26.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Reassessing journalism as a profession2010In: The Routledge Companion to News and Journalism / [ed] Stuart Allan, Abingdon: Routledge, 2010, 2, p. 568-577Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Reporters, Editors, and Networkers: Trends in Journalistic Work Roles and Journalistic Labour Across Europe2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2,238 news professionals, we found that journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editorial and networking skills. The data also show some key similarities – reporting skills are the most highly valued across all six countries, and editorial skills the least valued. But there are also important differences, which we suggest can mainly be explained by historical differences in how the functional role of journalism has been viewed. Editorial skills are more highly valued in Germany, Italy and Poland and reporting skills are accorded the highest value in Britain and Sweden. The most interesting finding is perhaps the emergence of what seems like a new or at least somewhat different functional role of the journalist: that of the networker (emphasizing social skills like networking, teamwork and time management). Complementary data from a qualitative interview study of journalists in the same six countries indicate that this role is most prevalent among younger journalists and to a great extent is a response to changes in the organization of journalistic labor, e.g. increased prevalence of project work and work in ad hoc groups, increased labor precariousness, and the gradual convergence of the newsroom.

  • 28.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Review of Boguslawa Dobek-Ostrowska & Gunnar Nygren (eds.) Journalism in Change: Journalistic Culture in Poland, Russia and Sweden2016In: Central European Journal of Communication, ISSN 1899-5101, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 137-140Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Technology and journalism-as-labour: historical perspectives2010In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 57-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological determinism is common among journalists when reflecting on changes in their profession; several studies show that journalists ascribe great power and independent agency to technology. There are at least two reasons for the persistence of technological determinism as an explanatory factor among journalists vis-a-vis their own work: first, technology is a highly integrated and therefore very tangible part of the everyday working life of journalists; and second, the technological paradigm for explaining change in journalism has deep historical roots. It is argued that analysing journalism as labour presents a way to address both the integration of technology in the everyday working practices of journalists, and the history of the inter-relations between journalism and technology. It is further argued that journalism studies as a field has not paid much attention to journalism as labour. This article is concerned with the second part of this programme for research, i.e. the historical analysis of journalism as labour. The framework of analysis is based on labour process theory, focusing on four themes in the history of journalism: (1) the importance of the separation of conception and execution of labour; (2) the increased differentiation of the labour process; (3) the use of technology to increase productivity; and (4) the deskilling of labour.

  • 30.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The Maiden Tribute and the Naming of Monsters: two case studies of popular journalism as alternative public sphere2006In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 851-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion about the critical potential of tabloid journalism. It does so through a comparison of two popular journalism campaigns: the “Maiden Tribute” campaign in the London newspaper the Pall Mall Gazette in 1885 (dealing with underage prostitution), and the “naming-and-shaming” campaign in the News of the World in 2000, concerning child abuse and paedophilia. The main research question is whether any or both of these campaigns can be viewed as contributions to an alternative public sphere, as defined using concepts from Örnebring and Jönsson (2004

    16.           Örnebring  ,   Henrik       and     Jönsson  ,   Anna Maria     (  2004  )   “Tabloid Journalism and the Public Sphere: a historical perspective on tabloid journalism”  ,    Journalism Studies    5  (  3  ), pp.   283  –  95  .[Taylor & Francis Online]View all references) and Atton (2002

    1.        Atton, Chris. 2002. Alternative Media, London: Sage. View all references). Three aspects of the campaigns are compared: (1) How they discursively frame the issue at hand, (2) How they discursively frame the key actors present in the texts, and (3) What mode of address is employed. The purpose of this comparison is to examine whether the campaigns open up alternative possibilities in how they frame and present the issue and the actors, and in how they address and give space to their audiences. The main result is that the Pall Mall Gazette campaign has the greater claim to being a contribution to an alternative public sphere in terms of how it frames the issue and the actors. The article further argues that while there is a distinct potential of tabloid journalism to contribute to an alternative public sphere in certain circumstances, this potential should not be overstated.

  • 31.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The producer as consumer – of what?: User-generated tabloid content in The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden)2008In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 771-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of user-generated content (UGC) is often thought to blur further the distinction between (media) producers and (media) consumers. Many media organizations, in particular newspapers, have developed extensive sections of their Web pages based on UGC. But there is still relatively little discussion of the exact relationship between producing and consuming in these sections. What is being produced and what is being consumed? Does the blurring of the producer–consumer represent a real shift in power away from traditional media/news organizations, or is the rise of UGC just a way for newspapers to get content produced “for free”? This article analyses UGC provision in two tabloid newspapers, The Sun (UK) and Aftonbladet (Sweden)—both newspapers generally considered to be very successful in terms of their online presence—by comparing (1) the levels of involvement required by users, (2) the types of content produced, and (3) the modes of production used. The results show that both tabloids are similar in that they provide users with the opportunity to generate mostly popular culture-oriented content and personal/everyday life-oriented content, but little or no opportunity to generate news/information-oriented content.

  • 32.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Transmedia histories: Disjunctions and continuities2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents two case studies of transmedial entertainment, one of the pulp franchise The Shadow and one of the contemporary franchise Transformers. The article argues that previous studies of transmedia entertainment have focused too much on narrative in a strict sense (plot/story), ignoring the interplay between the contexts of production and reception as well as narrative elements other than plot, notably those that create the greater narrative ‘world’. The article therefore focuses on an integrated analysis of the production/reception of the two transmedia properties, and the narrative disjunctions created by extending a transmedia world across different media platforms. The study finds that transmedia narratives cannot be understood without taking media industry objectives into account, and that previous studies have overemphasized the narrative integration of transmedial properties.

  • 33.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ferrer Conill, Raul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Outsourcing newswork2016In: Handbook of Digital Journalism / [ed] David Domingo, Tamara Witschge, Alfred Hermida, Chris Anderson, London: Sage Publications, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns Högskola.
    User-generated content and the news: Empowerment of citizens or an interactive illusion?2011In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 127-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The involvement of citizens in public life through the Internet, variously described by terms such as interactivity and user-generated content, is frequently held up as a democracy-enhancing development. However, these concepts say little about the exact nature and character of media–audience relations. We wish to introduce a more detailed taxonomy of user-generated content (UGC) that takes issues of power and influence into account. We examine the media–reader relationship (in online newspapers) by looking at (1) degree of participation and (2) type of content. We also suggest that it might be fruitful to think in terms of a political economy of UGC. Our results show that users are mostly empowered to create popular culture-oriented content and personal/everyday life-oriented content rather than news/informational content. Direct user involvement in news production is minimal. There is a clear political economy of UGC: UGC provision in mainstream media to a great extent addresses users-as-consumers and is part of a context of consumption

  • 35.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The labor of journalism: Challeneges of technological and economic restructuring2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will analyze how the technological and economic restructuring of journalistic labor impacts on three key theoretical concepts in journalism:  routines, professionalism and autonomy. Journalistic labor will be analyzed along three dichotomous dimensions: paid/unpaid, skilled/unskilled and individual/collective.

    For most of the 20th century, defining journalism in terms of labor (for the purposes of this paper, “labor” is defined as exertion that generates surplus value, organized through a contractual employer-employee relationship) was straightforward: journalistic labor was done by those who were employed, commonly on permanent, full-time contracts, by traditional media organizations. It was essentially not possible to conduct the work of a journalist outside this system.

    Many of the key journalism scholars of the postwar era imported concepts and theories from the sociology of work and used them to analyze journalism – among them routines (e.g. Gans 1979, Tuchman 1978), professionalism and the related concept of professional roles  (e.g. Johnstone, Slawski & Bowman 1976, Tunstall 1971) and autonomy (e.g. Breed 1955, Merrill 1974). However, when reading these works today, it is striking that the intellectual foundation of these concepts is that journalism is conducted by people who are in stable contractual relationships with likewise stable, large organizations. This, as we know, is not true anymore.

    The introduction of digital technologies and networked communications poses many challenges to the understanding of journalism as labor. The barriers of entry for performing journalistic work (though not necessarily labor, see below) have all but disappeared. It is now possible for individuals to produce and distribute news content without the need for a large organization and expensive production equipment. Conversely, as distribution channels multiply and become more fragmented, audiences can also increasingly chose to not consume journalistic content, or to consume journalistic content that is available at no cost to the end-user. It is at once easier to perform journalistic work and harder to get (adequately) paid for it, i.e. to perform journalistic labor. Permanent full-time jobs in journalism are getting fewer in most of the Western world, and freelancing, part-time work and occupational fluidity (e.g. journalists producing news one day and PR material the next) are becoming more common. While journalism scholarship has had much to say about the challenges of the new digital, networked environment, less attention has been paid to the validity of the many underlying concepts and theories that presuppose a particular way of organizing journalistic labor (Deuze 2007, 2011 being notable exceptions).

                                 We focus here on three concepts in particular – routines,  professionalism, and autonomy.  The theoretical challenges to these concepts are examined using three dichotomous dimensions: paid vs. unpaid labor (and its close companion, work time vs. free time), skilled vs unskilled labor, and individual vs. collective labor. What types of journalistic labor can you be expected to be paid for, and what do you increasingly have to do for free? If journalism can be outsourced and journalists replaced by algorithms and software (see Clerwall, 2014), how “skilled” is journalistic labor? As employers shift risk and responsibility to employees, individual journalists have to spend more time on personal branding and marketing. This has consequences for the possibilities of doing collective work (as in a traditional newsroom setting) when you may be competing with colleagues for scarce resources. We argue that ongoing fundamental changes to how journalistic labor is organized also require fundamentally rethinking many of the key concepts of journalism studies.

  • 36.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Autonomy from the inside: Journalists’ perceptions of workplace autonomy in five European countries2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Dimensions of journalistic workplace autonomy: A five-nation comparison2016In: Javnost - The Public, ISSN 1318-3222, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 307-326, article id 1215833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how journalists perceive workplace autonomy in five European countries, based on an email survey (N = 2238) conducted in the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Sweden and Estonia. The article argues that the workplace level functions as a link between the macro level of external pressures and the micro level of perceived influences on news work. Using principal component analysis we explore the dimensionality of workplace autonomy based on a set of 20 survey questions. Regression analysis is then used on the dimensions found in order to determine what affects perception of autonomy in the different dimensions. The most salient explanatory variables are found on the country and organisational levels, whereas the variables age, experience, gender, managerial role and medium have no or limited effects. The results show the organisational and country levels being integrated and that national journalistic culture is the most salient factor explaining perception of autonomy.

  • 38.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Löfgren Nilsson, Monica
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Journalism under threat: Intimidation and harassment of Swedish journalists2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Mellado, Claudia
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.
    Valued skills among journalists: An exploratory comparison of six European nations2016In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-national comparative studies of journalists generally focus on the demographic characteristics and/or the values and role-perception of journalists. Systematic studies of journalistic skills have been rare, however. This article reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2238 news professionals, journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editing, and networking skills.

    The data also show a number of similarities, but also important differences regarding the importance journalists give to different professional skills in different European countries.

  • 40.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Mellado, Claudia
    University of Santiago de Chile.
    Valued Skills Among Journalists: An Exploratory Comparison of Six European Nations2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-national comparative studies of journalists generally focus on the demographic characteristics and/or the values and role-perception of journalists. Comparisons of journalistic skills have been rare, however. This paper reports the findings from a comparative study of journalists from Britain, Estonia, Germany, Italy, Poland and Sweden. Based on an email survey of 2,238 news professionals, we found that journalistic skills can be grouped into three distinctive dimensions: reporting, editorial and networking skills. The data also show some key similarities – reporting skills are the most highly valued across all six countries, and editorial skills the least valued. But there are also important differences, which we suggest can mainly be explained by historical differences in how the functional role of journalism has been viewed. Editorial skills are more highly valued in Germany, Italy and Poland and reporting skills are accorded the highest value in Britain and Sweden.

  • 41.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Nygren, Gunnar
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Journalistiken i ett jämförande perspektiv2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson & Jesper Strömbäck, Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 23-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Rantanen, Terhi
    London School of Economics and Political Science.
    Editorial: Special issue on media in Central and Eastern Europe2013In: Global Media and Communication, ISSN 1742-7665, E-ISSN 1742-7673, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 189-193Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 42 of 42
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