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  • 1.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    SGI.
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Landslide risk management — A brief overview and example from Sweden of current situation and climate change2013Inngår i: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, ISSN 2212-4209, Vol. 3, nr March, s. 44-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landslide risk is a function of the probability of the event and its consequences. Previous research has shown that preventive measures to reduce the risk are preferred over reactive measures but, especially in developing countries, rarely undertaken. A contributing factor is the lack of evidence that preventive measures pay. This study includes a brief overview of landslide risk management in general and an investigation of the present risk management situation in Sweden based on interviews in 11 municipalities complemented with interviews in Norway. The result shows that climate change has become part of the general awareness and started to be taken into account in the municipal spatial planning. Landslide susceptibility maps and databases are useful tools in the complex spatial planning. The results indicate that the application of landslide susceptibility and risk maps as previously applied for preventive measures and spatial planning in the landslide prone area Gota alv river valley have been cost effective. Improved documentation and more active communication among different stakeholders would, however, contribute to more effective landslide management.

  • 2.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Effekter av samhällets säkerhetsåtgärder (ESS) - en kartering av arbetet idag med fokus på översvämningar, ras och skred2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Bellström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013).
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Elaborating Requirements for a Digital Crisis Training Tool: Findings from a Pilot Study2019Inngår i: Proceedings of ISD2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Crisis preparedness is of great importance to many actors in society. Maintaining crisis preparedness is an arduous task that requires frequent exercises. However, many actors have trouble accomplishing this because planning and conducting exercises are time consuming and involve high costs. Digitalization of crisis training has been suggested as a way to partly overcome these obstacles. In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study on an exercise in a digital crisis training tool. Trainees were interviewed and a content analysis was performed on the data. The analytical categories consisted of requirements for a crisis training tool, developed in our previous work. The results of the analysis show that the pace of an exercise, the number of trainees and the number of asynchronous and synchronous modules are all related to boundaries of digital crisis training. These boundaries need to be further explored.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Ramona
    et al.
    SGI.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Efficiency of preventive actions for landslides and flooding – evaluation of Scandinavian practices 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Preventive actions can be, and are frequently, taken to reduce accidents and their consequences in different ways. The MSB funded research programme "Effects of Society's Security actions" (ESS, 2009-2013) aims to study the relationship between such actions and their effects. The program is divided into three subgroups: Frequent accidents Natural hazards (such as flooding, erosion and landslide) Chemical and landfill accidents The results presented here covers natural hazards with focus on land slides and flooding. The results are based on Swedish/Scandinavian contexts. Natural events such as erosion,flooding and land slides are common, but the number of accidents (events causing severe negative impact) is rare. Therefore, in such analysis there is limited data and other information available which can be used for example in statistical analysis of actions and their effects. Instead, the analysis must be based on other information. Therefore, the analysis may have to include aspects that only can be assessed by scenario and "what-if" analyses. In this project the main method has been interviews with officials in Swedish municipalities and national agencies in Sweden and Norway. The two levels are chosen since policies are taken on national (or international) level, while the key actionsand actors are on the municipal level. The interviews cover experiences and potential scenarios. In all municipalities, one politician and officials working with planning and rescue service have been interviewed. The study covers hazard and risk mapping, follow up of such maps, physical planning and lessons learned from previous events and activities. The final outcome of the research will be a review of what is found to be well functioning, identification of weak points and recommendations for the management of landslides, erosion and flooding. The present results indicate that hazard/risk maps are of great importance, but the knowledge about the maps and how to use them varies depending on who you ask and between municipalities. Most officials in municipalities are aware of climate change (CC) but, due to high uncertainties and since climate induced events such as natural hazards are rare, the issues are often not prioritized. Further, the results indicate that the documentation, communication and the responsibilities among different units is not always clear, having impacts on for example the knowledge transfer to new personnel. Also databases can be useful tools. The project has found that the use of such tools varies between Norway and Sweden. The aim is to identify the reasons for such deviation. The mostly mentioned suggestions of improvement in the prevention process are increased knowledge, user friendly guidance, clear organisational structure and responsibilities and nationally provided ear marked funding for preventive measures.

  • 5.
    Christenson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation (from 2013).
    Koivisto, Jenni
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013).
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013).
    Hindersson, Emelie
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Kristin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013).
    Pettersson, Andreas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013).
    Riskville – A game for learning about disaster risks and urban planning2018Inngår i: International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, ISSN 0280-7270, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 238-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Education plays a key role in disaster risk reduction (DRR) and in creating resilient societies worldwide by disseminating information about risks and in improving people’s risk awareness. This, in turn, helps them to prepare, cope with and recover from possible disaster events, hence making the societies more resilient. This paper shortly presents the theoretical background and the rules of the game Riskville where the participants get to experience in a hands-on manner the connections and conflicts between urban planning, different interests and climate related risks. We conclude that Riskville promotes discussions on different perspectives on disaster risk and resilience and approaches in including them into urban planning.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Magnus
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    SGI.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    Bergman, Ramona
    SGI.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013).
    How to measure efficiency in risk prevention?2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment methods form corner stones in the striving to reduce risks and threats to human life and society. Proposed actions can be physical or non-physical and adopted or declined after political evaluation, with consideration taken to available resources and estimated effect on risk. To optimize and avoid regrettable actions, decision-makers are in need of well-founded analyses of how efficient different options might be. Analytically, there are several possible steps that can contribute. Firstly, the correlation between a measure and its effect should be based on causality, which often is difficult to establish quantitatively. High frequent accidents (e.g. traffic) can normally be treated statistically , while low frequent accidents with severe consequences (e.g. natural hazards) are more restricted to qualitative descriptions of correlation. Systematic monitoring of injury and damage data and gathering into databases, are a crucial activity for causality valuation. Secondly, economic valuation of effect is an important contribution in a cost-benefit perspective. Thirdly, a measure often brings several different effects and some may fall outside the actual purpose. An additional problem is how to handle effects that exert varied influence on different stakeholders or social groups in society. Fourthly, certain criteria are required for final prioritization. For instance, in analysis of goal fulfillment, effects are compared with politically decided quantified goals. In cases where basic data from steps 1-3 are incomplete, alternative criteria like “acceptable risk” might be necessary to agree about politically. To use similar approaches on how to describe and quantify effect correlations, promote gathered efforts at local level where risk reducing measures are decided upon by different actors and with regard to diverse local conditions. Tests of suitable methods and approaches to measure efficiency of planned or accomplished actions in gain for risk prevention, are described and discussed.

  • 7.
    Jönsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Myndigheten för samhällskydd och beredskap.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    "Har man kanelbullens dag så kan man väl ha en dag för individanpassat brandskydd också?": En kvalitativ kartläggning av individanpassat brandskyddsarbete i Skåne och Värmland2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Inledning: Sverige strävar sedan 2010 mot en nollvision där ingen ska omkomma eller skadas allvarligt till följd av brand (MSB, 2009). Detta till trots omkommer varje år drygt 100 människor som ett resultat av just bränder, där framförallt äldre och personer med funktionsnedsättning är särskilt riskutsatta. För att främja arbetet mot nollvisionen publicerade MSB vägledningen Brandsäker bostad för alla, under 2013. Vägledningens tilltänkta syfte är att fungera som en metodhandbok för hur en individanpassad brandskyddsverksamhet kan bedrivas på kommunnivå. I vilken utsträckning som ett sådant arbete bedrivs samt vilket genomslagskraft vägledningen har fått är emellertid oklart. Avsikten med denna studie är därmed att undersöka just detta.  

    Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ ansats där sammanlagt tio semistrukturerade intervjuer har utförts i Skåne och Värmland. Därefter har data analyserats med hjälp av en manifest innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Totalt har följande tre kategorier genererats: Den första kategorin, Individanpassat brandskydd är utmanande, konkretiserar problematiken kring individanpassat brandskydd och identifierar riskgrupper och huvudaktörer. Andra kategorin, Kommunerna antar utmaningen, presenterar hur de utvalda kommunerna arbetar med individanpassat brandskydd, och vilka aktörer som är verksamhetsutövare. Avslutningsvis beskriver Saker och ting kan förbättras hur MSBs roll i sammanhanget ser ut samt hur vägledningen har tagits emot på kommunnivå.

    Slutsats: Sammantaget visar resultatet att de granskade kommunerna arbetar med individanpassat brandskydd, om än i olika utsträckning. Det påtalas även att det uteslutande är vård- och omsorgsförvaltningen samt räddningstjänsten som är verksamhetsutövare på lokal nivå. Detta medför att identifieringsprocessen av riskindivider är begränsad till ovan nämnda förvaltningars verksamheter. Det nuvarande individanpassade brandskyddsarbetet är därmed initierat, men har ännu inte uppnått sin fulla potential. Ett antal övriga aktörer, däribland socialförvaltningen, har identifierats som nödvändiga för att verksamheten ska kunna utvecklas och bli mer effektiv, men de tycks inte inbegripas i den nuvarande arbetsprocessen.  

  • 8.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Flood response using complementary early warning information2016Inngår i: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 253-263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this comparative case study was to investigate and compare how Swedish municipalities gather and use warning information from official and unofficial sources at the municipal level, as well as the circumstances under which that process has a chance to succeed. The overall conclusions of the study are that official and unofficial warnings have the potential to play complementary roles for municipalities making decisions about flood response, giving the municipalities a wider perspective and better opportunity to assess risk and to act appropriately. The required resources for using official warnings and getting access to unofficial warning sources are not evenly distributed among municipalities, and a lack of systematization of access to warning information hinders the flood response potential.

  • 9.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Flood Warnings in a Risk Management Context: A Case of Swedish Municipalities2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the United Nations’ International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-2000), and recent high profile disasters, disaster risk reduction has climbed high on the international political agenda. There has been a paradigm shift from reacting to disasters towards preparing for and mitigating effects of disasters. Among the measures that have been highlighted on the disaster risk reduction agenda are early warning systems. In a Swedish context, there are needs for early warnings for various flood risk types. Municipalities carry big responsibilities for managing flood risks, and early warnings have a potential to facilitate decision-making and ultimately reduce flood losses.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe how a variety of flood warning signals are used in the risk management process of Swedish municipalities, how they can contribute to the flood risk reducing process, and which factors influence the success of this. The thesis is based on two papers.

    Paper I is based on interviews with three respondents from Swedish municipalities that have invested in and established local early warning systems. The paper shows that the possible effects from a local early warning system are not only reduced flood losses but also potential spinoff, the occurrence of which is dependent on the well-being of the organisation and its risk management processes.

    Paper II is based on interviews with 23 respondents at 18 Swedish municipalities, who have responsibilities related to flood risk management, and one respondent who works at SMHI with hydrological warning. The paper shows that municipalities can use a variety of complementary flood warning signals to facilitate decision-making for a proactive flood response. This is however not systematically the case, and is dependent on available resources.

    The theoretical contribution of this thesis is a development of existing conceptual models of early warning systems with respect to risk management and system contexts, and the use of complementary warning signals.

  • 10.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Sociala konsekvenser av lågt vattenstånd i Vänern2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tappningsstrategin för Vänern ändrades i ett beslut från Länsstyrelsen Västra Götalands län och Vattenfall AB, på uppdrag av regeringen, för att minska risken för översvämningar i Vänern. I detta beslut stod att en risk förelåg för att vissa negativa miljömässiga och sociala konsekvenser skulle kunna uppstå som en följd av en ändrad tappningsstrategi.

    Under våren och sommaren 2009 var vattennivåerna i Vänern lägre än normalt och då många människor som på olika sätt nyttjar Vänern fick problem höjdes också röster mot den ändrade tappningsstrategin. I media kunde man läsa om människors problem med de låga vattennivåerna och deras farhågor om mer frekvent återkommande år med lågt vatten som en följd av den ändrade tappningsstrategin.

    Centrum för Klimat och Säkerhet vid Karlstads universitet inledde ett arbete med att kartlägga vilka kategorier av människor som drabbats samt vilka sociala konsekvenser de upplevt av det låga vattenståndet. Under juni, juli och augusti månad gjordes intervjuer med ett 20-tal människor som på olika sätt nyttjar Vänern.

    Resultatet av studien visade att ett stort missnöje fanns med den ändrade tappningsstrategin, att den upplevdes ha flera negativa sociala konsekvenser, i första hand på båtliv och boende, och att en önskan fanns om att finna en lösning som inte behövde drabba dem som nyttjar Vänern ur ett socialt perspektiv.

  • 11.
    Persson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Den upplevda nyttan av den norska skreddatabasen Skrednett: Intervjuer med brukare2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for more compatible and complete information to support evidence based risk management at the international level. At the moment, development in this direction occurs more successfully at the national level. In Europe, StorMe (Switzerland), AVI (Italy), the Swedish Natural Hazards Information System (Sweden), NSMES (Romania) and Skrednett (Norway) are good examples of natural hazard information systems where data on past events, frequency of events, hazard mapping of retrospective and potential endangered areas, multi-risk assessments, risk maps, etc., are compiled in user-friendly web solutions. The creation of integrated systems aim towards increased effectiveness in societal contingency planning at regional or local levels. Weather this goal is attained or not in society, or if the system is cost effective, is more or less impossible to measure quantitatively for free internet systems due to system owners lack of control on how their data is used. Qualitative measures from interviews with known end users can serve as indicators of success or failure. In this study, interviews were conducted with 11 recurrent users of the Norwegian database “Skrednett” (www.skrednett.no). Their answers show consensus around the database significance for societal needs in general, but also around a call for more compatible data to be used in other external map tools, or a development towards a more integrated, standalone, risk tool.

  • 12.
    Persson, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Svedung, Inge
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet.
    Flood Warning in a Swedish Local Risk Management Context2015Inngår i: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 383-396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explore how local early warning systems (EWS) for floods are established at the municipality level in Sweden. The study also aims to analyse the role of EWSs in a risk management context. The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate how and to what extent the adoption of local EWSs can generate value added benefits throughout the wider risk management process.

    Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with supervisors at each municipality in order to depict how local EWS are established at the municipality level in Sweden. The interviews went through a content analysis with respect to theory on EWS and theory on the risk management process.

    The possible effects from an EWS is not only reduced flood losses but also potential spinoff. The possibility of spinoff effects from the system, but also the mitigating effectiveness in case of a flood is largely dependent on the well-being of the organization and its risk management processes.

    This study widens the understanding of the value of an EWS and that the organizational culture and state of risk management system has influence on the availability of such value. Identifying the potential added value from EWSs is important from a more general disaster risk reduction perspective, as it helps to further motivate implementation of proactive risk management measures. This knowledge can be of help to others who investigate the possibilities of investing in EWSs.

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