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  • 1. Affonso, Igor de Paiva
    et al.
    Karling, Leticia Cucolo
    Takemoto, Ricardo Massato
    Gomes, Luiz Carlos
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Light-induced eye-fluke behavior enhances parasite life cycle2017In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 340-341Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Johan
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Chapman, Ben B.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.;Univ Nottingham, Sch Life Sci, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Nilsson, Anders P.
    Bronmark, Christer
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Individual boldness is linked to protective shell shape in aquatic snails2015In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 4, article id UNSP 20150029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of consistent individual differences in behaviour ('animal personality') has been well documented in recent years. However, how such individual variation in behaviour is maintained over evolutionary time is an ongoing conundrum. A well-studied axis of animal personality is individual variation along a bold-shy continuum, where individuals differ consistently in their propensity to take risks. A predation-risk cost to boldness is often assumed, but also that the reproductive benefits associated with boldness lead to equivalent fitness outcomes between bold and shy individuals over a lifetime. However, an alternative or complementary explanation may be that bold individuals phenotypically compensate for their risky lifestyle to reduce predation costs, for instance by investing in more pronounced morphological defences. Here, we investigate the 'phenotypic compensation' hypothesis, i.e. that bold individuals exhibit more pronounced anti-predator defences than shy individuals, by relating shell shape in the aquatic snail Radix balthica to an index of individual boldness. Our analyses find a strong relationship between risk-taking propensity and shell shape in this species, with bolder individuals exhibiting a more defended shell shape than shy individuals. We suggest that this supports the 'phenotypic compensation' hypothesis and sheds light on a previously poorly studied mechanism to promote the maintenance of personality variation among animals.

  • 3.
    Blake, Chelsea A.
    et al.
    Lund University; Lewis and Clark Community College, USA.
    Andersson, Matilda L.
    Lund University.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Lund University; North Carolina State University, USA.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Conspecific boldness and predator species determine predation-risk consequences of prey personality2018In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 1-7, article id 133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Individual variation in the behavior of prey can influence predation risk in complex ways. We ran individual roach (Rutilus rutilus), a common freshwater fish, through a standard refuge emergence protocol to characterize their boldness, a key animal personality trait. We then paired a bold and a shy roach and exposed the pair to one of two predator species that have contrasting hunting modes to ascertain how personality traits shaped their survival during predator encounters. When a paired bold and shy prey fish interacted with a perch predator (active foraging mode), bold and shy prey were consumed in almost equal numbers. However, pike predators (ambush foraging mode) selectively consumed more shy prey, and prey body size and boldness score both contributed significantly to which prey fish was eaten. Our findings support the idea that multiple predators with different foraging modes, and hence differential selection on prey personality, could contribute to maintaining variation in personality in prey populations. Furthermore, for social species, including shoaling fish, the ultimate consequences of an individual’s personality may depend upon the personality of its nearby conspecifics. Significance statement: Animals of the same species often look similar, but individuals show differences in their behavior that can have important consequences, for instance when these individuals interact with predators. The common roach is a freshwater fish that shows inter-individual variation in its propensity to take risks, a key personality trait often termed boldness. Variation in boldness may affect the outcome when roach interact with predators, i.e., if they get eaten or survive. However, we found the impact of roachs’ personality type depends on what species of predatory fish they face. When we put a shy and a bold roach together with predatory perch, the roachs’ personality did not significantly affect which individual was eaten. But when the predator was a pike, the predators selectively ate more shy roach, and the likelihood an individual would be eaten depended on their body size.

  • 4.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Chapman, Ben B.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Skov, Christian
    Silkeborg university, Denmark.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Bronmark, Christer
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Fixed and Flexible: Coexistence of Obligate and Facultative Migratory Strategies in a Freshwater Fish2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3, p. e90294-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Nicolle, Alice
    Lunds universitet.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Skov, Christian
    Tech Univ Denmark, Natl Inst Aquat Resources DTU Aqua, Sect Freshwater Fisheries Ecol, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Brönmark, C
    Lunds universitet.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Interplay between temperature, fish partial migration and trophic dynamics2011In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 120, p. 1838-1846Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Ammitxbøll, Jeppe
    Lundsuniversitet.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Skov, Christian
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lunds universitet.
    Optimal swimming speed in head currents and effects on distance movement of winter-migrating fish2008In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3, no 5, p. e2156-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Chapman, Ben B
    Lunds universitet.
    Skov, Christian
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lunds universitet.
    Variable individual consistency in timing and destination of winter migrating fish2012In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 8, p. 21-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University.
    Skov, Christian
    DTU-AQUA, Denmark.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Condition-dependent individual decision-making determines cyprinid partial migration2008In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 1195-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial migration is a common phenomenon among many animals and occurs in many types of ecosystems. Understanding the mechanisms behind partial migration is of major importance for the understanding of population dynamics and, eventually, ecosystem processes. We studied the effects of food availability on the seasonal partial migration of cyprinid fish from a lake to connected streams during winter by the use of passive telemetry. Fish with increased access to food were found to migrate in higher proportion, earlier in the season, and to reside in the streams for a longer period compared to fish with decreased access to food. Furthermore, fewer unfed migrants returned to the lake, indicating higher overwinter mortality. Our results suggest that individual fish trade off safety from predation and access to food differently depending on their body condition, which results in a condition-dependent partial migration. Hence, our main conclusion is that individual decision-making is based on assessment of own condition which offers a mechanistic explanation to partial migration. Moreover, this may be of high importance for understanding population responses to environmental variation as well as ecosystem dynamics and stability. Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/07-1318.1

  • 9.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Rodríguez-Gil, Jose Luis
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University .
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Nicolle, Alice
    Lund University.
    Berglund, Olof
    Lund University.
    Temperature and resource availability may interactively affect over-wintering success of juvenile fish in a changing climate2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 10, article id e24022Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Brönmark, C
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hulthén, K
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Lund University.
    Skov, C
    DTU-AQUA.
    Hansson, LA
    Lund University.
    Brodersen, J
    Lund University .
    Chapman, BB
    Lund University .
    There and back again: migration in freshwater fishes2014In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 467-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal migration is an amazing phenomenon that has fascinated humans for long. Many freshwater fishes also show remarkable migrations, whereof the spectacular mass migrations of salmonids from the spawning streams are the most well known and well studied. However, recent studies have shown that migration occurs in a range of freshwater fish taxa from many different habitats. In this review we focus on the causes and consequences of migration in freshwater fishes. We start with an introduction of concepts and categories of migration, and then address the evolutionary causes that drive individuals to make these migratory journeys. The basis for the decision of an individual fish to migrate or stay resident is an evaluation of the costs and benefits of different strategies to maximize its lifetime reproductive effort. We provide examples by discussing our own work on the causes behind seasonal migration in a cyprinid fish, roach (Rutilus rutilus (L., 1758)), within this framework. We then highlight different adaptations that allow fish to migrate over sometimes vast journeys across space, including capacity for orientation, osmoregulation, and efficient energy expenditure. Following this we consider the consequences of migration in freshwater fish from ecological, evolutionary, and conservation perspectives, and finally, we detail some of the recent developments in the methodologies used to collect data on fish migration and how these could be used in future research.

  • 11. Brönmark, Christer
    et al.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    Chapman, Ben B.
    Nicolle, Alice
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Skov, Christian
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Regime shifts in shallow lakes: the importance of seasonal fish migration2010In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 646, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow eutrophic lakes commonly existin two alternative stable states: a clear-water state anda turbid water state. A number of mechanisms,including both abiotic and biotic processes, buffer therespective states against changes, whereas othermechanisms likely drive transitions between states.Our earlier research shows that a large proportion of zooplanktivorous fish populations in shallow lakesundertake seasonal migrations where they leave thelake during winter and migrate back to the lake inspring. Based on our past research, we propose anumber of scenarios of how feedback processesbetween the individual and ecosystem levels mayaffect stability of alternative stable states in shallowlakes when mediated by fish migration. Migrationeffects on shallow lakes result from processes atdifferent scales, from the individual to the ecosystem.Our earlier research has shown that ecosystemproperties, including piscivore abundance and zoo-plankton productivity, affect the individual state of zooplanktivorous fish, such as growth rate or condi-tion. Individual state, in turn, affects the relativeproportion and timing of migrating zooplanktivorousfish. This change, in turn, may stabilize states orcause runaway processes that eventually lead to stateshifts. Consequently, such knowledge of processescoupled to seasonal migration of planktivorous fishshould increase our understanding of shallow lakedynamics.

  • 12.
    Brönmark, Christer
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lakowitz, Thomas
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Ahlgren, Johan
    Lund University.
    Lennartsdotter, Charlotte
    Lund University.
    Hollander, Johan
    Costs of inducible defence along a resource gradient2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 1, article id e30467Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Brönmark, Christer
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Skov, Christian
    DTU-AQUA, Denmark.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University.
    Seasonal migration determined by a trade-off between predator avoidance and growth2008In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3(4), p. e1957-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Chapman, B
    et al.
    Hulthén, K
    Blomqvist, D
    Hansson, L-A
    Nilsson, J-Å
    Brodersen, J
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Skov, C
    Brönmark, C
    To boldly go: Individual differences in boldness influence migratory tendency in a cyprinid fish2011In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 14, p. 871-876Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Chapman, B
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hulthén, K
    Brodersen, J
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Skov, C
    Technical University Denmark DTU, Denmark.
    Hansson, L-A
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, C
    Lund University.
    Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences2012In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 81, p. 456-478Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Chapman, B
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Skov, C
    NTU, Denmark.
    Hulthén, K
    Lund University.
    Brodersen, J
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Hansson, L-A
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, C
    Lund University.
    Partial migration in fishes: definitions, methodologies and taxonomic distribution2012In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 479-499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Chapman, B.B.
    et al.
    Hulthén, K.
    Brönmark, C.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Skov, C.
    Hansson, L-A.
    Brodersen, J.
    Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish2015In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 84, p. 1187-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Chapman, Ben B
    et al.
    Lund university.
    Eriksen, Anders
    Aarhus university.
    Baktoft, Henrik
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Silkeborg, Denmark .
    Brodersen, Jakob
    Centre of Ecology, Evolution and Biochemistry, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland .
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Lund University, Lund,.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Lund University, Lund,.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Lund University, Lund,.
    Grønkjær, Peter
    Aarhus University.
    Skov, Christian
    Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Silkeborg, Denmark .
    A foraging cost of migration for a partially migratory cyprinid fish2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e61223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory behaviour. A key emerging model to explain migration in many systems posits that migration is driven by seasonal changes to a predation/growth potential (p/g) trade-off that a wide range of animals face. In this study we assess a key assumption of this model for a common cyprinid partial migrant, the roach Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had fuller stomachs containing more high quality prey items than migrant fish. Hence, we document a feeding cost to migration in roach, which adds additional support for the validity of the p/g model of migration in freshwater systems.

  • 19.
    de Paiva Affonso, Igor
    et al.
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil; Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Brazil.
    Cucolo Carling, Leticia
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil.
    Massato Takemoto, R
    Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia Ictiologia e Aqüicultura – Nupélia, Brazil.
    Carlos Gomez, Luiz
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil; Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia Ictiologia e Aqüicultura – Nupélia, Brazil.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Light-triggered eye-fluke behavior may enhance parasite life-cycle progression2017In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 340-341Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Degerman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural sciences.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Occurrence and habitat use of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in running waters: lessons for improved monitoring, habitat restoration and stocking2019In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, E-ISSN 1573-5125, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 639-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the management of the Europeaneel (Anguilla anguilla) in freshwater, it isessential to define important lotic habitats. Electrofishingdata from 289 wadeable, hard-bottom sites in 69Swedish coastal rivers and streams, originally surveyedfor salmonid monitoring, were used to evaluatethe effects of sampling- and habitat-related factors oneel occurrence. Probability of eel occurrence, asinfluenced by sampling procedure (sampled area,number of consecutive runs and ambient watertemperature) and habitat characteristics (size ofcatchment, dominating bottom substrate, shade, watervelocity, mean depth), was evaluated for small (totallength B 150 mm) and large ([150 mm) yelloweels. Data were analysed in a mixed presence/absencegeneralized linear model with dispersal (distance tomouth from sampled site), habitat and samplingrelatedvariables as covariates. The two modelsexplained variation in occurrence to 81.5% for smalleel and 76.2% for large eel. Probability of eeloccurrence decreased with distance from the rivermouth, and increased with sampled area, number ofruns, water temperature, coarser substrate and size ofriver. We suggest that future eel habitat restorationshould focus on lower reaches of larger rivers withsuitable coarse bottom habitats. Stocking of young eelshould be carried out in comparable accessible habitatsin the upper reaches where eel densities are low.The results also strongly indicate that eel may besampled together with young salmonids with DCelectrofishing in wadeable habitats.

  • 21.
    Ekstrom, Sara M.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Lund, Sweden..
    Regnell, Olof
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Lund, Sweden..
    Reader, Heather E.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Lund, Sweden..
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Lund, Sweden.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kritzberg, Emma S.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Lund, Sweden..
    Increasing concentrations of iron in surface waters as a consequence of reducing conditions in the catchment area2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 479-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies report trends of strongly increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters. Since Fe is a key element with a decisive role in the biogeochemical cycling of major elements, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind these trends. We hypothesized that variations in Fe concentration are driven mainly by redox dynamics in hydraulically connected soils. Notably, Fe(III), which is the favored oxidation state except in environments where microbial activity provide strong reducing intensity, has several orders of magnitude lower water solubility than Fe(II). To test our hypothesis, seasonal variation in water chemistry, discharge, and air temperature was studied in three Swedish rivers. Methylmercury and sulfate were used as indicators of seasonal redox changes. Seasonal variability in water chemistry, discharge, and air temperature in the Eman and Lyckeby Rivers implied that the variation in Fe was primarily driven by the prevalence of reducing conditions in the catchment. In general, high Fe concentrations were observed when methylmercury was high and sulfate was low, indicative of reducing conditions. The Fe concentrations showed no or weak relationships with variations in dissolved organic matter concentration and aromaticity. The seasonal variation in Fe concentration of the Ume river was primarily dependent on timing of the snowmelt in high- versus low-altitude areas of the catchment. There were long-term trends of increasing temperature in all catchments and also trends of increasing discharge in the southern rivers, which should increase the probability for anaerobic conditions in space and time and thereby increase Fe transport to the aquatic systems.

  • 22.
    Ekström, S
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Kritzberg, E
    Lunds universitet.
    Berggren Kleja, D
    Uppsala universitet.
    Larsson, N
    Lunds universitet.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Granéli, W
    Lunds universitet.
    Bergkvist, B
    Lunds universitet.
    The effect of acid deposition on quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter in soil-water2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 4733-4739Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ekström, Sara M.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sandahl, Margareta
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Lund University.
    Kleja, Dan B.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kritzberg, Emma S.
    Lund University.
    Reactivity of dissolved organic matter in response to acid deposition2016In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 78, no 3, p. 463-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluvial export of organic matter from the terrestrial catchment to the aquatic system is a large and increasing carbon flux. The successful reduction in sulfuric acid deposition since the 1980s has been shown to enhance the mobility of organic matter in the soil, with more terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) reaching aquatic systems. Changes in soil acidity also affect the quality of the DOM. In this study we explore the consequences this may have on the reactivity and turnover of the terrestrially derived DOM as it reaches the aquatic system. DOM of different quality (estimated by absorbance, fluorescence and size exclusion chromatography) was produced through extraction of boreal forest O-horizon soils from podzol at two sulfuric acid concentrations corresponding to natural throughfall in spruce forest in Southern Sweden around 1980 and today. Extraction was done using two different methods, i.e. field leaching and laboratory extraction. The DOM extracts were used to assess if differences in acidity generate DOM of different reactivity. Three reactivity experiments were performed: photodegradation by UV exposure, biodegradation by bacteria, and biodegradation after UV exposure. Reactivity was assessed by measuring loss of dissolved organic carbon and absorbance, change in fluorescence and molecular weight, and bacterial production. DOM extracted at lower sulfuric acid concentration was more susceptible to photooxidation, and less susceptible to bacterial degradation, than DOM extracted at a higher sulfuric acid concentration. Thus the relative importance of these two turnover processes may be altered with changes in acid deposition.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Brown trout habitat choice: relative importance of woody debris and river morphology in nature-like fishwaysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Hansen, Joan H.
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Skov, Christian
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Baktoft, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Chapman, Ben B.
    University of Manchester.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    EAWAG Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, University of Bern.
    Ecological consequences of animal migration: Prey partial migration affects predator ecology and prey communities2019In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of animal migration and the ecological forces that shape them have been studied for centuries. Yet ecological impacts caused by the migration, such as altered predator–prey interactions and effects on community structure, remain poorly understood. This is to a large extent due to the scarcity of naturally replicated migration systems with negative controls, that is, ecosystems without migration. In this study, we tested whether partial migration of certain species within the overall prey community affects foraging ecology of top predators and thereby alters energy pathways in food webs. We carried out the study in independent replicated freshwater lake systems, four with and four without opportunity for prey migration. Specifically, we compared predator foraging mode in lakes where cyprinid prey fish perform seasonal partial migrations into connected streams with lakes lacking migratory opportunities for prey fish. We found clear seasonal bottom-up effects of prey migration on predators, including changes in size structure and total biomass of ingested prey, size-specific changes in littoral versus pelagic origin of diet, and a higher degree of feast-and-famine for predators in systems with migratory prey. Our analyses further showed that partially migratory prey species constitute a larger part of the prey community in systems that allow migration. Hence, prey migrations have important implications for predator foraging ecology and may cause seasonal shifts in the importance of their supporting energy pathways. We suggest that such bottom-up effects of partial migration may be a widespread phenomenon both in aquatic and in terrestrial ecosystems. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

  • 26. Hansson, L-A
    et al.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    Chapman, Ben
    Ekvall, M
    Hargeby, A
    Hulthén, K
    Nicolle, A
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Skov, C
    Brönmark, C
    A lake as a microcosm: Reflections on developments in aquatic ecology2013In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, E-ISSN 1573-5125, Vol. 47, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we aim at relating Forbes' remarkable paper on "The lake as a microcosm", published 125 years ago, to the present status of knowledge in our own research group. Hence, we relate the observations Forbes made to our own microcosm, Lake Krankesjon in southern Sweden, that has been intensively studied by several research groups for more than three decades. Specifically, we focus on the question: Have we made any significant progress or did Forbes and colleagues blaze the trail through the unknown wilderness and we are mainly paving that intellectual road? We conclude that lakes are more isolated than many other biomes, but have, indeed, many extensions, for example, input from the catchment, fishing and fish migration. We also conclude that irrespective of whether lakes should be viewed as microcosms or not, the paper by Forbes has been exceptionally influential and still is, especially since it touches upon almost all aspects of the lake ecosystem, from individual behaviour to food web interactions and environmental issues. Therefore, there is no doubt that even if 125 years have passed, Forbes' paper still is a source of inspiration and deserves to be read. Hence, although aquatic ecology has made considerable progress over the latest century, Forbes might be viewed as one of the major pioneers and visionary scientists of limnology.

  • 27.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Nicolle, Alice
    Lunds Universitet.
    Granéli, Wilhelm
    Lunds Universitet.
    Hallgren, Per
    Lunds Universitet.
    Kritzberg, Emma
    Lunds Universitet.
    Persson, Anders
    Lunds Universitet.
    Björk, Jessica
    Lunds Universitet.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lunds Universitet.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lunds Universitet.
    Food-chain length alters community responses to global change in aquatic systems2013In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 3, p. 228-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synergies between large-scale environmental changes, such as climate change1 and increased humic content (brownification)2, will have a considerable impact on future aquatic ecosystems. On the basis of modelling, monitoring and experimental data, we demonstrate that community responses to global change are determined by food-chain length and that the top trophic level, and every second level below, will benefit from climate change, whereas the levels in between will suffer. Hence, phytoplankton, and thereby algal blooms, will benefit from climate change in three-, but not in two-trophic-level systems. Moreover, we show that both phytoplankton (resource) and zooplankton (consumer) advance their spring peak abundances similarly in response to a 3 °C temperature increase; that is, there is no support for a consumer/resource mismatch in a future climate scenario. However, in contrast to other taxa, cyanobacteria—known as toxin-producing nuisance phytoplankton3—benefit from a higher temperature and humic content irrespective of the food-chain composition. Our results are mirrored in natural ecosystems. By mechanistically merging present food-chain theory with large-scale environmental and climate changes, we provide a powerful framework for predicting and understanding future aquatic ecosystems and their provision of ecosystem services and water resources.

  • 28.
    Hedgespeth, Melanie L.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Lund University.
    Berglund, Olof
    Lund university.
    Ecological implications of altered fish foraging after exposure to an antidepressant pharmaceutical2014In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 151, p. 84-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hedgespeth, Melanie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Berglund, Olof
    Lund University.
    Assessing potential vulnerability and response of fish to simulated avian predation after exposure to psychotropic pharmaceuticals2016In: Toxics, ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 4, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychotropic pharmaceuticals present in the environment may impact organisms both directly and via interaction strengths with other organisms, including predators; therefore, this study examined the potential effects of pharmaceuticals on behavioral responses of fish to avian predators. Wild-caught juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis) were assayed using a striking bird model after a seven-day exposure to psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the antidepressants fluoxetine or sertraline, or the -blocker propranolol) under the hypotheses that exposure would increase vulnerability to avian predation via increasing the probability of predator encounter as well as degrading evasive behaviors upon encounter. None of the substances significantly affected swimming activity of the fish, nor did they increase vulnerability by affecting encounter probability or evasive endpoints compared to control treatments. Counter to our expectations, fish exposed to 100 g/L fluoxetine (but no other concentrations or pharmaceuticals) were less likely to enter the open area of the arena, i.e., less likely to engage in risky behavior that could lead to predator encounters. Additionally, all fish exposed to environmentally relevant, low concentrations of sertraline (0.12 g/L) and propranolol (0.1 g/L) sought refuge after the simulated attack. Our unexpected results warrant further research as they have interesting implications on how these psychotropic pharmaceuticals may affect predator-prey interactions spanning the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  • 30.
    Hulthen, K.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Chapman, B. B.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Lund University.
    Hansson, L. -A
    Lund University.
    Skov, C.
    Danmark.
    Baktoft, H.
    Danmark.
    Brodersen, J.
    Switzerland.
    Bronmark, C.
    Lund University.
    Sex identification and PIT-tagging: tools and prospects for studying intersexual differences in freshwater fishes2014In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 84, no 2, p. 503-512Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Hulthen, Kaj
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Chapman, Ben B.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hollander, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bronmark, Christer
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Express yourself: bold individuals induce enhanced morphological defences2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1776, p. 20132703-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisms display an impressive array of defence strategies in nature. Inducible defences (changes in morphology and/or behaviour within a prey's lifetime) allow prey to decrease vulnerability to predators and avoid unnecessary costs of expression. Many studies report considerable interindividual variation in the degree to which inducible defences are expressed, yet what underlies this variation is poorly understood. Here, we show that individuals differing in a key personality trait also differ in the magnitude of morphological defence expression. Crucian carp showing risky behaviours (bold individuals) expressed a significantly greater morphological defence response when exposed to a natural enemy when compared with shy individuals. Furthermore, we show that fish of different personality types differ in their behavioural plasticity, with shy fish exhibiting greater absolute plasticity than bold fish. Our data suggest that individuals with bold personalities may be able to compensate for their risk-prone behavioural type by expressing enhanced morphological defences.

  • 32. Hulthén, K.
    et al.
    Chapman, B.B.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Vinterstare, J.
    Hansson, L-A.
    Skov, C.
    Brodersen, J.
    Baktoft, H.
    Brönmark, C.
    Escaping peril: perceived predation risk affects migratory propensity2015In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, article id 20150466Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Chapman, Ben
    University of Manchester.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lunds universitet.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Skov, Christian
    Technical University of Denmark (DTU).
    Brodersen, Jakob
    EAWAG Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology.
    Vimterstare, Jerker
    Lunds universitet.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lunds universitet.
    A predation cost to bold fish in the wild2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 1239Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Hylander, S
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Jephson, T
    Lunds universitet.
    Lebret, K
    Lunds universitet.
    von Einem, J
    Lunds universitet.
    Fagerberg, T
    Lunds universitet.
    Balseiro, E
    Modenutti, B
    Souza, MS
    Laspoumaderes, C
    Jönsson, M
    Lunds universitet.
    Ljungberg, P
    Lunds universitet.
    Nicolle, A
    Lunds universitet.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Ranåker, L
    Lunds universitet.
    Hansson, L-A
    Lunds universitet.
    Climate-induced input of turbid glacial meltwater affects vertical distribution and community composition of phyto- and zooplankton2011In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 33, p. 1239-1248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Jacobsen, L
    et al.
    DTU-AQUA.
    Berg, S
    DTU-AQUA.
    Baktoft, H
    DTU-AQUA.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Lunds Universitet.
    Skov, C
    DTU-AQUA.
    The effect of turbidity and prey fish density on consumption rates of piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatili2014In: Journal of limnology, ISSN 1129-5767, E-ISSN 1723-8633, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 187-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predator-prey interaction strengths in variable environments constitute a fundamental link to the understanding of aquatic ecosystem responses to environmental change. The present study investigates the effects of visibility conditions and prey fish density on predation rates of visually oriented piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L. This was done in outdoor mesocosm (16 m2) experiments with clear water and two levels of turbidity (25 and 105 NTU) and two prey fish densities [3.1 and 12.5 roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) individuals m–2]. Perch consumption rates were affected by visibility less than expected, while they were highly affected by increased prey fish density. Perch responded to high prey density in all visibility conditions, indicating that prey density is more crucial for consumption than visibility in turbid lakes.

  • 36.
    Jönsson, M
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Skov, C
    Lund University.
    Koed, A
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Temporal clumping of prey and coexistence of unequal interferers: experiments on social forager groups of brown trout feeding on invertebrate drift2008In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 117, p. 1782-1787Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Jönsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Lund university.
    Hylander, S
    Lund university.
    Ranåker, L
    Lund university.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, C
    Lund university.
    Foraging success of juvenile pike Esox lucius depends on visual conditions and prey pigmentation2011In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 79, p. 290-297Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Jönsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Ranåker, Lynn
    Lunds universitet.
    Nicolle, Alice
    Lunds universitet.
    Ljungberg, Peter
    Fagerberg, Tony
    Lunds universitet.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Lunds universitet.
    Jephson, Therese
    Lunds universitet.
    Lebret, Karen
    Lunds universitet.
    von Einem, Jessica
    Lunds universitet.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Balseiro, Esteban
    Modenutti, Beatriz
    Glacial clay affects foraging performance in a Patagonian fish and cladoceran2011In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 663, no 1, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Jönsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ranåker, Lynn
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Foraging efficiency and prey selectivity in a visual predator: differential effects of turbid and humic water2013In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 70, no 12, p. 1685-1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predators exert strong regulating forces on lower trophic levels through predation. As most fish are visual foragers, visual conditions in the water may alter the strength of this regulation. We evaluated effects of turbidity and humic water on foraging efficiency and prey-size selectivity in Northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on roach (Rutilus rutilus). Encounter rates decreased in both turbid and humic water but were not counteracted by increased searching activity. Capture success was unaffected by turbidity but was nonlinearly affected by humic water by being high in clear and highly humic water but low in less humic water. In highly humic water, the visual range approached pike's strike distance and, together with its cryptic colours, pike may have initiated its attack before the prey detected it, limiting the possibility for prey evasive manoeuvres. Prey-size selectivity towards small prey in clear water disappeared in turbid water but was maintained in humic water. Owing to its optical properties, turbidity degrades the quality of the visual information more through scattering than humic water does through absorption. We show that the effect of visual degradation on foraging depends on the cause of visual degradation, which has not previously been acknowledged in the visual foraging literature.

  • 40.
    Jönsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ranåker, Lynn
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Prey-type-dependent foraging of young-of-the-year fish in turbid and humic environments2012In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 21, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Lee, Marcus
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Huan
    Lund University, Sweden ; Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Sha, Yongcui
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hegg, Alexander
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ugge, Gustaf Ekelund
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vinterstare, Jerker
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Skerlep, Martin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Parssinen, Varpu
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Herzog, Simon David
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bjorneras, Caroline
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gollnisch, Raphael
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emma
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hu, Nan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University, Sweden.
    Hulthen, Kaj
    Lund University, Sweden ; North Carolina State University, USA.
    Rengefors, Karin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Langerhans, R. Brian
    North Carolina State University, USA ; North Carolina State University, USA.
    Bronmark, Christer
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Low-latitude zooplankton pigmentation plasticity in response to multiple threats2019In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, no 7, p. 1-10, article id 190321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crustacean copepods in high-latitude lakes frequently alter their pigmentation facultatively to defend themselves against prevailing threats, such as solar ultraviolet radiation ( UVR) and visually oriented predators. Strong seasonality in those environments promotes phenotypic plasticity. To date, no one has investigated whether low-latitude copepods, experiencing continuous stress from UVR and predation threats, exhibit similar inducible defences. We here investigated the pigmentation levels of Bahamian 'blue hole' copepods, addressing this deficit. Examining several populations varying in predation risk, we found the lowest levels of pigmentation in the population experiencing the highest predation pressure. In a laboratory experiment, we found that, in contrast with our predictions, copepods from these relatively constant environments did show some changes in pigmentation subsequent to the removal of UVR; however, exposure to water from different predation regimes induced minor and idiosyncratic pigmentation change. Our findings suggest that low-latitude zooplankton in inland environments may exhibit reduced, but non-zero, levels of phenotypic plasticity compared with their high-latitude counterparts.

  • 42.
    Lindegren, Martin
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Vigliano, Pablo
    Univ Nacl Comahue, Argentina.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Alien invasions and the game of hide and seek in patagonia2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 10, article id e44350Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Lindegren, Martin
    et al.
    University of California.
    Waldo, Staffan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Lund University.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Anders
    Lunds universitet.
    Towards sustainable fisheries of the Öresund cod (Gadus morhua) through sub-stock-specific assessment and management recommendations,2013In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 1140-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management traditionally relies on stock assessments assuming discrete populations within large administrational areas. However, failing to account for sub-stock structuring may result in overestimation of the stocks' true harvest potential and unsustainable exploitation of small stock elements. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) frequently occurs in spatially segregated populations, some of which exhibit fine-scaled stock structuring within current management boundaries. Here we use the locally spawning cod stock in the Sound ("Oresund") as a case study, and perform a sub-stock-specific assessment to evaluate biological and economic effects of managing the Sound cod as a separate stock. Our results indicate that reducing exploitation pressure, particularly through technical regulations i. e. increasing gill-net mesh sizes, would not only enhance the stock age distribution, but yield long-term net benefits to the local gill-net fishery. Furthermore, our study emphasizes the need for developing sub-stock-specific management recommendations in order to ensure the maintenance of fisheries resources in general, and the persistence of sub-stock structuring in particular.

  • 44.
    Ljungberg, P
    et al.
    Lund university.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Persson, A
    Prey selectivity by juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in three coastal habitat types2012In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 466, p. 215-223Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Ljungberg, Peter
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Berg Hasper, Thomas
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Persson, Anders
    Lund University.
    Effects of small-scale habitat fragmentation on predator-prey interactions in a temperate seagrass system2013In: Marine Biology, ISSN 0025-3162, E-ISSN 1432-1793, Vol. 160, no 3, p. 667-675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, fragmentation has become an important issue in ecological research. Habitat fragmentation operates on spatial scales ranging over several magnitudes from patches to landscapes. We focus on small-scale fragmentation effects relevant to animal foraging decision making that could ultimately generate distribution patterns. In a controlled experimental environment, we tested small-scale fragmentation effects in artificial sea grass on the feeding behaviour of juvenile cod (Gadus morhua). Moreover, we examined the influence of fragmentation on the distribution of one of the juvenile cod’s main prey resources, the grass shrimp (Palaemon elegans), in association with three levels of risk provided by cod (no cod, cod chemical cues and actively foraging cod). Time spent by cod within sea grass was lower in fragmented landscapes, but total shrimp consumption was not affected. Shrimp utilised vegetation to a greater extent in fragmented treatments in combination with active predation. We suggest that shrimp choose between sand and vegetation habitats to minimize risk of predation according to cod habitat-specific foraging capacities, while cod aim to maximize prey-dependent foraging rates, generating a habitat-choice game between predator and prey. Moreover, aggregating behaviour in grass shrimp was only found in treatments with active predation. Hence, we argue that both aggregation and vegetation use are anti-predator defence strategies applied by shrimp. We therefore stress the importance of considering small-scale behavioural mechanisms when evaluating consequences from habitat fragmentation on trophic processes in coastal environments.

  • 46.
    Nicolle, Alice
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University.
    Brodersen, Jakob
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Interactions between predation and resources shape zooplankton population dynamics2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 1, article id e16534Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Roach partial migration: predation, personality and propensity2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration may confer benefits, such as foraging opportunity and predator avoidance, but partial migration, i.e. that not the whole population migrates, can be expected if benefits differ between individual phenotypes. We here show that seasonal migration from lakes to connected streams in the freshwater fish roach is strongly affected by risk of cormorant predation. We show that the duration away from the lake, as well as roach individual body size, influence the probability of being predated by cormorants. We also present novel field data showing that cormorant predation acts as a selective pressure against individuals with bold personality, providing a mechanism behind the evolution and maintenance of behavioural phenotypic diversity along the bold-shy continuum. Accordingly, we argue that bold individuals have a higher migratory propensity to avoid cormorants, and that cormorant predation on bold individuals may shift animal-personality composition of roach populations, with consequences for selective processes and lake system composition and function.

  • 48. Nilsson, E
    et al.
    Persson, A
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Interspecific competition and predation: relative effects on foragers and their densities2010In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 64, p. 729-736Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Baktoft, H
    Lund University.
    Boel, M
    Lund University.
    Meier, K
    Lund University.
    Jacobsen, L
    Lund University.
    Rokkjær, EM
    Lund University.
    Clausen, T
    Lund University.
    Skov, C
    Lund University.
    Visibility conditions and diel period affect small-scale spatio-temporal behaviour of pike Esox lucius L. in the absence of prey and conspecifics2012In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 80, no 6, p. 2384-2389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jacobsen, L
    Berg, S
    Skov, C
    Environmental conditions and intraspecific interference: unexpected effects of turbidity on pike (Esox lucius) foraging2009In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 115, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 85
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