Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
12 1 - 50 av 56
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • apa.csl
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Amin, Khabat
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013). Swedish Transport Agency, Department of Roads and Railways, Sweden.
    Skyving, Marie
    Swedish Transport Agency, Department of Roads and Railways, Sweden.
    Bonander, Carl
    Gothenburg University.
    Krafft, Maria
    Swedish Transport Administration; Umeå University.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Fall- and collision-related injuries among pedestrians in road traffic environment: A Swedish national register-based study2022Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 81, s. 153-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the burden of pedestrian injuries, including pedestrian fall injuries (PFI), compared to other transport-related injuries in Sweden and document their characteristics in terms of demographics, causes, type of injuries, and severity level with a focus on long-term consequences. Methods: Data were retrieved from the national Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition register. A total of 361,531 fatalities and injuries were reported by emergency hospitals during 2010–2019, of which 127,804 were pedestrians (35%). We assessed the magnitude of PFIs and conducted comparative analyses to assess differences compared to other types of road users regarding sex, age, severity level, injury circumstances, hospital care, causes of accidents, and type of injuries. Results: Pedestrians were the second largest group of traffic-related deaths in Sweden after car occupants and accounted for just over a quarter of all fatal accidents in the road traffic environment. Of the total number of pedestrian fatalities, three out of four have been in collision accidents and the others in fall-related accidents. In terms of injuries, pedestrians were the largest group among all road users, regardless of the type of accident. PFIs accounted for a third of all injuries in the road traffic environment and nearly half of all injuries resulting in permanent medical impairment (i.e., 2.2 times more long-term consequences among PFIs compared to injured car occupants). Females (particularly middle-aged and older) and older adults were overrepresented, and most PFIs occurred on urban and municipal roads. The causes were often related to maintenance (e.g., slippery surfaces such as ice, snow, leaves or gravel together with uneven pavements and roads are the cause three out of four of PFIs). Among collision injuries, the representation was almost equal for sex and age. Conclusions: Injuries and fatalities among pedestrians are a considerable issue in the road traffic environment in Sweden. Contrary to other traffic groups, the incidence has not decreased over time, meaning that this issue must be met with specific measures and address the specific risk factors they are associated with. Practical Application: Including fall accidents in the definition of traffic accidents increases the chances of getting better information about the accidents and taking preventive measures.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Assessing the effects of societal injury control interventions2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Injuries have emerged as one of the biggest public health issues of the 21th century. Yet, the causal effects of injury control strategies are often questioned due to a lack of randomized experiments. In this thesis, a set of quasi-experimental methods are applied and discussed in the light of causal inference theory and the type of data commonly available in injury surveillance systems. I begin by defining the interrupted time series design as a special case of the regression-discontinuity design, and the method is applied to two empirical cases. The first is a ban on the sale and production of non-reduced ignition propensity (RIP) cigarettes, and the second is a tightening of the licensing rules for mopeds. A two-way fixed effects model is then applied to a case with time-varying starting dates, attempting to identify the causal effects of municipality-provided home help services for the elderly. Lastly, the effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law is evaluated using the comparative interrupted time series and synthetic control methods. The results from the empirical studies suggest that the stricter licensing rules and the bicycle helmet law were effective in reducing injury rates, while the home help services and RIP cigarette interventions have had limited or no impact on safety as measured by fatalities and hospital admissions. I conclude that identification of the impact of injury control interventions is possible using low cost means. However, the ability to infer causality varies greatly by empirical case and method, which highlights the important role of causal inference theory in applied intervention research. While existing methods can be used with data from injury surveillance systems, additional improvements and development of new estimators specifically tailored for injury data will likely further enhance the ability to draw causal conclusions in natural settings. Implications for future research and recommendations for practice are also discussed.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
    Ladda ner (jpg)
    preview image
    Ladda ner (mp3)
    Podcast_Bonander
  • 3.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Compared with what?: Estimating the effects of injury prevention policies using the synthetic control method2018Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, s. I60-I66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction This paper discusses the application of the synthetic control method to injury-related interventions using aggregate data from public information systems. The method selects and determines the optimal control unit in the data by minimising the difference between the pre-intervention outcomes in one treated unit (eg, a state) and a weighted combination of potential control units. Method I demonstrate the synthetic control method by an application to Florida's post-2010 policy and law enforcement initiatives aimed at bringing down opioid overdose deaths. Using opioid-related mortality data for a panel of 46 states observed from 1999 to 2015, the analysis suggests that a weighted combination of Maine (46.1%), Pennsylvania (34.4%), Nevada (5.4%), Washington (5.3%), West Virginia (4.3%) and Oklahoma (3.4%) best predicts the preintervention trajectory of opioid-related deaths in Florida between 1999 and 2009. Model specification and placebo tests, as well as an iterative leave-k-out sensitivity analysis are used as falsification tests. Results The results indicate that the policies have decreased the incidence of opioid-related deaths in Florida by roughly 40% (or -6.19 deaths per 100.000 person-years) by 2015 compared with the evolution projected by the synthetic control unit. Sensitivity analyses yield an average estimate of -4.55 deaths per 100.000 person-years (2.5th percentile: -1.24, 97.5th percentile: -7.92). The estimated cumulative effect in terms of deaths prevented in the postperiod is 3705 (2.5th percentile: 1302, 97.5th percentile: 6412). Discussion Recommendations for practice, future research and potential pitfalls, especially concerning low-count data, are discussed. Replication codes for Stata are provided.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Data-Driven Incidence Difference-In-Differences Estimators For Causal Inference With Aggregate Counts And Rates2018Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, s. A173-A173, artikel-id PW 1200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Searching for causal effects of road traffic safety interventions: applications of the interrupted time series design2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic-related injuries represent a global public health problem, and contribute largely to mortality and years lived with disability worldwide. Over the course of the last decades, improvements to road traffic safety and injury surveillance systems have resulted in a shift in focus from the prevention of motor vehicle accidents to the control of injury events involving vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as cyclists and moped riders. There have been calls for improvements to the evaluation of safety interventions due to methodological problems associated with the most commonly used study designs. The purpose of this licentiate thesis was to assess the strengths and limitations of the interrupted time series (ITS) design, which has gained some attention for its ability to provide valid effect estimates. Two national road safety interventions involving VRUs were selected as cases: the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children under the age 15, and the tightening of licensing rules for Class 1 mopeds. The empirical results suggest that both interventions were effective in improving the safety of VRUs. Unless other concurrent events affect the treatment population at the exact time of intervention, the effect estimates should be internally valid. One of the main limitations of the study design is the inability to identify why the interventions were successful, especially if they are complex and multifaceted. A lack of reliable exposure data can also pose a further threat to studies of interventions involving VRUs if the intervention can affect the exposure itself. It may also be difficult to generalize the exact effect estimates to other regions and populations. Future studies should consider the use of the ITS design to enhance the internal validity of before-after measurements.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
    Ladda ner (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 6.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    The effect of stricter licensing on road traffic injury events involving 15 to 17-year-old moped drivers in Sweden: a time series intervention study2015Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 83, s. 154-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the effect of the introduction of the AM driving license on non-fatal moped-related injuries in Sweden. With the introduction of the new license category in October 2009, prospective moped drivers are now required to pass a mandatory theory test following a practical and theoretical course. In addition, obtaining a license to operate a moped is now considerably more costly.

    METHODS:Time series intervention analysis on monthly aggregated injury data (1st Jan 2007-31st Dec 2013) was performed using generalized additive models for location, shape and scale (GAMLSS) to quantify the effect size on injury events involving teenage (15-17 years) moped drivers, while controlling for trend and seasonality. Exposure was adjusted for by using the number of registered mopeds in traffic as a proxy.

    RESULTS:The introduction of AM license was associated with a 41% reduction in the rate of injury events involving 15-year-old moped drivers (IRR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.48-0.72]), and a 39% and 36% decrease in those involving 16-year-old (IRR 0.61 [95% CI: 0.48-0.79]) and 17-year-old drivers (IRR 0.64 [95% CI: 0.46-0.90]), respectively. The effect in the 15-year-old stratum was decreased roughly by half after adjusting for exposure, but remained significant, and the corresponding estimates in the other age groups did not change noticeably.

    CONCLUSIONS:This study provides quasi-experimental evidence of an effect on non-fatal moped-related injuries as a result of stricter licensing rules. Only part of the effect could be explained by a reduction in the number of mopeds in traffic, indicating that other mechanisms must be studied to fully understand the cause of the reduction in injuries.

  • 7.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Injury risks in schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity or autismspectrumdisorder: Results from two school-based health surveys of 6- to 17-year-old children in Sweden2016Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 58, s. 49-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Sweden and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been associated with an increased risk of injury in pediatric populations elsewhere in the world. Current evidence regarding the possible link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and injury risk appears limited, even though some potentially risk-increasing symptoms overlap. The purpose of this study was thus to study the association between both ADHD and ASD concerning the risk of injury among Swedish schoolchildren. Methods: Two samples were used: a population based register study containing data from 18,416 children ranging from the ages of 6-17 years collected by school nurses during 2012/2014 (Survey A), and a national cross-sectional study of 3202 ninth-grade children (similar to 15 years old) collected from 92 schools in 2011 (Survey B). The data were analyzed using chi(2)-tests and log binomial generalized linear models to obtain risk ratios (RR), comparing cases reportedly affected by ADHD or ASD to unaffected controls. Results: After adjusting for confounders, ADHD was associated with a 65% increased risk of injury (RR 1.65 [95% CI: 132-2.05] in Survey A, and a 57% increased risk of injury (RR 1.57 [95% CI: 1.27-1.95]) in Survey B. ASD was not significantly associated with any differences in injury risk (RR 0.81 [95% CI: 0.57-1.14]). Conclusions: The results indicate that there is an elevated injury risk among Swedish schoolchildren with ADHD but not for children with ASD. Future studies should focus on causal mechanisms mediating the association between ADHD and injuries in order to facilitate injury prevention strategies. Practical applications: Parents and teachers of schoolchildren with ADHD should be made aware of the elevated injury risks associated with the diagnosis. Safety experts and injury control professionals should consider the development of specialized prevention strategies in order to reduce these risks.

  • 8.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekman, Mats
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Vaccination nudges: A study of pre-booked COVID-19 vaccinations in Sweden2022Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 309, s. 1-11, artikel-id 115248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A nudge changes people’s actions without removing their options or altering their incentives. During the COVID-19 vaccine rollout, the Swedish Region of Uppsala sent letters with pre-booked appointments to inhabitants aged16–17 instead of opening up manual appointment booking. Using regional and municipal vaccination data, wedocument a higher vaccine uptake among 16- to 17-year-olds in Uppsala compared to untreated control regions(constructed using the synthetic control method as well as neighboring municipalities). The results highlight pre-booked appointments as a strategy for increasing vaccination rates in populations with low perceived risk.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekman, Mats
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    When do default nudges work?2023Ingår i: Oxford Open Economics, E-ISSN 2752-5074, Vol. 2, artikel-id odad094Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nudging is a burgeoning topic in science and in policy, but evidence on the effectiveness of nudges among differentially incentivized groups is lacking. This paper exploits regional variations in the rollout of the Covid-19 vaccine in Sweden to examine the effect of a nudge on groups whose intrinsic incentives are different: 16- to 17-year-olds, for whom Covid-19 is not dangerous, and 50- to 59-year-olds, who face a substantial risk of death or severe disease. We find a significantly stronger response in the younger group compared with the older (11.7 vs 3.6 percentage point increase in our study period), consistent with the theory that nudges are more effective for choices that are not meaningful to the individual.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Evidensbaserade åtgärder för cyklisters säkerhet: kunskapsöversikt2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att cykla förespråkas ofta av hälso-, miljö- och framkomlighetsskäl, men är samtidigt ett av de farligare transportmedlen utifrån ett skadeperspektiv. För att cyklismen ska kunna utvecklas hållbart krävs därmed även att fokus läggs på säkerhetsaspekten vid policybeslut som syftar till att öka cyklandet. Syftet med denna rapport är att återge en samlad bild av det vetenskapliga kunskapsläget när det gäller säkerhetsfrämjande åtgärder för cyklister.

    Cykelhjälmar är ett välbeforskat ämne inom detta område och evidensen pekar relativt entydigt att hjälmar ger ett bra skydd mot huvud- och hjärnskador. Vissa studier har även uppmätt en skyddande effekt mot ansiktsskador, men detta har på senare tid delvis ifrågasatts. En ytterligare aspekt som har belysts är om dagens mjukare cykelhjälmar ger ett lika bra skydd som hjälmar med hårdare skal, som var vanligare förr. Denna hypotes har hittills varken kunnat styrkas eller förkastas, bl a till följd av att man inte registrerar hjälmtyp inom sjukvården. Cykelhjälmslagstiftning är ett annat kontroversiellt ämne där det har hävdats att hjälmlagarna som infördes i Australien och Nya Zeeland på 1990-talet avskräckte människor från att cykla, med åtföljande negativ effekt på folkhälsan till flöjd av minskad motion. Ingen stark evidens för denna hypotes har hittats, och det verkar för övrigt som att cykelhjälmslagar har haft en reducerande effekt på antalet cykelrelaterade huvudskador i de länder som har lyckats implementera dem på ett sätt som faktiskt ökar hjälmanvändningen i populationen. Effekten förefaller dock kulturellt betingad, och skillnader i bötesavgift eller risken att bli bötfälld är troligtvis av stor betydelse. Utbildning och ekonomiska styrmedel kan fungera som alternativ till lagstiftning, men evidensen för att utbildning verkligen ökar hjälmanvändningen är svag. Gällande ekonomiska styrmedel pekar evidensen mot att gratis hjälmutdelning är det som fungerar bäst. Större satsningar på samhällsnivå verkar fungera bättre än hjälmprogram som inriktar sig på skolor.

    När det gäller åtgärder för trafikmiljön är evidensen inte helt entydig, men det verkar som att fysiskt separerade cykelbanor är att föredra framför cykelfält (ett fält för cyklister på vägen, avgränsas med en spärrlinje). Fysiskt separerade cykelbanor kan dock vara mer problematiska i väjningsreglerade korsningar, vilket kan bero på att bilister inte uppmärksammar cyklister på samma sätt som när ett cykelfält finns anlagt på sidan av vägbanan. Detta ökar behovet av säkra cykelöverfarter och när det gäller sådana förefaller förhöjda cykelöverfarter fungera bättre än färgmarkerade överfarter. Olycksrisken på kombinerade gång- och cykelvägar bör inte förväxlas med olycksrisken på cykelspecifika banor, och ytterligare forskning behövs för att avgöra effekten av kombinerade banor. Rondeller verkar vara problematiska för cyklister om det inte finns en fysiskt separerad cykelbana i anslutning till dem. Övriga åtgärder som har uppvisat en positiv effekt är belysning på landsbygdsvägar, refuger i bostadsområden och dynamiska hastighetsskyltar i skolzoner.

    Intressant nog ser det ut att finnas få studier som har försökt mäta effekten av synbarhetsökande medel (t.ex. reflexer) med tillförlitliga utvärderingsmått (skaderisk eller olycksrisk). Att montera varselljus på cykeln som går igång automatiskt och inte kan kontrolleras av cyklisten verkar dock minska risken för kollisionsolyckor under dagtid.

    Även allmän cykelsäkerhetsutbildning i skolar har undersökts. Av de få studier som använt tillförlitliga utvärderingsmått har ingen kunnat uppvisa en positiv effekt. Fler studier behövs för att bedöma effekten av sådana åtgärder innan utbildning kan rekommenderas med starkt vetenskapligt stöd.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Säker cykling: Vägledning för systematiskt cykelsäkerhetsarbete i lokalsamhället2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Cyklismen får en allt viktigare roll i det hållbara transportsystemet. Att cykla förespråkas av hälso-, miljö- och framkomlighetsskäl, men är samtidigt ett av de farligaste färdsätten utifrån ett personskadeperspektiv. Lokala strävanden mot ökat cyklande måste ta säkerhetsaspekten i beaktande om dessa satsningar ska bli lyckade. Enligt målet för trafiksäkerhet i regeringens proposition "Mål för framtida transporter" (prop.2008/09:93) ska antalet döda halveras och allvarligt skadade i trafiken minskas 25 procent fram till år 2020. För att kunna uppnå detta behövs satsningar både nationellt som lokalt. På nationell nivå finns möjlighet att arbeta med övergripande och generaliserbara trafiksäkerhetsproblem, medan det på lokal nivå finns unika möjligheter att identifiera och åtgärda olycksdrabbade platser.

    I SKL:s trafiksäkerhetshandbok "Trafiksäkra staden

    " (Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting 2013), presenteras ett systematiskt sätt att arbeta med trafikskadedata på kommunnivå. Utgångspunkten i handboken är att analysera den lokala skadebilden och sätta igång en systematisk process med verksamhetsövergripande samarbete och kontinuerlig förbättring. Den nu föreliggande vägledningen är tänkt att fungera som ett komplement till SKL:s metodhandbok, med fokus på identifiering och analys av särskilt skadedrabbade platser i lokalsamhället.

    Denna vägledning är tänkt att utgöra ett stöd för det lokala cykelsäkerhetsarbetet mot bakgrund av i lokala förutsättningar och problem. Utgångspunkten är att ta tillvara faktaunderlag som ofta finns tillgängliga lokalt, i kombination med annan lokal kunskap. Dessa underlag kan sedan nyttiggöras vid beslut om utformning av trafikmiljöer. Genom att systematiskt studera och sammanställa uppgifter om olyckor finns möjlighet att hitta typiska olycksmönster eller farliga platser inom en avgränsad befolkning eller geografiskt område. Denna kunskap kan sedan användas vid planering av nya trafikmiljöer, som underlag för löpande trafiksäkerhetsarbete i befintliga miljöer, samt vid utvärdering av satsningar syftande till ökad säkerhet.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Säker _cykling_2015
  • 12.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Can the provision of a home help service for the elderly population reduce the incidence of fall-related injuries?2016Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, nr Suppl.2, s. A181-A181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Fall-related injuries are a global public health problem, especially in elderly populations. In this study, the effect of an intervention aimed at reducing the risk of falls in the homes of community-dwelling elderly persons was evaluated. The intervention, which involves home hazards reduction by providing a minor home help service, is provided in the majority of Swedish municipalities.

    Methods Intention-to-treat effect estimates were derived using quasi-experimental time series intervention (ITS) analysis for immediate effects and a difference-in-discontinuity (RD) design for long term effects, and community-level estimates were pooled using meta-analysis. The outcome measure was the incidence of fall-related hospitalizations in the treatment population, the age of which varied by municipality (≥65 years, ≥67 years, ≥70 years or ≥75 years).

    Results We found no statistically significant reductions in injury incidence in the ITS (IRR 1.01 [95% CI: 0.98–1.05]) or RD (IRR 1.00 [95% CI: 0.97–1.03]) analyses. The results are robust to several different model specifications, including segmented panel regression analysis with linear trend change and community fixed effects parameters.

    Conclusions It is unclear whether absence of an effect is due to a low efficacy of the home hazards modifications provided, or a result of low utilisation. Additional studies of the effects on other quality of life measures are recommended before conclusions are drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of the provision of home help services

  • 13.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Can the provision of a minor home help service for the elderly population reduce the incidence of fall-related injuries?: A quasi-experimental study of the community-level effects on hospital admissions in Swedish municipalities2016Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 412-419Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Fall-related injuries are a global public health problem, especially in elderly populations. The effect of an intervention aimed at reducing the risk of falls in the homes of community-dwelling elderly persons was evaluated. The intervention mainly involves the performance of complicated tasks and hazards assessment by a trained assessor, and has been adopted gradually over the last decade by 191 of 290 Swedish municipalities.   

    Methods

    A quasi-experimental design was used where intention-to-treat effect estimates were derived using panel regression analysis and a regression-discontinuity (RD) design. The outcome measure was the incidence of fall-related hospitalizations in the treatment population, the age of which varied by municipality (≥65 years, ≥67 years, ≥70 years or ≥75 years).

    Results

    We found no statistically significant reductions in injury incidence in the panel regression (IRR 1.01 [95% CI: 0.98-1.05]) or RD (IRR 1.00 [95% CI: 0.97-1.03]) analyses. The results are robust to several different model specifications, including segmented panel regression analysis with linear trend change and community fixed effects parameters.

    Conclusions

    It is unclear whether the absence of an effect is due to a low efficacy of the services provided, or a result of low adherence. Additional studies of the effects on other quality of life measures are recommended before conclusions are drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of the provision of home help service programs.

  • 14.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Publ Safety, Karlstad, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Holmberg, Robin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Publ Safety, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Estimating the effects of a studded footwear subsidy program on pedestrian falls among older adults in Gothenburg, Sweden2019Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 132, artikel-id UNSP 105282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of a studded footwear subsidy program in Gothenburg, Sweden, where a free pair of anti-slip devices was distributed to all residents aged over 65 years as a pedestrian falls prevention measure. Using a difference-in-differences approach with internal age-based controls, we find evidence of a short-term effect on emergency department visits due to slips on snow and ice during the first year of the intervention ( -45% [95% CI: - 54, - 9] in 2013), which equates to 21.8 injuries prevented (95% CI: 3.34, 39.4). A cost-benefit analysis based on this result suggests that the short-term benefits outweigh the total costs of the intervention (benefit-cost ratio: 6.9 [95% CI: 1.05-12.46]), indicating that this type of subsidy program may be an important tool for the prevention of pedestrian falls among older adults during icy weather conditions. However, replication at other sites is recommended before drawing any strong and general conclusions.

  • 15.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Holmberg, Robin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Svensson, M.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Model-based economic evaluation of ice cleat distribution programmes for the prevention of outdoor falls among adults from a Swedish societal perspective2021Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Slipping on snow or ice poses a significant health risk among older adults in Sweden. To combat this problem, about 80 Swedish municipalities have distributed ice cleats to older citizens (65+ years old) over the last decade. This paper details a cost-benefit analysis of such programmes. Materials and methods: We developed a decision-analytical model to estimate the costs and benefits of ice cleat programmes in Swedish municipalities compared with a business-as-usual scenario. The modelled benefits of the programme were based on effect estimates from previous research, data from population and healthcare registers and a survey of attitudes to and actual ice cleat use. The modelled costs of the programme were based on resource use data collected from 34 municipalities with existing ice cleat programmes. We assessed heterogeneity in the potential impact and benefit-to-cost ratios across all Swedish municipalities as a function of the average number of days with snow cover per year. Uncertainty in the cost-benefit results was assessed using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: The average benefit-to-cost ratio was 87, ranging from about 40 in low-risk municipalities to 140 in high-risk municipalities, implying that the potential benefits of ice cleat programmes greatly outweigh their costs. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses support the robustness of this conclusion to parameter uncertainty and large changes in assumptions about the magnitude of the impact on ice cleat use and injuries. Conclusion: The benefits of distributing ice cleats to older adults appear to outweigh the costs from a Swedish societal perspective.

  • 16.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    The Effects of Bicycle Helmets and Helmet Legislation on the Severity of Children’s Head InjuriesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013). Norwegian Social Research (NOVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Are fire safe cigarettes actually fire safe?: Evidence from changes in US state laws2018Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 193-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of fire safe cigarette laws on fire mortality and cigarette-related fires in the USA.

    METHODS: We examined the gradual implementation of the laws to identify their average effects, using difference-in-differences analysis to account for common year effects, time-invariant state effects, state-specific trends and observable time-varying state-level covariates.

    RESULTS: We found no statistically significant effects on all-cause fire mortality, residential fire mortality or cigarette-caused fire rates. The estimates for cigarette-caused fire deaths were significant under some specifications, but were not robust to the inclusion of state-specific trends or comparisons to effects on other cause-determined fires.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given the mixed state of our results, we conclude that previous claims regarding the effects of fire safe cigarette laws may be premature.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Podesta, Fredrica
    FBK-IRVAPP, Trento, Italy.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Sahlgrenska Göteborg.
    Universities as engines for regional growth?: Using the synthetic control method to analyze the effects of research universities2016Ingår i: Regional Science and Urban Economics, ISSN 0166-0462, E-ISSN 1879-2308, Vol. 60, s. 198-207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Does gender moderate the association between intellectual ability and accidental injuries?: Evidence from the 1953 Stockholm Birth Cohort study2017Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 106, s. 109-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Funktionsnedsättningar som riskfaktor för olycksfall och andra skador.2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Investigating the effect of banning non-reduced ignition propensity cigarettes on fatal residential fires in Sweden 2016Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 334-338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:Annually, 100 people die as a result of residential fires in Sweden and almost a third of the fatal fires are known to be caused by smoking. In an attempt to reduce the occurrence of these events, reduced ignition propensity (RIP) cigarettes have been developed. They are designed to reduce the risk of fire by preventing the cigarette from burning through the full length when left unattended. In November 2011, a ban was introduced, forbidding the production and sale of all non-RIP cigarettes in all member states of the European Union, including Sweden.

    METHODS:Monthly data on all recorded residential fires and associated fatalities in Sweden from January 2000 to December 2013 were analyzed using an interrupted time series design. The effect of the intervention [in relative risk (RR)] was quantified using generalised additive models for location, shape and scale.

    RESULTS:There were no statistically significant intervention effects on residential fires (RR 0.95 [95% CI: 0.89-1.01]), fatal residential fires (RR 0.99 [95% CI: 0.80-1.23]), residential fires where smoking was a known cause (RR 1.10 [95% CI: 0.95-1.28]) or fatal residential fires where smoking was a known cause (RR 0.92 [95% CI: 0.63-1.35]).

    CONCLUSION:No evidence of an effect of the ban on all non-RIP cigarettes on the risk of residential fires in Sweden was found. The results may not be generalisable to other countries.

  • 22.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Sociodemografiska skillnader i risken för bostadsbrand, prevalens av brandskydd i hemmet och hantering av bränder: En analys av nationella enkäter 2001, 2005 och 20082017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    The effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children: An interrupted time series study2014Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 51, s. 15-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous population-based research has shown that bicycle helmet laws can reduce head injury rates among cyclists. According to deterrence theory, such laws are mainly effective if there is a high likelihood of being apprehended. In this study, we investigated the effect of the Swedish helmet law for children under the age of 15, a population that cannot be fined. Method  An interrupted time series design was used. Monthly inpatient data on injured cyclists from 1998–2012, stratified by age (0–14, 15 +), sex, and injury diagnosis, was obtained from the National Patient Register. The main outcome measure was the proportion of head injury admissions per month. Intervention effect estimates were obtained using generalized autoregressive moving average (GARMA) models. Pre-legislation trend and seasonality was adjusted for, and differences-in-differences estimation was obtained using adults as a non-equivalent control group. Results There was a statistically significant intervention effect among male children, where the proportion of head injuries dropped by 7.8 percentage points. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on the proportion of head injuries among female children. Conclusion According to hospital admission data, the bicycle helmet law appears to have had an effect only on male children.

  • 24.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020). University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Li, Huiqi
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sharma, Shambhavi
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nwaru, Chioma
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gisslén, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Lindh, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hammar, Niklas
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Björk, Jonas
    University of Lund, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A Capture-Recapture-based Ascertainment Probability Weighting Method for Effect Estimation with Under-ascertained Outcomes2024Ingår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 340-348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Outcome under-ascertainment, characterized by the incomplete identification or reporting of cases, poses a substantial challenge in epidemiologic research. While capture-recapture methods can estimate unknown case numbers, their role in estimating exposure effects in observational studies is not well established. This paper presents an ascertainment probability weighting framework that integrates capture-recapture and propensity score weighting. We propose a nonparametric estimator of effects on binary outcomes that combines exposure propensity scores with data from two conditionally independent outcome measurements to simultaneously adjust for confounding and under-ascertainment. Demonstrating its practical application, we apply the method to estimate the relationship between health care work and coronavirus disease 2019 testing in a Swedish region. We find that ascertainment probability weighting greatly influences the estimated association compared to conventional inverse probability weighting, underscoring the importance of accounting for under-ascertainment in studies with limited outcome data coverage. We conclude with practical guidelines for the method’s implementation, discussing its strengths, limitations, and suitable scenarios for application. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stranges, Debora
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020).
    Almgren, Matilda
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Inghammar, Malin
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anton
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pujol, Joan Capdevila
    ZOE Ltd, UK.
    Steves, Claire
    King’s College London, UK.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden; Harvard Chan School of Public Health, USA.
    Gomez, Maria F.
    Lund University Diabetes Centre, Sweden.
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Björk, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    A regression discontinuity analysis of the social distancing recommendations for older adults in Sweden during COVID-192022Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 799-806Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This article investigates the impact of a non-mandatory and age-specific social distancing recommendation on isolation behaviours and disease outcomes in Sweden during the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (March to July 2020). The policy stated that people aged 70 years or older should avoid crowded places and contact with people outside the household. Methods: We used a regression discontinuity design-in combination with self-reported isolation data from COVID Symptom Study Sweden (n = 96 053; age range: 39-79 years) and national register data (age range: 39-100+ years) on severe COVID-19 disease (hospitalization or death, n = 21 804) and confirmed cases (n = 48 984)-to estimate the effects of the policy. Results: Our primary analyses showed a sharp drop in the weekly number of visits to crowded places (-13%) and severe COVID-19 cases (-16%) at the 70-year threshold. These results imply that the age-specific recommendations prevented approximately 1800-2700 severe COVID-19 cases, depending on model specification. Conclusions: It seems that the non-mandatory, age-specific recommendations helped control COVID-19 disease during the first wave of the pandemic in Sweden, as opposed to not implementing a social distancing policy aimed at older adults. Our study provides empirical data on how populations may react to non-mandatory, age-specific social distancing policies in the face of a novel virus.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Chauca Strand, Gabriella
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Naimi
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020). University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Florida, USA.
    Cancer Drugs Reimbursed with Limited Evidence on Overall Survival and Quality of Life: Do Follow-Up Studies Confirm Patient Benefits?2023Ingår i: Clinical drug investigation, ISSN 1173-2563, E-ISSN 1179-1918, Vol. 43, nr 8, s. 621-633Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and ObjectiveCancer drug costs have increased considerably within healthcare systems, but many drugs lack quality-of-life (QoL) and overall survival (OS) data at the time of reimbursement approval. This study aimed to review the extent of subsequent literature documenting improvements in OS and QoL for cancer drug indications where no such evidence existed at the time of reimbursement approval.MethodsDrug indications with claims of added therapeutical value but a lack of evidence on OS and QoL that were reimbursed between 2010 and 2020 in Sweden were included for review. Searches were conducted in PubMed and ClinicalTrial.gov for randomized controlled trials examining OS and QoL.ResultsOf the 22 included drug indications, seven were found to have at least one trial with conclusive evidence of improvements in OS or QoL after a mean follow-up of 6.6 years. The remaining 15 drug indications either lacked subsequent randomized controlled trial data on OS or QoL (n = 6) or showed no statistically significant improvements (n = 9). Only one drug demonstrated evidence of improvement in both OS and QoL for its indication.ConclusionsA considerable share of reimbursed cancer drug indications continue to lack evidence of improvement in both OS and QoL. With limited healthcare resources and an increasing cancer burden, third-party payers have strong incentives to require additional post-reimbursement data to confirm any improvements in OS and QoL.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Davidsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för klimat och säkerhet (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Desirable Effects from Disturbance Ecology: A Paradox within Conservation Management2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, artikel-id 7049Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of natural disturbances for biodiversity is well-documented in the disturbance ecology literature. Natural disturbances such as fire, wind, and flooding strongly influence ecosystems by creating short and long-term ecological processes. Conservation management of protected areas should consider the importance of natural disturbances since natural shifts in ecosystems are, in a long-term perspective, necessary to maintain high biodiversity. The purpose of this study is to explore how and if natural disturbances are incorporated in the management of Swedish national parks and to identify possible examples of barriers for this incorporation. The design of the study is a multiple comparative case study based on a document study and completed with qualitative interviews. The cases consist of propositions and management plans for 15 Swedish national parks established between 1962 and 2018. The document analysis generated four main categories: historic/future and positive/negative perceptions of natural disturbances. The results indicate that there are positive perceptions concerning the inclusion of disturbance ecology in the management of national parks. However, there are also obstacles and challenges around natural disturbances within Swedish national parks. These obstacles are, in some cases, explained by practical implications such as the closeness to surrounding societies and in others explained by paradoxes such as visitors’ perceptions of national parks and the wilderness. 

  • 28.
    Eklund, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Robin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020).
    Svensson, Mikael
    Univ Gothenburg, Sch Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Florida, Dept Pharmaceut Outcomes & Policy, Gainesville, FL USA..
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020). University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Quasi-experimental evaluation of municipal ice cleat distribution programmes for older adults in Sweden2023Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 378-383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionFall injuries caused by icy road conditions are a prevalent public health problem during winters in Sweden, especially in older populations. To combat this problem, many Swedish municipalities have distributed ice cleats to older adults. While previous research has shown promising results, there is a lack of comprehensive empirical data on the effectiveness of ice cleat distribution. We address this gap by investigating the impact of these distribution programmes on ice-related fall injuries among older adults. MethodsWe combined survey data on ice cleat distribution in Swedish municipalities with injury data from the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR). The survey was used to identify municipalities that have distributed ice cleats to older adults at some point between 2001 and 2019. Data from NPR were used to identify municipality-level data on patients who have been treated for injuries related to snow and ice. We used a triple differences design-a generalisation of difference in differences-that compared ice-related fall injury rates before and after intervention in 73 treatment and 200 control municipalities, with unexposed age groups serving as within-municipality controls. ResultsWe estimate that the average ice cleat distribution programmes reduced ice-related fall injury rates by -0.24 (95% CI -0.49 to 0.02) per 1000 person-winters. The impact estimate was larger in municipalities that distributed more ice cleats (-0.38 (95% CI -0.76 to -0.09)). No similar patterns were found for fall injuries unrelated to snow and ice. ConclusionOur results suggest that ice cleat distribution can decrease the incidence of ice-related injuries among older adults.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Säker cykel: Faktabaserad prevention av cykelskador i samhället2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Att cykla är hälsosamt och miljövänligt, men tyvärr också ganska farligt. Även om forskning tyder på att hälsovinsterna överstiger skaderiskerna, krävs åtgärder för att minska de cykelrelaterade skadorna i samhället.

    Genom att studera och sammanställa uppgifter om olyckor som hänt finns möjlighet att hitta utsatta grupper, typiska olycksmönster eller farliga platser inom en avgränsad befolkning eller geografiskt område. Denna statistikrapport använder sig av data som insamlats av hälso- och sjukvården och polisen i Värmland inom datasystemet STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) kring cykelskadade i Karlstads kommun mellan 2007 och 2011. Mellan dessa år skadade sig 857 cyklister så pass allvarlig att de var tvungna att uppsöka akutmottagningen på Centralsjukhuset i Karlstad.

    Cykelskador inträffar oftare under sommarhalvåret, mellan klockan 14.00 och 21.00 samt på fredagar. Män är något mer representerade i hela skadebilden och åldrarna 10-14 och 40-65 år är överrepresenterade.

    Trots lagliga krav var det en stor andel av 10-14 åringarna som inte bar hjälm vid skadetillfället (flickor; 60 procent och pojkar; 45 procent).

    Geografiskt följer cykelolyckorna i Karlstads kommun befolkningstätheten i stora drag, men särskilda kluster kan identifieras på vissa platser och sträckor som därmed framstår som särskilt olycksdrabbade. Bland annat syns anhopningar av olyckshändelser kring ett antal broar och tunnlar och på dessa platser behöver djupare olycksanalyser genomföras. Rapporten ger också exempel på hur statistiken kan användas för att utvärdera gjorda trafiksäkerhetsförbättringar.

  • 30.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet.
    Investigating the fall-injury reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring among female nursing home residents: initial results2015Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 320-32-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:Fall-related injuries affect the lives of elderly to a substantial degree. This quasi-experimental study investigates the fall-injury reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring among female nursing home residents.

    METHODS:The intervention site is a nursing home in Sweden where impact absorbing flooring was installed in parts of one of six wards (six out of 10 apartments (excluding bathrooms), the communal dining-room and parts of the corridor). The impact absorbing flooring is a 12 mm thick closed cell flexible polyurethane/polyurea composite tile (500×500 mm) with an exterior surface of polyurethane/polyurea. A generalised linear model (log-binomial) was used to calculate the RR of injury from falls on impact absorbing flooring compared to falls on regular flooring, adjusted for age, body mass index, visual and cognitive impairments.

    RESULTS:During the study period (1 October 2011 to 31 March 2014), 254 falls occurred on regular flooring and 77 falls on impact absorbing flooring. The injury/fall rate was 30.3% for falls on regular flooring and 16.9% for falls on impact absorbing flooring. Adjusted for covariates, the impact absorbing flooring significantly reduced the RR of injury in the event of a fall by 59% (RR 0.41 (95% Cl 0.20 to 0.80)).

    CONCLUSIONS:This is, to our knowledge, the first study evaluating the injury-reducing effect of impact absorbing flooring in a nursing home showing statistically significant effect. The results from this study are promising, indicating the considerable potential of impact absorbing flooring as a fall-related injury intervention among frail elderly.

  • 31.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    A quasi-experimental evaluation of compliant flooring in a residential care setting2018Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikel-id e0201290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Fall injuries affect the lives of older people to a substantial degree. This quasi-experimental observational study investigates the potential fall injury reducing effect of a compliant flooring in a residential care setting.

    Methods

    The allocation of the compliant flooring was non-random. Data on fall-events and individual characteristics were collected in a residential care unit during a period of 68 months. The primary outcome was the fall injury rate per fall, and a logistic regression analysis was used to test for the effect of complaint flooring. Falls per 1000 bed days was the secondary outcome, used to measure the difference in fall risk on compliant flooring versus regular flooring.

    Results

    The event dataset is an unbalanced panel with repeated observations on 114 individuals, with 70% women. The mean age was 84.9 years of age, the average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 24.7, and there was a mean of 6.57 (SD: 15.28) falls per individual. The unadjusted effect estimate showed a non-significant relative risk injury reduction of 29% per fall (RR 0.71 [95% CI: 0.46–1.09]) compared to regular flooring. Re-estimating, excluding identified outliers, showed an injury risk reduction of 63% (RR 0.37 [95% CI: 0.25–0.54]). Falls per 1000 bed days showed that individuals living in apartments with compliant flooring had a fall rate of 5.3 per 1000 bed days compared to a fall rate of 8.4 per 1000 bed days among individuals living in regular apartments. This corresponds to an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.63 (95% exact Poisson CI: 0.50–0.80).

    Conclusion

    The results of this non-randomized study indicate that compliant flooring has the potential to reduce the risk of fall injury without increasing the fall risk among older people in a Swedish residential care setting.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Gustavsson_et_al_2018
  • 32.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020). University of Gothenburg.
    Compliant sports floors and fall-related injuries: evidence from a residential care setting and updated meta-analysis for all patient care settings2022Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 283-289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundCompliant flooring may prevent fall injuries in residential care, but evidence is inconclusive. We investigate compliant sports floors and fall-related injuries in a residential care setting and update a meta-analysis from a recent systematic review on compliant flooring. MethodsA non-randomised study comparing outcomes in a residential care unit that installed sports flooring in bedrooms with four units with regular flooring in a Norwegian municipality (n=193). Data on falls were collected for a period of 46 months (323 falls on sports flooring; 414 on regular flooring). Outcomes were injurious falls per person bed-day, falls per person bed-day and injury risks per fall. Confounding was adjusted for using Andersen-Gill proportional hazards and log-binomial regression models. Random-effects inverse variance models were used to pool estimates. ResultsInjurious fall rates were 13% lower in the unit with sports flooring (adjusted HR (aHR): 0.87 (95% CI: 0.55 to 1.37)). There was limited evidence of adverse effects on fall rates (aHR: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.63 to 1.38)) and the injury risk per fall was lower in fall events that occurred on sports floors (adjusted relative risk (RR): 0.75 (95% CI: 0.53 to 1.08)). Pooling these estimates with previous research added precision, but the overall pattern was the same (pooled RR for injurious falls: 0.66 (95% CI: 0.39 to 1.12); fall rates: 0.87 (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.12); injury risks per fall: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.52 to 0.97)). ConclusionSports floors may be an alternative to novel shock-absorbing floors in care settings; however, more research is needed to improve precision.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Individual and contextual factors associated with the use of anti-slip devices according to a Swedish national survey2020Ingår i: Journal of Transport & Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1413, Vol. 17, s. 1-8, artikel-id 100865Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Walking as a means of transportation can enforce a more active lifestyle and constitutes an environmentally friendly option to motor vehicles. However, in Northern countries, ice and snow tend to increase the risk of fall injuries among pedestrians during the winter. Therefore, the use of anti-slip devices, such as ice cleats or “studded footwear”, has been suggested as a viable intervention in promoting an active lifestyle whilst reducing injury risk. We investigate the usage of anti-slip devices, focusing on people 50 years and above living in Sweden.

    Method

    We used nationally representative survey data for men and women aged 18–79 years and residing in Sweden (n = 23,168), focusing primarily on middle-aged to older adults (50+ years). We used logistic regression to identify predictors of use.

    Results

    Overall, our estimates suggest that 28.5 (95% CI: 27.0, 29.2) percent of the Swedish population use anti-slip devices during snowy and slippery road conditions, with usage rates increasing strongly with age (from roughly 10 percent at 20 years to 60 percent at 79 years). In addition, the results show that being female, experiencing a fear of falling, living in a municipality with a high number of snow days, and using other types of personal safety equipment increases the probability of being an anti-slip device user.

    Conclusions

    Our results imply that people at risk for outdoor fall injuries are high users. Even so, the number of pedestrian injuries due to slipping on snow and ice are still substantial and there are a several potential target groups for future intervention. More research is needed to determine if the devices are used correctly, and to determine the barriers to anti-slip device use in low-use populations.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    Metoder för uppskattning och kartläggning av oskyddade trafikanters rese- och exponeringsmönster - hur ser kunskapsläget ut idag?2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom en litteraturstudie identifierades ett flertal olika metoder som kan användas för att uppskatta, mäta och modellera oskyddade trafikanters rörelsemönster. En utvärdering och jämförelse av metodernas pålitlighet och lämplighet för framtida implementering i Sverige är dock svår i dagsläget på grund av stora skillnader i studiernas ansatser. Framtida metoder kommer med stor sannolikhet förlita sig på individers mobila rörelsedata, insamlade med smart teknologi genom applikationer, platsbaserade tjänster och spårning genom rumsliga nätverk såsom telekommunikationsnätverk, globala navigationssystem eller Bluetooth.Syftet med denna studie var att genom en litteraturstudie kartlägga olika tekniker och metoder som kan användas för uppskattning av oskyddade trafikanters exponering och rörelsemönster för användning vid riskkartering och andra spatiala riskanalyser. Vi genomförde två delstudier: (i) en internationell kartläggning av hur tidigare forskning som använt sig av geografiska analyser har kvantifierat exponering och rörelsemönster bland fotgängare och cyklister, och (ii) en litteraturgranskning av nya metoder för att mäta exponering.Den internationella litteraturgranskningen visade att man enbart i ett fåtal studier använt sig av faktiska exponeringsdata i studier av geografiska skademönster bland oskyddade trafikanter. De flesta metoder som bygger på direkt uppskattning av trafikanter i rörelse (t.ex. genom att räkna cyklister) kan vara svåra att generalisera eftersom detta vanligtvis görs på specifika platser eller under vissa tider och på ett icke-heltäckande sätt över vägnätet. Att använda sig av resedatamodeller för att uppskatta exponering på vägsegmentnivå kan vara ett genomförbart tillvägagångssätt, vilket framgår av flera studier som analyserats. De vanligaste uppskattningsmetoderna som används i Sverige idag är flödesmätningar och resvaneundersökningar. Internationellt har flera studier utförts med flera andra metoder som kan vara intressanta även för implementering i Sverige. Främst bland dem är analyser på data från lånecyklar och GPS-data från crowdsourcing med mobilapplikationer. Betydligt fler studier kunde identifieras som rör uppskattning av cyklister än fotgängare. Resvaneundersökningar är ett bra alternativ för att undersöka generella trender över tid. Dock saknas rumslig noggrannhet och det är svårt att kartlägga resandet i en stad endast baserat på resvaneundersökningar. Genom att kombinera data från resvaneundersökningar med befolkningsstatistik kan enkla sketchplaneringar genomföras. Ofta görs dessa modeller med enkla och lättåtkomliga data vilket gör att metoderna är lätta att genomföra och billiga. Det finns en mängd olika tekniker för att implementera flödesmätningar på oskyddade trafikanter i praktiken. Tekniskt sett är det genomförbart att applicera stickprovsmodeller på liknande vis vad som görs i vägnätet för fordonstrafik. En bra uppskattning för resmönstret hos trafikanterna kräver dock många mätningar, detta medför kostnader i form av både utrustning och arbetstid. I nuläget sker förmodligen för få flödesmätningar i de flesta svenska städer, speciellt mätningar av gångtrafikanter för att kunna applicera en sådan metod med ett acceptabelt resultat. Flödesmätningar kan dock användas i kombination med andra metoder för att bekräfta deras resultat. Flödesmätningar är förmodligen den effektivaste metoden för att kontrollera resmönster på små geografiska områden. En känslig fråga som begränsar användning av spårningsteknik idag genom nätverkstriangulering, Bluetooth eller mobila applikationer är personlig integritet. Utöver detta är det en högre risk att sårbara delar av befolkningen (t.ex. barn och äldre) exkluderas av automatisk spårning då dessa individer med större sannolikhet inte medför smart teknisk utrustning. Ändå anses denna teknik mycket framtidsorienterad, effektiv, billig och pålitlig, speciellt när lokaliseringsenheter börjar prata med varandra, när mängden insamlade data och dess tillgänglighet ökar och om dagens begränsningar gällande personlig integritet och lagstiftning förändras.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Holmberg, Robin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020).
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020). Göteborgs universitet.
    Evaluation of the design and implementation of municipal ice cleat distribution programs for the prevention of ice-related fall injuries among older adults in Sweden2021Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 1-15, artikel-id e0253054Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The risk for outdoor falls tends to increase during winter due to icy road conditions. Several Swedish municipalities have introduced programs that provide their senior citizens with a pair of ice cleats in an attempt to tackle this problem. In this paper, we perform a process evaluation to identify potential barriers to the success of these programs and analyze the logic of their design.

    Methods

    We sent a survey to all 290 Swedish municipalities to collect data on the characteristics of ice cleat distribution programs. We also performed focus-group interviews with older adults to gain insight into their thoughts about ice cleat programs. We synthesized our data with existing literature on ice cleats and behavior change theory to populate a logic model to identify and analyze hidden assumptions and potential flaws using program theory analysis.

    Results

    On average, about 40% of the eligible population living in the intervention municipalities collected a pair of ice cleats. While we identified some other, but mostly minor, barriers to implementation, the main barrier appears to be a lack of scale (i.e., insufficient procurement and distribution of ice cleats), as 90% of all purchased ice cleats were eventually distributed. While previous research suggests that ice cleats can decrease injury risks if worn, we find that there is limited evidence on the effects of distribution on ice cleat use. Our interviewees emphasized the potential utility of ice cleats for staying safe and active during winter but stressed that ice cleats need to be user-friendly and of high-quality to increase the likelihood that a distribution program encourages behavior change.

    Conclusion

    Existing ice cleat distribution programs appear to have reached a meaningful share of the targeted population. Additional research is required to assess their effects on ice cleat use and injury rates.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Holmberg, Robin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020).
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020).
    Svensson, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Ice cleat distribution programmes and ice cleat use among older adults: repeated cross-sectional evidence from 63 municipal interventions in Sweden2022Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 28, s. 539-544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Ice cleats may help prevent ice-related falls in places with icy roads, but there is limited evidence about the association between ice cleat distribution and ice cleat use. Our study examined the association between Swedish municipal distribution programmes and ice cleat use among older adults (65+ years). Methods We combined data on municipal ice cleat distribution programmes (n=63) with repeated cross-sectional self-reports of ice cleat use in Sweden from 2007, 2010, 2014 and 2018. Respondents (n=63 234) were classified as exposed if they lived in a municipality with a programme, belonged to an eligible age group and responded after distribution (n=2507). Dose-response was assessed using distributed ice cleat pairs per capita (mean: 0.38). Linear probability models were used to estimate probability differences in ice cleat use between exposed and unexposed respondents, adjusting for age, sex, country of birth, education, survey wave and municipality. Ineligible age groups living in programme municipalities, who should be unaffected by ice cleat distribution, were used for bias assessment. Results Exposure to ice cleat distribution programmes was associated with 7.5 percentage points (95% CI 4.2 to 10.9) higher self-reported ice cleat use after confounding adjustment. The association was larger in municipalities that distributed one pair of ice cleats per capita (17.3 percentage points (95% CI 11.2 to 23.4)). No association was found among the ineligible age groups (-2.3 (95% CI -5.5 to 1.0)). Conclusion Distributing ice cleats to older adults may help increase their use of ice cleats in settings with icy road conditions.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    The association between disability and unintentional injuries among adolescents in a general education setting: Evidence from a Swedish population-based school survey2020Ingår i: Disability and Health Journal, ISSN 1936-6574, E-ISSN 1876-7583, Vol. 13, s. 1-7, artikel-id 100841Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among adolescents. Adolescents with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable with an increased risk of unintentional injuries. Objective: To study the association between a set of disabilities and unintentional injury risks among adolescents, accounting for comorbidity, subjective disability severity and sex. Method: Cross-sectional data from a Swedish national school survey including 4,741 students (15 and 17-year olds) conducted in 2016 was analyzed using log-binomial generalized linear models. Results: We found a 33% increased risk of injury the last 12 months and a 53% increased risk of injury leading to hospitalization for adolescents with any disability compared to their peers with no disability. The differences in injury risk were greater for girls than boys. There was a dose-response relationship between disability severity and injury risk. In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors and comorbidity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy were associated with an increased risk of injury the last 12 months, risk ratios [RR] were 1.41 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.08–2.97) and 1.79 (95% CI 1.10–1.81) respectively. Autism spectrum disorder was associated with a decreased injury risk the last 12 months (RR = 0.43, CI 0.2–0.92). ADHD, mobility impairment and visual impairment were associated with hospitalization due to injury during lifetime. Conclusions: There was an increased risk of unintentional injuries for adolescents with disabilities compared to their non-disabled peers, specifically for individuals with ADHD, epilepsy, visual impairment and mobility impairment. Injury prevention strategies may include adapting the physical environment and medical treatment.

  • 38.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Huss, Fredrik
    Burn Center, Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The state of the residential fire fatality problem in Sweden: Epidemiology, risk factors, and event typologies2017Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 62, s. 89-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Residential fires represent the largest category of fatal fires in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of fatal residential fires in Sweden and to identify clusters of events.

    Method

    Data was collected from a database that combines information on fatal fires with data from forensic examinations and the Swedish Cause of Death-register. Mortality rates were calculated for different strata using population statistics and rescue service turnout reports. Cluster analysis was performed using multiple correspondence analysis with agglomerative hierarchical clustering.

    Results

    Male sex, old age, smoking, and alcohol were identified as risk factors, and the most common primary injury diagnosis was exposure to toxic gases. Compared to non-fatal fires, fatal residential fires more often originated in the bedroom, were more often caused by smoking, and were more likely to occur at night. Six clusters were identified. The first two clusters were both smoking-related, but were separated into (1) fatalities that often involved elderly people, usually female, whose clothes were ignited (17% of the sample), (2) middle-aged (45–64 years old), (often) intoxicated men, where the fire usually originated in furniture (30%). Other clusters that were identified in the analysis were related to (3) fires caused by technical fault, started in electrical installations in single houses (13%), (4) cooking appliances left on (8%), (5) events with unknown cause, room and object of origin (25%), and (6) deliberately set fires (7%).

    Conclusions

    Fatal residential fires were unevenly distributed in the Swedish population. To further reduce the incidence of fire mortality, specialized prevention efforts that focus on the different needs of each cluster are required.

    Practical applications

    Cooperation between various societal functions, e.g. rescue services, elderly care, psychiatric clinics and other social services, with an application of both human and technological interventions, should reduce residential fire mortality in Sweden.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Jonsson2017
  • 39.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Huss, Fredrik
    Uppsala University .
    Seriously injured due to residential fires in sweden2018Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, s. A16-A16, artikel-id PA 07-5-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Labori, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Josefine
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Florida, USA.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020). University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The impact of stroke on spousal and family income: a difference-in-difference study from Swedish national registries2024Ingår i: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, ISSN 1074-9357, E-ISSN 1945-5119, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 381-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AimTo investigates the financial consequences in the overall population spouses of persons with stroke in Sweden as well as for subgroups based on spouses age, sex and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of the person with stroke.MethodsThe study population consists of spouses aged <= 60 during the year of their partner's stroke event. Each spouse was matched to four reference individuals. This longitudinal registry data covers spouses and a reference population between 2005 and 2016. We use difference-in-differences to estimate the impact on individual income from paid work, disposable individual income, and disposable family income.ResultsThe primary analysis shows a small and statistically insignificant decrease on spouses' individual income from paid work and disposable individual income. In the subgroup analysis based on mRS, the largest effect is seen in mRS 4-5, where spouses' individual income from paid work and disposable individual income increases after their partner's stroke. Further, younger female spouses' individual income from paid work decreases by 1 614 EUR (p = 0.008) on average.ConclusionThe financial consequences are small in the overall population of spouses. However, for some subgroups, younger women, and spouses of persons with stroke and mRS 4-5, the financial consequences are more prominent.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Publ Safety, Dept Environm & Life Sci, Div Risk & Environm Studies, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet, SWE.
    Household Fire Protection Practices in Relation to Socio-demographic Characteristics: Evidence from a Swedish National Survey2020Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 56, nr 3, s. 1077-1098Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sociodemographic inequalities in the ownership of residential fire safety equipment, fire prevention practices and fire protection knowledge was studied using an inductive and data-driven approach based on the responses to a national Swedish survey containing individual-level data on several dimensions of home fire safety practices (n = 7507). Cluster analysis was used to summarise home fire safety data and sociodemographic characteristics of the sample were then regressed on the data ordinal regression analysis. The results showed significant correlations between the level of fire protection and a range of factors (sex, age, family composition, income, housing type and country of birth), suggesting a positive effect of socioeconomic success. Further, the results imply that having experienced a residential fire has a positive impact on future fire protection practices, and that higher levels of fire protection interest increases the probability of having a functional smoke detector.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Societal Protection and Population Vulnerability: Key Factors in Explaining Community-Level Variation in Fatal Fires Involving Older Adults in Sweden2021Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, nr 1, s. 247-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on evidence from previous studies, fire mortality rates among older adults on a local level seem to be related two dimensions; population vulnerability and societal protection. In this paper, we investigate the magnitude of the impacts of variation along these two dimensions on the rate of fatal fires involving at least one older adult (65 + years) in Swedish municipalities. Our empirical strategy involves using principal components analysis to estimate the two dimensions based on data on the health of the older population, factors related to municipal rescue service efficiency, as well as other factors that may indirectly effect efficiency (such as urbanization rates and economic conditions). We then use Poisson regression models to study how mortality rates vary with changes along each dimension while keeping the other constant. The results support previous evidence suggesting that an efficient rescue service is important for low fire mortality rates. However, we also find evidence that variations in the vulnerability of the older population may play an equally important role. As such, the results indicate while improved societal protection is important in order to reduce fire-related mortality rates, merely focusing on these aspects will not eliminate the risk-increasing aspect of population vulnerability. In turn, this implies a need for a multifaceted approach to local fire mortality prevention that targets both rescue service efficiency and population vulnerability.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    The effect of the transition from the ninth to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases on external cause registration of injury morbidity in Sweden2015Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 189-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) have previously been shown to cause dramatic effects with regard to injury mortality data when implemented. However, limited knowledge exists on the effects on the coding of external causes of injury morbidity, despite this being an important aspect with regard to injury prevention.

    Method Hospitalised injuries in Sweden were studied using time series intervention analysis to observe the effect of the ICD change from ICD-9 to ICD-10 in 1997 on external cause coding.

    Results The results would suggest considerable coding issues with a large spike in the proportion of injury admissions registered without an external cause code in 1997, with continuing, although gradually diminishing, problems up to 2002. The coding change seems to have had an immediate effect on all external cause of injury categories, although the categories that were not directly convertible from ICD-9 to ICD-10 were seemingly more greatly affected.

    Discussion The study illustrates the potential issues associated with changes between ICD revisions and the importance of data quality control both during surveillance and collection of data, but also when presenting injury trends across ICD versions.

  • 44.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Differences in determinants amongst individuals reporting residential fires in Sweden – results from a cross-sectional study 2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Fire Technology, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 615-626Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Differences in determinants amongst individuals reporting residential fires in sweden-: results from a cross-sectional study2016Ingår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, s. A40-A40Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Damsager, John
    Lauritsen, Jens
    Odense University Hospital, Denmark; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark..
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    The effect of breed-specific dog legislation on hospital treated dog bites in Odense, Denmark: A time series intervention study2018Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 12, artikel-id e0208393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As dog bite injuries are a considerable problem in modern society, in order to reduce such injuries, breed-specific legislation has been introduced in a number of countries. Whilst many studies have shown a lack of effect with such legislation, the commonly used methodology is known to be flawed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the Danish breed-specific legislation on the number of dog bite injuries using more credible methods. A time series intervention method was used on a detailed dataset from Odense University Hospital, Denmark, regarding dog bite injuries presented to the emergency department. The results indicate that banning certain breeds has a highly limited effect on the overall levels of dog bite injuries, and that an enforcement of the usage of muzzle and leash in public places for these breeds also has a limited effect. Despite using more credible and sound methods, this study supports previous studies showing that breed-specific legislation seems to have no effect on dog bite injuries. In order to minimise dog bite injuries in the future, it would seem that other interventions or non-breed-specific legislation should be considered as the primary option.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013-2020). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Increasing hip fracture mortality amongst elderly in Sweden - a new emerging risk?Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020).
    Lundgren, Linnea
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). University of Gothenburg.
    Living arrangements and fire-related mortality amongst older people in Europe2020Ingår i: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, ISSN 1745-7300, E-ISSN 1745-7319, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 378-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, a demographic transition has occurred meaning that countries have larger older adult populations who are increasingly living alone and receiving homecare rather than institutional care. Given that living alone is the greatest individual risk factor for fire mortality amongst older adults and that large differences exist in terms of both fire mortality risk and living arrangements between countries, this study investigates the association between co-living rates and fire mortality rates among older adults in Europe. Freely available datasets with aggregated European data on fire mortality, living arrangements among older adults, population statistics and GDP were analyzed using Poisson regression models. The results show that fire-related mortality rates amongst older adults in Europe is correlated with living arrangements after adjusting for GDP. Specifically, in Europe, when the share of older adults living alone increases by one percentage point, fire mortality rates increase by roughly 4 percent for both sexes.

  • 49.
    Nilsson, Anton
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Björk, Jonas
    Lund University.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020).
    Proxy Variables and the Generalizability of Study Results2023Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 192, nr 3, s. 448-454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When individuals self-select (or are selected) into a study based on factors that influence the outcome, conclusions may not generalize to the full population. To compensate for this, results may be adjusted, for example, by standardization on the set of common causes of participation and outcome. Although such standardization is useful in some contexts, the common causes of participation and outcome may in practice not be fully observed. Instead, the researcher may have access to one or several variables related to the common causes, that is, to proxies for the common causes. This article defines and examines different types of proxy variables and shows how these can be used to obtain generalizable study results. First of all, the researcher may exploit proxies that influence only participation or outcome but which still allow for perfect generalizability by rendering participation and outcome conditionally independent. Further, generalizability can be achieved by leveraging 2 proxies, one of which is allowed to influence participation and one of which is allowed to influence the outcome, even if participation and outcome do not become independent conditional on these. Finally, approximate generalizability may be obtained by exploiting a single proxy that does not itself influence participation or outcome.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Nilsson, Anton
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björk, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om samhällsrisker, CSR (från 2020). University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Can non-participants in a follow-up be used to draw conclusions about incidences and prevalences in the full population invited at baseline?: An investigation based on the Swedish MDC cohort2023Ingår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikel-id 228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Participants in epidemiological cohorts may not be representative of the full invited population, limiting the generalizability of prevalence and incidence estimates. We propose that this problem can be remedied by exploiting data on baseline participants who refused to participate in a re-examination, as such participants may be more similar to baseline non-participants than what baseline participants who agree to participate in the re-examination are. Methods: We compared background characteristics, mortality, and disease incidences across the full population invited to the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) study, the baseline participants, the baseline non-participants, the baseline participants who participated in a re-examination, and the baseline participants who did not participate in the re-examination. We then considered two models for estimating characteristics and outcomes in the full population: one (“the substitution model”) assuming that the baseline non-participants were similar to the baseline participants who refused to participate in the re-examination, and one (“the extrapolation model”) assuming that differences between the full group of baseline participants and the baseline participants who participated in the re-examination could be extended to infer results in the full population. Finally, we compared prevalences of baseline risk factors including smoking, risky drinking, overweight, and obesity across baseline participants, baseline participants who participated in the re-examination, and baseline participants who did not participate in the re-examination, and used the above models to estimate the prevalences of these factors in the full invited population. Results: Compared to baseline non-participants, baseline participants were less likely to be immigrants, had higher socioeconomic status, and lower mortality and disease incidences. Baseline participants not participating in the re-examination generally resembled the full population. The extrapolation model often generated characteristics and incidences even more similar to the full population. The prevalences of risk factors, particularly smoking, were estimated to be substantially higher in the full population than among the baseline participants. Conclusions: Participants in epidemiological cohorts such as the MDC study are unlikely to be representative of the full invited population. Exploiting data on baseline participants who did not participate in a re-examination can be a simple and useful way to improve the generalizability of prevalence and incidence estimates. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
12 1 - 50 av 56
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • apa.csl
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf