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  • 1. Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Discrimination in the Norwegian Housing Market: Class, Sex and Ethnicity2012In: Land Economics, ISSN 0023-7639, E-ISSN 1543-8325, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test for gender, class, and ethnic discrimination in the Norwegian rental housing market by using fake application letters. Females, individuals with high job status, and ethnic Norwegians are more likely to receive positive responses. For example, being an Arabic man and working in a warehouse is associated with a 25 percentage point lower probability of receiving a positive response when showing interest in an apartment, as compared to an ethnically Norwegian female economist. We conclude that gender, class, and ethnic discrimination do exist in the Norwegian housing market, and ethnic discrimination seems to be the most prevalent form of discrimination.

  • 2. Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Modern mikroekonomi: marknad, politik och välfärd2010Book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    The Effects of Bicycle Helmets and Helmet Legislation on the Severity of Children’s Head InjuriesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Norwegian Social Research (NOVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Are fire safe cigarettes actually fire safe?: Evidence from changes in US state laws2018In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of fire safe cigarette laws on fire mortality and cigarette-related fires in the USA.

    METHODS: We examined the gradual implementation of the laws to identify their average effects, using difference-in-differences analysis to account for common year effects, time-invariant state effects, state-specific trends and observable time-varying state-level covariates.

    RESULTS: We found no statistically significant effects on all-cause fire mortality, residential fire mortality or cigarette-caused fire rates. The estimates for cigarette-caused fire deaths were significant under some specifications, but were not robust to the inclusion of state-specific trends or comparisons to effects on other cause-determined fires.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given the mixed state of our results, we conclude that previous claims regarding the effects of fire safe cigarette laws may be premature.

  • 5.
    Dahlbom, L
    et al.
    Ctr Traumat Stress CTS, SE-65340 Karlstad, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, A
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Norwegian Social Res NOVA.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Norwegian Social Res NOVA.
    Gender and Overconfidence: Are Girls really overconfident?2011In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 325-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research finds that people are overconfident and that men are more overconfident than women. Using a very precise confidence measure, this article shows, however, that whereas boys are overconfident, girls are actually underconfident regarding their mathematics performance. We conducted a survey where 14-year-old high school students were asked what grade they thought they would get in a mathematics test a week later. These results were then compared with their actual grade. Boys were overconfident about their grades, whereas girls were underconfident.

  • 6. De Poli, Silvia
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Schueller, Simone
    The drowning-refugee effect: media salience and xenophobic attitudes2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 16, p. 1167-1172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study whether salient media coverage of refugees drowning in the Mediterranean affects individual xenophobic attitudes. We combine a randomized survey experiment - a variant of the classic trolley dilemma' - that implicitly elicits individual attitudes towards foreigners, with variation in interview timing, and find that such issue salience significantly decreases xenophobic attitudes by 2.2 percentage points. Our results thus support the idea that exposure to news describing immigrants as victims (instead of a threat) can significantly affect public opinion and mitigate bias against immigrants.

  • 7.
    Drange, Ida
    et al.
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Incentive Effects of Cash Benefits among Young People: A Natural Experiment from Norway2018In: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research on active labour market programmes (ALMPs) for young people has revealed either no effect or negative effects on transition rates into employment. In addition to accessing the programme content, participation in ALMPs bestows the right to a supplementary benefit. Yet, the direct effect of this benefit on the use and outcome of ALMPs remains largely unknown. We study the effects of a Norwegian policy that pays much higher benefits to recipients when they reach 19 years of age. This policy provides a natural experimental setting that allows us to utilise the age discontinuity to observe whether young people are more likely to become benefit recipients after their nineteenth birthday, and to estimate the effect of benefits on the labour supply. As age determines the increase in benefits rather than need, it creates a random and exogenous variation in the criteria for allocating cash benefits. We use Norwegian administrative register data that cover all 18 to 19 year olds during the period 2003 to 2012. We find no effect on programme take-up or employment rates. Hence, benefits do not work against the aim of ALMPs and young people's responsiveness to financial incentives cannot explain such programmes’ lack of effects.

  • 8.
    Finseraas, Henning
    et al.
    Institute for Social Research, Oslo.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Does a simple information intervention change the perception of a reform?2014In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 18, p. 1266-1268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of a survey experiment where the respondents were randomly assigned the opportunity to read an information brochure regarding recently implemented changes in the Norwegian pension system. We find that those given the opportunity to read the information material are more likely to believe that the reform has made the pension system easier to understand.

  • 9.
    Finseraas, Henning
    et al.
    Institute for Social Research, Oslo.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Norwegian Social Res NOVA, Oslo, Norway.
    Does information about the pension system affect knowledge and retirement plans?: Evidence from a survey experiment2014In: Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, ISSN 1474-7472, E-ISSN 1475-3022, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 250-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of a survey experiment where the treatment group was provided with an information brochure regarding recently implemented changes in the Norwegian pension system, whereas a control group was not. We find that those who received the information are more likely to respond correctly to questions regarding the new pension system. The information effect is larger for those with high education, but only for the most complex aspect of the reform. Despite greater knowledge of the reform in the treatment group, we find no differences between the treatment and control group in their preferences regarding when to retire or whether to combine work and pension uptake.

  • 10.
    Finseraas, Henning
    et al.
    Institute for Social Research, Oslo.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Trust and Ethnic Fractionalization: the Importance of Religion as a Cross-Cutting Dimension2012In: Kyklos (Basel), ISSN 0023-5962, E-ISSN 1467-6435, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 327-339Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Finseraas, Henning
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Did the Murder of Theo van Gogh Change Europeans' Immigration Policy Preferences?2011In: Kyklos (Basel), ISSN 0023-5962, E-ISSN 1467-6435, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 396-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what degree are preferences determined by fundamental and stable value orientations, or are they vulnerable to exogenous shocks to issue saliency? We exploit that the second round of the European Social Survey was conducted around the time when Mohammed Bouyeri murdered Theo van Gogh on 2 November 2004. The murder was covered extensively across Europe and led to a debate about the impact of mass immigration. We consider the murder as a natural experiment which allows us to explore how a shock to issue saliency affects immigration policy preferences. We compare preferences of those interviewed right before the murder (control group) with those interviewed right after the murder (treatment group). We find robust evidence of a significant treatment effect in a pooled analysis with country fixed effects. However, when we allow the treatment effect to vary across countries, we find evidence of more support for restrictive policy in only three countries (Norway, Spain, and Slovakia).

  • 12. Finseraas, Henning
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    The Gender Gap in Political Preferences: An Empirical Test of a Political Economy Explanation2012In: Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, ISSN 1072-4745, E-ISSN 1468-2893, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 219-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A woman's labor market participation and risk of divorce are argued to be important explanatory factors for the gender gap in political preferences. We utilize a Norwegian data set which allows a rigid test of these arguments because it includes information on vote choice, preferences regarding child and elder care spending, and extensive information on the relationship with the current partner. We find a gender gap in political preferences, but no evidence that it can be explained by women's risk of divorce, while the impact of labor market participation is not robust across specifications. To some extent, the gender gap in voting is driven by unmarried women voting left.

  • 13.
    Finseraas, Henning
    et al.
    Norway.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Norway.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Örebro University.
    Do knowledge gains from public information campaigns persist over time?: Results from a survey experiment on the Norwegian pension reform2017In: Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, ISSN 1474-7472, E-ISSN 1475-3022, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 108-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Government authorities use resources on information campaigns in order to inform citizens about relevant policy changes. The motivation is usually that individuals sometimes are ill-informed about the public policies relevant for their choices. In a survey experiment where the treatment group was provided with public information material on the social security system, we assess the short- and medium-term knowledge effects. We show that the short run effects of the information on knowledge disappear completely within 4 months. The findings illustrate the limits of public information campaigns to improve knowledge about relevant policy reforms.

  • 14.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Attitudes toward municipal income tax rates in Sweden: Do people vote with their feet?2013In: eJournal of Tax Research, ISSN 1448-2398, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 157-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factors shaping people's preferences for municipal labor income tax rates in Sweden are assessed using survey data. The tax rate actually faced by the respondents does not have explanatory power for their attitudes toward the tax rate. The hypothesis that this small or nonexistent effect of the actual tax rate is caused by a Tiebout bias finds no support, yet instrumental variable estimations indicate that the actual municipal tax rate may be of importance for attitudes toward the tax rate. Also, people with higher education, people who regularly read a newspaper, people who agree with the political left, and people who state that they are satisfied with their municipal services are less likely to want to decrease the municipal tax. People with low income, people who claim to have a low level of knowledge about society, and people who agree with the political right are conversely more likely to want to decrease the municipal tax. © School of Taxation and Business Law (Atax), Australian School of Business The University of New South Wales.

  • 15.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Bör antaganden vara orealistiska?2007In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 60-62Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Externaliteter: Varför ska man beskatta bilism och subventionera vaccinationer?2011In: Nationalekonomi för vänstern: Teori för jämlikhet och välfärd / [ed] P Gerlach, Stockholm: Kata Förlag , 2011Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Gender and Confidence: are Women underconfident?2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1057-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research finds that schoolgirls tend to be underconfident with respect to their mathematics performance, while schoolboys tend to be overconfident. We asked Swedish university students (aged 18–35) what grade they thought they would get in a macroeconomics exam 1 week later. These results were compared with their actual grade and we find no evidence of men being overconfident, but women are underconfident about their test performance. These results suggest that the findings that schoolgirls are underconfident about their math performance also carry over to grown-up women studying macroeconomics.

  • 18.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Laws, attitudes and public policy2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Nederländerna2009In: Reform: Förändring och tröghet i välfärdsstaterna / [ed] Peter Santesson-Wilson & Gissur O Erlingsson, Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Norweigan Social Reserach, Oslo, Norway.
    Blom, Sven
    Statistics Norway.
    Did the 2011 terror attacks in Norway change citizens’ attitudes towards immigrants?2014In: International journal of public opinion research, ISSN 0954-2892, E-ISSN 1471-6909, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 475-486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hansen, T
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Er det en sammenheng mellom formell og uformell omsorg i Norge?2012In: Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning, ISSN 0809-2052, E-ISSN 2464-3076, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 168-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Norwegian Social Research, Oslo.
    Do Attitudes toward Gender Equality really Differ between Norway and Sweden?2010In: Journal of European Social Policy, ISSN 0958-9287, E-ISSN 1461-7269, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 142-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using survey data from Norway and Sweden, we assess people’s attitudes toward gender equality. Previous studies argue that these attitudes are more egalitarian in Sweden than in Norway. Similar to previous research, we find that Swedes are more positive towards gender equality in general. However, we find no differences regarding views on egalitarian sharing of household responsibilities, and Norwegians are actually more supportive of government intervention to increase gender equality. This suggests that the lower support for gender equality in Norway is not as clear-cut as previously thought and that active state intervention to improve gender equality may be even more feasible in Norway than in Sweden.

  • 23.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    kotsadam, Andreas
    Gender Equity and Prostitution: An Investigation of Attitudes in Norway and Sweden2011In: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 31-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution assesses attitudes toward prostitution in Norway and Sweden, where it is illegal to buy sex. Sweden's law was put into place in 1999, and Norway followed in 2009. These laws were embedded in different market structures and discourses when enacted. This study uses a 2008 Internet survey to shed light on attitudes toward various aspects of prostitution while controlling for other socio-demographic factors. Findings include that men and sexual liberals of either gender are more likely positive toward prostitution and men and women who are conservative or support gender equality are more negative. Holding anti-immigration views correlates with more positive attitudes toward buying, but not selling, sex. Norwegians are more positive than Swedes toward prostitution. Supporting gender equality has more explanatory power in Sweden than in Norway, which may be due to the use of gender equality to frame the Swedish debate.

  • 24.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    The Law and Economics of International Sex Slavery: Prostitution Laws and Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation2013In: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 87-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International trafficking in humans for sexual exploitation is an economic activity driven by profit motives. Laws regarding commercial sex influence the profitability of trafficking and may thus affect the inflow of trafficking to a country. Using two recent sources of European cross country data we show that trafficking of persons for commercial sexual exploitation (as proxied by the data sets we are using) is least prevalent in countries where prostitution is illegal, most prevalent in countries where prostitution is legalized, and in between in those countries where prostitution is legal but procuring illegal. Case studies of two countries (Norway and Sweden) that have criminalized buying sex support the possibility of a causal link from harsher prostitution laws to reduced trafficking. Although the data do not allow us to infer robust causal inference, the results suggest that criminalizing procuring, or going further and criminalizing buying and/or selling sex, may reduce the amount of trafficking to a country.

  • 25. Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    University of Oslo.
    Jakobsson, Siri Støre
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (BUP), Värmland County Council, Karlstad.
    Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage: The Case of Scandinavia2013In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 60, no 9, p. 1349-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    Norwegian Social Research.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholms universitet.
    Informal Eldercare and Care for Disabled Children in the Nordic Countries: prevalence and relation to employment2013In: Nordic Journal of Social Research, ISSN 1892-2783, E-ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 4, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an international comparison, the Nordic countries are generous care spenders and a relatively large proportion of the populations receive formal care services. However, in respect of service provision, the Nordic countries are less similar today than they were some decades ago. Using survey data from three Nordic countries, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, we first document the differences in informal care between the countries, and then we assess its impact on the relationship between informal caregiving and formal employment. We find that informal care is most common in Denmark and least common in Sweden. However, those who provide care in Sweden provide care more often than people in both Norway and Denmark. There is a negative correlation between being a caregiver and the probability of being employed in Norway and Denmark, but not in Sweden. With specific regard to parental care, there is no general relation between the provision of parental care and employment, but those providing substantial care are clearly less likely to work than others. Caring for a disabled child is less common than caring for a parent, but the negative effects on employment are even stronger.

  • 27.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Kumlin, Staffan
    University of Gothenburg; Norway.
    Election campaign agendas, government partisanship, and the welfare state2017In: European Political Science Review, ISSN 1755-7739, E-ISSN 1755-7747, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 183-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although theoretically contentious, most empirical studies contend that electoral-political factors structure the welfare state. In practice, most studies concentrate on ‘government partisanship’, that is the ideological character of the government. We agree that politics matters but also seek to expand our understanding of what ‘politics’ should be taken to mean. Drawing on recent comparative research on agenda-setting, we study the impact of whether welfare state issues were broadly salient in the public sphere during the election campaign that produced the government. We formulate hypotheses about how such systemic campaign salience and government partisanship (separately and interactively) affect welfare generosity. We also consider how such effects might have changed, taking into account challenges to standard assumptions of representative democracy coming from the ‘new politics of the welfare state’ framework. We combine well-known, but updated, data on welfare state generosity and government partisanship, with original contextual data on campaign salience from 16 West European countries for the years 1980–2008. We find that campaigns matter but also that their impact has changed. During the first half of the examined period (the 1980s and early 1990s), it mainly served to facilitate government partisanship effects on the welfare state. More recently, big-time campaign attention to welfare state issues results in some retrenchment (almost) regardless of who forms the postelection government. This raises concerns about the democratic status of the politics of welfare state reform in Europe.

  • 28.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Norwegian social research.
    Lindholm, Henrik
    Department of Analysis and Forecasts, Swedish Social Insurance Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ethnic Preferences in Internet Dating: A Field Experiment2014In: Marriage and Family Review, ISSN 0149-4929, E-ISSN 1540-9635, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 307-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an Internet field experiment in Sweden, we assessed the importance of ethnicity for successful online dating proposals for men. Randomizing names and occupation and holding physical appearance constant, our findings show that Swedishness is valued in the dating market and Arabs suffer an ethnic penalty, compared with both Swedes and Greeks. This implies that Arabs have a harder time finding dates, also in a frictionless setting as an Internet dating site.

  • 29.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Lönnroth, Johan
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Gör höga skatter Sverige till en vinnare?2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 67-69Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Norwegian Social Research, Oslo, Norway .
    Persson, Mattias
    Örebro University.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Class-size effects on adolescents' mental health and well-being in Swedish schools2013In: Education Economics, ISSN 0964-5292, E-ISSN 1469-5782, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 248-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes whether class size has an effect on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being among adolescents in Swedish schools. We use cross-sectional data collected in year 2008 covering 2755 Swedish adolescents in ninth grade from 40 schools and 159 classes. We utilize different econometric approaches to address potential between- and within-school endogeneity including school-fixed effects and regression discontinuity approaches. Our results indicate no robust effects of class size on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being, and we cannot reject the hypothesis that class size has no effect on mental health and well-being at all.

  • 31.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Norwegian Social Res NOVA, Oslo, Norway..
    Svensson, Mikael
    Univ Orebro, Dept Econ, Orebro, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Hlth Metr, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    The effect of copayments on primary care utilization: results from a quasi-experiment2016In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 48, no 39, p. 3752-3762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses how health-care utilization is affected by copayments in a tax-financed health-care system. The article utilizes a natural experiment in which a health-care region in Sweden changed the price of healthcare in such a way that primary care general physician prices increased by 33%. We use daily visit data in the treatment region and a neighbouring control region where no price change took place and analyse the effect using differences-in-differences as well as differences-in-differences-in-differences models. The results from the preferred models indicate no effect on health-care utilization due to the price change, a result that also holds across different socio-economic subregions in the treatment region.

  • 32.
    Johansson, N.
    et al.
    Health Metrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Norwegian Social Res NOVA, Oslo, Norway.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Williams Coll, Dept Econ, Williamstown, MA 01267 USA.
    Regional variation in health care utilization in Sweden: The importance of demand-side factors2018In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Differences in health care utilization across geographical areas are well documented within several countries. If the variation across areas cannot be explained by differences in medical need, it can be a sign of inefficiency or misallocation of public health care resources. Methods: In this observational, longitudinal panel study we use regional level data covering the 21 Swedish regions (county councils) over 13 years and a random effects model to assess to what degree regional variation in outpatient physician visits is explained by observed demand factors such as health, demography and socio-economic factors. Results: The results show that regional mortality, as a proxy for population health, and demography do not explain regional variation in visits to primary care physicians, but explain about 50% of regional variation in visits to outpatient specialists. Adjusting for socio-economic and basic supply-side factors explains 33% of the regional variation in primary physician visits, but adds nothing to explaining the variation in specialist visits. Conclusion: 50-67% of regional variation remains unexplained by a large number of observable regional characteristics, indicating that omitted and possibly unobserved factors contribute substantially to the regional variation. We conclude that variations in health care utilization across regions is not very well explained by underlying medical need and demand, measured by mortality, demographic and socio-economic factors.

  • 33.
    Jonsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Polit Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Karlstad Business Sch, Karlstad, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Is buying sex morally wrong?: Comparing attitudes toward prostitution using individual-level data across eight Western European countries2017In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 61, p. 58-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    States try to combat sex trafficking through both the criminalization of buying sex and by entirely legalizing or regulating the market for prostitution. Proponents of criminalization argue that this approach leads to less acceptance of prostitution, creating a smaller sex market, and reducing the inflow of trafficked victims. Few studies examine if prostitution laws are associated with attitudes toward prostitution. We assess attitudes in eight European countries, using newly collected survey data. This is one of few studies comparing attitudes across different prostitution regimes. Citizens in countries where the purchase of sex is criminalized are less tolerant toward the buying of sex compared to citizens living in countries where the purchase of sex is legalized. Also, people viewing gender equality as important are less accepting of the purchase in countries where buying sex is prohibited, but more accepting in countries where buying sex and running a brothel are legal. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 34. Kotsadam, Andreas
    et al.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do laws affect attitudes?: An assessment of the Norwegian Prostitution Law using Longitudinal Data2011In: International Review of Law and Economics, ISSN 0144-8188, E-ISSN 1873-6394, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 103-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of whether laws affect attitudes has inspired scholars across many disciplines, but empirical knowledge is sparse. Using longitudinal survey data from Norway and Sweden, collected before and after the implementation of a Norwegian law criminalizing the purchase of sexual services, we assess the short-run effects on attitudes using a difference-in-differences approach. In the general population, the law did not affect moral attitudes toward prostitution. However, in the Norwegian capital, where prostitution was more visible before the reform, the law made people more negative toward buying sex. This supports the claim that proximity and visibility are important factors for the internalization of legal norms.

  • 35.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Norwgian social research.
    Shame on you, John! Laws, stigmatization, and the demand for sex2014In: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 393-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article contributes to the literature on prostitution by shedding light on the effects of the criminalization of buying sex on the amount of prostitution bought, as well as on the proposed theoretical mechanisms underlying this change. We find indications that criminalizing the buying of sex may decrease the quantity of sex bought. While we find that stigma influences the demand for sex, we do not find that stigma increases as a result of the law. Therefore, the possible reduced quantity of sex bought is probably due to the more direct risk of getting caught.

  • 36.
    Kotsadam, Andreas
    et al.
    Olso universitet.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Uformell eldreomsorg: et hinder for kvinner på arbetsmarkedet?2012In: Søkelys på arbeidsmarkedet, ISSN 0800-6199, E-ISSN 1504-7970, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 97-110Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 36 of 36
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