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  • 1.
    Hernandez Benet, Cristian
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Nasim, Robayet
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Alizadeh Noghani, Kyoomars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    OpenStackEmu - A Cloud Testbed Combining Network Emulation with OpenStack and SDN2017In: Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC), 2017 14th IEEE Annual, IEEE, 2017, p. 566-568Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OpenStack has been widely acknowledged to be one of the most important open source cloud platforms. In order to perform experimentally driven research in the area of cloud and cloud networking, there is however a big gap, because most researchers do not have access to a large cloud deployment and cannot change networking or compute infrastructure in order to test their algorithms and protocols on a large-scale. We developed OpenStackEmu, which is to the best of our knowledge the first attempt that combines OpenStack infrastructure with a Software Defined Networking (SDN) based controller such as OpenDaylight and a large-scale network emulator CORE (Common Open Research Emulator). The OpenStack compute and control nodes are connected to the CORE emulation server using TUN/TAP interfaces that inject the control (e.g. for VM migration) and data (VM-to-VM traffic) packets into a customizable network topology that is emulated using configurable Open vSwitches using CORE emulator. Experimenters can define e.g. fat-tree or distributed data center topologies and study the behavior of real VMs and services in those VMs under different background loads and SDN routing policies. We integrated the data center traffic generator DCT2Gen that allows to generate realistic background traffic based on traces from real data centers. Experimenters can study the performance impact of different VM migration strategies or different routing and load balancing schemes on real VM and application performance using different emulated topologies. We believe that OpenStackEmu is an important tool for both the SDN and OpenStack community in order to evaluate the performance of novel algorithms and protocols in the area of cloud networking.

  • 2.
    Nasim, Robayet
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Architectural Evolution of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) using Cloud Computing2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of Smart Cities, Intelligent Transport System (ITS) has become an efficient way of offering an accessible, safe, and sustainable transportation system. Utilizing advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), ITS can maximize the capacity of existing transportation system without building new infrastructure. However, in spite of these technical feasibilities and significant performance-cost ratios, the deployment of ITS is limited in the real world because of several challenges associated with its architectural design.

    This thesis studies how to design a highly flexible and deployable architecture for ITS, which can utilize the recent technologies such as - cloud computing and the publish/subscribe communication model. In particular, our aim is to offer an ITS infrastructure which provides the opportunity for transport authorities to allocate on-demand computing resources through virtualization technology, and supports a wide range of ITS applications. We propose to use an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) model to host large-scale ITS applications for transport authorities in the cloud, which reduces infrastructure cost, improves management flexibility and also ensures better resource utilization. Moreover, we use a publish/subscribe system as a building block for developing a low latency ITS application, which is a promising technology for designing scalable and distributed applications within the ITS domain. Although cloud-based architectures provide the flexibility of adding, removing or moving ITS services within the underlying physical infrastructure, it may be difficult to provide the required quality of service (QoS) which decrease application productivity and customer satisfaction, leading to revenue losses. Therefore, we investigate the impact of service mobility on related QoS in the cloud-based infrastructure. We investigate different strategies to improve performance of a low latency ITS application during service mobility such as utilizing multiple paths to spread network traffic, or deploying recent queue management schemes.

    Evaluation results from a private cloud testbed using OpenStack show that our proposed architecture is suitable for hosting ITS applications which have stringent performance requirements in terms of scalability, QoS and latency.

  • 3.
    Nasim, Robayet
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Cost- and Performance-Aware Resource Management in Cloud Infrastructures2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High availability, cost effectiveness and ease of application deployment have accelerated the adoption rate of cloud computing. This fast proliferation of cloud computing promotes the rapid development of large-scale infrastructures. However, large cloud datacenters (DCs) require infrastructure, design, deployment, scalability and reliability and need better management techniques to achieve sustainable design benefits. Resources inside cloud infrastructures often operate at low utilization, rarely exceeding 20-30%, which increases the operational cost significantly, especially due to energy consumption. To reduce operational cost without affecting quality of service (QoS) requirements, cloud applications should be allocated just enough resources to minimize their completion time or to maximize utilization. 

    The focus of this thesis is to enable resource-efficient and performance-aware cloud infrastructures by addressing above mentioned cost and performance related challenges. In particular, we propose algorithms, techniques, and deployment strategies for improving the dynamic allocation of virtual machines (VMs) into physical machines (PMs). 

    For minimizing the operational cost, we mainly focus on optimizing energy consumption of PMs by applying dynamic VM consolidation methods. To make VM consolidation techniques more efficient, we propose to utilize multiple paths to spread traffic and deploy recent queue management schemes which can maximize network resource utilization and reduce both downtime and migration time for live migration techniques. In addition, a dynamic resource allocation scheme is presented to distribute workloads among geographically dispersed DCs considering their location based time varying costs due to e.g. carbon emission or bandwidth provision. For optimizing performance level objectives, we focus on interference among applications contending in shared resources and propose a novel VM consolidation scheme considering sensitivity of the VMs to their demanded resources. Further, to investigate the impact of uncertain parameters on cloud resource allocation and applications’ QoS such as unpredictable variations in demand, we develop an optimization model based on the theory of robust optimization. Furthermore, in order to handle the scalability issues in the context of large scale infrastructures, a robust and fast Tabu Search algorithm is designed and evaluated.

  • 4.
    Nasim, Robayet
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Diameter Single Sign On – Secureand Personalized Service Provision via Authenticationand Authorization Mechanisms2012In: Advances in Computer Science and Information Technology. Networks and Communications: Second International Conference, CCSIT 2012, Bangalore, India, January 2-4, 2012. Proceedings, Part I, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 573-581Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network Services universally rely upon Authentication and Authorization mechanisms to ensure secure and personalized service provision. Protocols, such as Diameter provides a reliable framework for efficient accesscontrol to network services utilized by network devices. This framework canalso encompass application level services e.g. web applications accessed viaweb browsers [1]. On the other hand, the prevalence of Internet based servicesand applications have brought about the burden of identity managementamong distributed security domains, an issue not specifically addressed byprotocols such as Diameter. Efforts such as OpenID alleviate this difficulty byproposing an application level framework based on open standards to realizesingle sign on/off [ 2 ]semantics with regard to application level services. However, these technologies do not build upon existing security infrastructure, require significant investment in terms of technology adoption and have yet to receive industry wide acceptance and support. This paper presents Diameter Single Sign On – a framework that provides single sign on/off semantics in the context of network and application level services by harnessing the strengths of existing and proven authentication and authorization infrastructure. Because of combination of the Diameter protocol with Single Sign On and OpenID the proposed architecture overcomes the problem of identity managementand also builds on existing security infrastructure.

  • 5.
    Nasim, Robayet
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Security Threats Analysis in Bluetooth-Enabled Mobile Devices2012In: International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications, ISSN 0975-2307, E-ISSN 0974-9330, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 41-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exponential growth of the volume of Bluetooth-enabled devices indicates that it has become a popularway of wireless interconnections for exchanging information. The main goal of this paper is to analyzethe most critical Bluetooth attacks in real scenarios. In order to find out the major vulnerabilities inmodern Bluetooth-enabled mobile devices several attacks have performed successfully such as-Surveillance, Obfuscation, Sniffing, Unauthorized Direct Data Access (UDDA) and Man-in-the-MiddleAttack (MITM). To perform the testbed, several devices are used such as mobile phones, laptops,notebooks, wireless headsets, etc. and all the tests are carried out by pen-testing software like hcittml, braudit,spoafiooph, hridump, bluesnarfer, bluebugger and carwhisperer

  • 6.
    Nasim, Robayet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Buchegger, Sonja
    KTH Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    XACML-Based Access Control for Decentralized Online Social Networks2014In: 2014 IEEE/ACM 7th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing (UCC 2014): Proceedings of a meeting held 8-11 December 2014, London, United Kingdom., IEEE, 2014, p. 671-676Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing popularity of Online SocialNetworks (OSNs), one type of Big Data, namely personal,sensitive, and behavioral information, is being collected, analyzed,and spread on the Internet. As the collection and mining ofuser data improves, both qualitatively and quantitatively, users’privacy is more and more at risk. Current OSNs and other web services are, at least logically, centralized and thus morevulnerable to accidental or deliberate privacy leaks as wellas inference. Decentralization, taking away the control of asingle service provider, can be a step toward preserving theusers’ privacy and giving them control over their own data.Even after removing the threats from centralized big data, theusers’ personal data needs to be protected from unauthorizedaccess. In contrast to other proposals for decentralized OSNs,we aim to provide the basis for a privacy-preserving systembuilt from light-weight and readily available components, namelythe eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) andthe Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) with secretkeyauthentication, including simple ways of formulating accesspolicies for users. We find that this combination provides astraightforward way of keeping and deliberately sharing personalinformation with other users that is robust against a range ofattacks including unauthorized access at least in the case of everyuser’s profile being stored on machines under their control. One can consider replicas on trusted servers; storage on untrustedservers, however, is left for future work.

  • 7.
    Nasim, Robayet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    A Robust Tabu Search Heuristic for VM Consolidation under Demand Uncertainity in Virtualized Datacenters2017In: CCGrid '17 Proceedings of the 17th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing, IEEE, 2017, p. 170-180Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In virtualized datacenters (vDCs), dynamic consolidation of virtual machines (VMs) is used as one of the most common techniques to achieve both energy- and resource- utilization efficiency. Live migrations of VMs are used for dynamic consolidation but due to dynamic resource demand variation of VMs may lead to frequent and non-optimal migrations. Assuming deterministic workload of the VMs may ensure the most energy/resource efficient VM allocations but eventually may lead to significant resource contention or under-utilization if the workload varies significantly over time. On the other hand, adopting a conservative approach by allocating VMs depending on their peak demand may lead to low utilization, if the peak occurs infrequently or for a short period of time. Therefore, in this work we design a robust VM migration scheme that strikes a balance between protection for resource contention and additional energy costs due to powering on more servers while considering uncertainties on VMs resource demands. We use the theory of Gamma-robustness and derive a robust Mixed Integer Linear programming (MILP) formulation. Due to the complexity, the problem is hard to solve for online optimization and we propose a novel heuristic based on Tabu search. Using several scenarios, we show that that the proposed heuristic can achieve near optimal solution qualities in a short time and scales well with the instance sizes. Moreover, we quantitatively analyze the trade-off between energy cost versus protection level and robustness.

  • 8.
    Nasim, Robayet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Deploying OpenStack: Virtual Infrastructure or Dedicated Hardware2014In: Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), 2014 IEEE 38th International, IEEE, 2014, p. 84-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is a computing model through which resources such as - infrastructure, applications or software are offered as services to the users. Cloud computing offers the opportunity of virtualization through deploying multiple virtual machines (VMs) on single physical machine, which increases resource utilization and reduces power consumption. The main benefit of a virtualized technology relies on its on-demand resource allocation strategy and flexible management. OpenStack is one of the promising open source solutions which offers infrastructure as a service. This paper covers how underlying infrastructure for deployment affects the performance of OpenStack. The aim is to provide a comparative view on the performance of OpenStack while deploying it over a virtual environment versus using dedicated hardware. We conduct three basic tests on both environments to check CPU performance, data transfer rate, and bandwidth. The results show that OpenStack over dedicated hardware performs much better than OpenStack over virtualized environment.

  • 9.
    Nasim, Robayet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Distributed Architectures for Intelligent Transport Systems: A Survey2012In: 2012 Second Symposium on Network Cloud Computing and Applications (NCCA), IEEE Press, 2012, p. 130-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) have acted as an efficient solution for improving the operational performance of traffic systems, reducing traffic congestion, and increasing safety for the travelers. But due to the inclusion of different distributed transport departments, heterogeneous devices, and diverse data sources, the architecture of ITS has become complex and costly. For an efficient and cost-effective architecture, ITS need to have easy and effective mechanisms for interacting among different transport subsystems. Recent technologies such as – service-oriented architectures (SOA), cloud or grid computing, provide a way of building a reliable and loosely-coupled distributed system. This paper surveys the promising solutions for distributed architectures of ITS and discusses opportunities and challenges in the context of ITS for public transport.

  • 10.
    Nasim, Robayet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Network-centric Performance Improvement for Live VM Migration2015In: 2015 IEEE 8th International Conference on Cloud Computing, IEEE, 2015, p. 106-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Live Virtual Machine (VM) migrations are an important tool that is used in modern datacenters in order to e.g. consolidate server racks for maintenance or optimize VM placements across physical hosts. However, live VM migration causes a lot of network stress due to the potential large volume of data that is transmitted between the physical hosts, which may negatively impact other latency sensitive VM to VM traffic. As VM downtime and the time to migrate depend on the allocated resources for migration traffic, it is important to manage the network resources for live VM migration traffic. In this work, we improve the performance for both live VM migration traffic and VM to VM communication using three strategies. First, we take advantage out of the path diversity available in modern datacenters and utilize multipath TCP (MPTCP) for live VM traffic. Second, we implement flexible use of queue management strategies such as FQ_CODEL or Hierarchy Token Bucket (HTB). Finally, we orchestrate the process into OpenStack Neutron and connect it together with an SDN control application, which runs on OpenDaylight. An extensive evaluation in our OpenStack testbed using different VM workload patterns and VM sizes shows, that FQ_CODEL can bring down VM to VM latency during ongoing migrations while MPTCP effectively aggregates bandwidth of multiple paths to reduce live VM migration latency and downtime.

  • 11.
    Nasim, Robayet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    The Impact of Underlying Infrastructure on Performance of Private Cloud Deployments2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Nasim, Robayet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Žarko, Ivana Podnar
    Croatia.
    Antonic, Aleksandar
    Croatia.
    Mobile Publish/Subscribe System for Intelligent Transport Systems over a Cloud Environment2014In: 2014 International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC 2014): Proceedings of a meeting held 8-12 September 2014, London, United Kingdom, IEEE, 2014, p. 187-195Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of Smart Cities, public transport authorities are more and more interested in Intelligent Transport System (ITS) applications that allow to process a large amount of static and real time data in order to make public transport smarter. However, deploying such applications in a large scale distributed environment is challenging and requires an automated, scalable, flexible, elastic, loosely-coupled communication models in order to dynamically link information providers and consumers. To this end, Publish/Subscribe (Pub/Sub) systems offer an asynchronous, dynamic, decoupled interaction scheme that is perfectly suitable for developing up-to-date, large-scale distributed applications within the ITS domain. In addition, cloud computing offers computational resources as services to utility driven model regardless of considering geographical locations in a scalable, elastic, fault tolerant and cost-effective way. In this work, we build an ITS application “Real-time Public Transit Tracking” on top of a Mobile Pub/Sub System (MoPS), and deploy it over an open source cloud platform, OpenStack, in order to achieve high performance and flexible management. We conduct a set of experiments to evaluate the performance of the implemented ITS application in terms of scalability, resource usage, and efficiency of the underlying matching algorithm under automated mobility of the subscribers. Our experimental results show that the ITS application can handle a large number of subscribers and publishers with proper reliability and negligible notification delay under real-time constraints. Further, we present a measurement study to characterize the impact of different workloads on the performance of OpenStack.

  • 13.
    Nasim, Robayet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Maswood, Mirza Mohd Shahriar
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Medhi, Deep
    Cost-Efficient Resource Scheduling under QoS Constraints for Geo-Distributed Data Centers2018In: NOMS 2018 - 2018 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geo-distributed Data Centers (DCs) are more and more common in order to provide scalability for the ever increasing compute demands of modern applications. When multiple distributed DCs can serve user requests, it is important to determine, which DC and server to select to fulfil the compute request, given that enough resources are available in terms of CPU and bandwidth. The problem is complicated as every DC has different operational costs associated, such as energy costs, carbon emission cost and bandwidth costs. In this paper, we develop a novel mathematical optimization model that guides the decision maker which DC to select, which server to use to host the compute demands and which DC gateway and network path to use to route the network traffic in order to satisfy the compute, bandwidth and latency demands. Our model includes the queuing delay depending on the traffic load in the model. Our extensive numerical evaluation based on real-world DC locations, demand patterns and resource provision costs shows how operational cost increases with traffic load, and we analyse the impact of different latency bounds on the performance of different virtual networks.

  • 14.
    Nasim, Robayet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Taheri, Javid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Optimizing Virtual Machine Consolidation in Virtualized Datacenters Using Resource Sensitivity2016In: Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), 2016 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2016, p. 168-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In virtualized datacenters (vDCs), dynamic consolidation of virtual machines (VMs) is used to achieve both energy-efficiency and load balancing among different physical machines (PMs). Using VM live migrations, we can consolidate VMs on a smaller number of hosts to power down unused PMs and save energy. Most migration schemes are however oblivious to the characteristics of services that run inside VMs, and thus may lead to migrations where VMs competing for the same resource type are packed on the same PM. As a result, VMs may suffer from significant resource contention and noticeable degradation in their performance. Using resource sensitivity values of VMs (ie, quantitative measures to reflect how much a VM is sensitive to its requested resources such as CPU, Mem, and Disk), we have designed a novel VM consolidation approach to optimize placement of VMs on available PMs. We validated our approach using five well-known applications/benchmarks with various resource demand signatures: varying from pure CPU/Mem/Disk-intensive to mixtures of them. Our extensive numerical evaluation illustrates that, for the same power consumption, our approach improve the performance of cloud services by 9 - 12\%, on average, when compared with current sensitivity oblivious approaches.

  • 15.
    Nasim, Robayet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Zola, Enrica
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Spain..
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Robust Optimization for Energy-Efficient Virtual Machine Consolidation in Modern Datacenters2018In: Cluster Computing, ISSN 1386-7857, E-ISSN 1573-7543, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 1681-1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficient Virtual Machine (VM) consolidation in modern data centers is typically optimized using methods such as Mixed Integer Programming, which typically require precise input to the model. Unfortunately, many parameters are uncertain or very difficult to predict precisely in the real world. As a consequence, a once calculated solution may be highly infeasible in practice. In this paper, we use methods from robust optimization theory in order to quantify the impact of uncertainty in modern data centers. We study the impact of different parameter uncertainties on the energy efficiency and overbooking ratios such as e.g. VM resource demands, migration related overhead or the power consumption model of the servers used. We also show that setting aside additional resource to cope with uncertainty of workload influences the overbooking ratio of the servers and the energy consumption. We show that, by using our model, Cloud operators can calculate a more robust migration schedule leading to higher total energy consumption. A more risky operator may well choose a more opportunistic schedule leading to lower energy consumption but also higher risk of SLA violation.

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