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  • 1.
    Aichigui, Victor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Logistik- och kvalitetsutveckling.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Linköpings universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Servitization in SME manufacturing firms: A one-way road2015In: Proceedings of QUIS 14: The 14th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence inManagement 2015, 2015, Vol. 14, p. 965-968Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance for manufacturing firms to add services to their offerings has been asserted over and over again (Neu and Brown 2005). Adding services to product sales require manufacturing firms to develop other types of offerings such as maintenance services, hybrid offerings or integrated solutions. This implies using new and often unknown practices to be able to provide services. Previous research has focused on the benefits of servitization (Gebauer, Gustafsson, and Witell 2011), albeit in larger firms. Hence, similar research on Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME) has been scarce. Furthermore, servitization as a unidirectional transition process can be questioned as researchers argue that manufacturing firms might offer different types of services simultaneously and might not have the intention to take the next step that a transition process suggests (Kowalkowski et al. 2015). Moreover, previous research shows that the step from offering after-sales services and repair to offering more advanced services, e.g. process-related services, is rather big. For those services different mindsets are required within the organization; more advanced services would require a service oriented mindset, whereas after-sales services only requires the firm to have a product oriented mindset (Löfberg 2014).

  • 2. Antoni, M.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Dahlgaard, J.
    Inter-Project Improvement in Product Development2005In: , International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, vol. 22, issue 9, pp. 876-893Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bolton, Ruth N.
    et al.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Cheung, Lilliemay
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gallan, Andrew
    DePaul University, USA.
    Orsingher, Chiara
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Linköpings Universitet, Sweden.
    Zaki, Mohamed
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Customer experience challenges: bringing together digital, physical and social realms2018In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 776-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore innovations in customer experience at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. It explicitly considers experiences involving new technology-enabled services, such as digital twins and automated social presence (i.e. virtual assistants and service robots). Design/methodology/approach Future customer experiences are conceptualized within a three-dimensional space - low to high digital density, low to high physical complexity and low to high social presence - yielding eight octants. Findings The conceptual framework identifies eight dualities, or specific challenges connected with integrating digital, physical and social realms that challenge organizations to create superior customer experiences in both business-to-business and business-to-consumer markets. The eight dualities are opposing strategic options that organizations must reconcile when co-creating customer experiences under different conditions. Research limitations/implications A review of theory demonstrates that little research has been conducted at the intersection of the digital, physical and social realms. Most studies focus on one realm, with occasional reference to another. This paper suggests an agenda for future research and gives examples of fruitful ways to study connections among the three realms rather than in a single realm. Practical implications This paper provides guidance for managers in designing and managing customer experiences that the authors believe will need to be addressed by the year 2050. Social implications This paper discusses important societal issues, such as individual and societal needs for privacy, security and transparency. It sets out potential avenues for service innovation in these areas. Originality/value The conceptual framework integrates knowledge about customer experiences in digital, physical and social realms in a new way, with insights for future service research, managers and public policy makers.

  • 4. Brown, Stephen
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Benefits and Hurdles of Transforming Manufacturers into Solution Providers2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Brown, Stephen
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Successful transformation of manufacturing companies into service providers2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    et al.
    Propia AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Changing from a Product to a Process Perspective for Service Improvements in a Manufacturing Company2010In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 26-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate service improvements in a manufacturing context.

    Design/methodology/approach – Action research at the gas turbine manufacturer Siemens was performed during a five-year period. In addition, 336 fault reports sent to the service division concerning severity, cost, and occurrence were analyzed.

    Findings – When moving from a fire-fighting culture to a proactive culture, a company needs to change from a product to a process perspective. The benefit of changing from a product to a process perspective is the change in focus from reduction of internal costs to value creation through service delivery.

    Practical implications – This paper shows how feedback from dissatisfied customers can be used as a driving factor in process improvements. Based on this knowledge, a company can select the most important Six Sigma projects to improve their service processes. The change from a product to a process perspective shows that traditionally the severity of almost 50 percent of all faults is underestimated.

    Originality/value – The paper provides a number of fruitful insights on how to work with service improvements in manufacturing companies.

  • 7. Dahlgaard, J. J.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Self-Assessment Using a Survey Approach: Benchmarking Performance and Identifying Improvement Areas2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8. Dahlgaard, J. J.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Self-Assessment Using a Survey Approach: The Role of Importance Weights2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Dahlgaard, J. J.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Understanding Excellence: Benchmarking Performance and Identifying Improvement Areas2002In: European QualityArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Dahlgaard, J.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A Route to Understand and Improve Quality In: Six Sigma and Related Studies in the Quality Disciplines2003In: The Best on Quality Book Series of the International Academy for Quality, ASQ Quality Press, Milwaukee, Wisconsin / [ed] Edited by Kenneth S. Stephens, 2003Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Davidsson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Degree of Service-orientation in the pulp and paper industry2009In: International Journal of Services Technology and Management, ISSN 1460-6720, E-ISSN 1741-525X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 24-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies in the process industries are seeing the advantages of services but are struggling with the changes these require as regards the offering and the organisation. This paper presents an empirical investigation within the pulp and paper industry based on a survey of Swedish manufacturing firms and a multiple case study of three case companies and their customers. To investigate whether the manufacturers active in this industry are product-oriented or are becoming more service-oriented, five themes important to the companies under study are presented and discussed: that is, finding the right mix of physical products and services, the concept of service, business models, technology-based services and organising service delivery.

  • 12.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    New service development from the perspective of value co-creation in a service system2014In: Handbook on Research in Service Marketing / [ed] Roland T Rust, Ming-Hui Hung, Boston: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Integration in Service Innovation2010In: The handbook of Innovation and Services: A multi-disciplinary perspective / [ed] Faïz Gallouj & Faridah Djellal, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 301-317Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Service Innovation and Customer Co-development2010In: The Handbook of Service Science: a research perspective / [ed] Maglio, Paul P.; Kieliszewski, Cheryl A.; Spohrer, James C. (Eds.), New York, USA: Springer , 2010, p. 561-578Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, B., Gustafsson, A. and Witell, L2008In: Customer Integration in Service Innovation, 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Services Marketing: History, Current trends and the Future2005In: Marketing: Broadening the Horizons / [ed] Stefan Lagrosen and Göran Svensson, Studentlitteratur , 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Varför lyssna och lära av kunder i utveckling av konkurrenskraftia tjänster?2008In: Marknadsföring - myter och möjligheter?, Liber , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Meiren, Thomas
    Schäfer, Adrienne
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Having a strategy for new service development: does it really matter?2013In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to investigate the role of key strategic factors in new service development (NSD). In particular, the role of service development strategy, a formalised development process, integrated development teams and customer co-creation were investigated and the results were compared with managers' beliefs.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study used a sample of more than 500 service development projects to test a NSD conceptual model. Regression analysis was used to test the relative importance of the key strategic factors, and the results were compared with managers' beliefs.

    Findings – The results show that managers believe that customer co-creation is most important in order to succeed with NSD. However, contrary to management belief, a service development strategy is the “missing link” in improving NSD performance. In addition, the research highlighted an interaction effect between integrated development teams and customer co-creation, which means that project managers should focus on individual competencies on the development team and how they interact with customers throughout the NSD process.

    Originality/value – For a long time, NSD has failed to receive the attention it deserves, not just in practice but also in service research. This study shows that the number of new services put on the market and then withdrawn because of low sales remains as high as 43 per cent. This paper contributes knowledge on how to reduce the number of failures in NSD by pointing out the key strategic factors that influence NSD performance.

  • 19.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Meiren, Thomas
    Schäffer, Adrienne
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Customer Integration in NSD: Are there any differences between manufacturing and service companies?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    A conceptualisation of service innovation as reconfiguration of actors, resources and institutions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Key concepts in Service Innovation Research - ACTORS, RESOURCES AND INSTITUTIONS2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Identifying Satisfiers and Disatisfiers in the Service Encounter2005In: Asian Journal on Quality, Vol. vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 8-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers in Services - The Role of Time and Customer - Employee Interaction in Problem Resolution2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers in the Service Encounter2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Tjänstekvalitet2012In: Den svenska tjänstesektorn / [ed] Henrik Jordahl, 2012, p. 345-360Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26. Elg, M. GauthereauV.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Att Lyckas med Förbättringsarbete2007Book (Refereed)
  • 27. Elg, M.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Blomkvist, O.
    Managerial Implications for Customer Focused Product Development1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linkoping University.
    Engstrom, Jon
    Linkoping University.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping University.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linkoping University.
    Co-creation and learning in health-care service development2012In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 328-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a model for patient co-creation and learning based on diaries for use in health-care service development. In particular, the study aims to investigate the process of patient co-creation and different mechanisms through which health-care service providers can learn from the patient. Design/methodology/approach - The study is based on an action research approach. First, a development phase for patient co-creation and learning leading to a proposed model was conducted. Second, a test phase of the diary-based method was performed on 53 patients in three cases: orthopaedic care, rehabilitation care and gastroenterology care. Findings - The study suggests a model for co-creation and learning in health-care service development through three learning methods. First, the model may be used as a means for generating and collecting patient ideas; second, a single patient's story can be illustrated and can serve as incentive for health-care service development and creation of patient-centred care; finally, a larger number of diaries can be analysed and combined with patient surveys to provide a deeper understanding of how the patient experiences health care services. Originality/value - This study extends the research on diary-based methods as an operationalisation of co-creation in two ways. First, the study offers new and more diverse ways of using the rich material provided by customer diaries in the development of services. Second, the study suggests a co-creation approach of involving patients in health-care service development through patient diaries.

  • 29.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers, Div Qual Sci, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hellstrom, Andreas
    Chalmers, Div Qual Sci, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, Linkoping, Sweden..
    The role of quality managers in contemporary organisations2011In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 795-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question for firms nowadays is how to organise work with quality management. This naturally includes the role of the quality managers and it appears as if the profession of quality managers is at a crossroads. Alternatives are that the role of a quality manager broadens to include quality at a strategic level in the firm and that Six Sigma specialists and Lean Production managers drive the development of quality management in the future. In this paper, we present the results from a survey of 212 quality managers in Swedish organisations. The purpose is to contribute to an understanding of how the management of quality is designed and practised in contemporary organisations. This study shows that a quality manager's operational responsibility is quite narrowly defined. The agenda of the quality manager is mainly related to quality standards, such as ISO 9000 and environmental management systems. These programmes frame the work of the quality manager, which in many cases leaves other programmes, such as Six Sigma and Lean Production, to other departments or parallel improvement structures.

  • 30.
    Fischer, Thomas
    et al.
    University of S.t Gallen, Switzerland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    EAVAG, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Managerial Recommendations for Service Innovations in Different Procuct-service systems2009In: Introduction to Product/Service-Design Systems / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao & Martin Lindahl, Springer London, 2009, p. 237-259Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31. Fombelle, Paul
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Influence of a Small Gift and a Personal Greeting on the Customer Experience2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Forkmann, Sebastian
    et al.
    Univ Alabama, USA.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    Queen Mary University London, UK.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet.
    Driver Configurations for Successful Service Infusion2017In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 275-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers across many industries use service infusion to address the changing customer demands and improve their competitive position. However, understanding the drivers of successful service infusion is a complex process. Using business model and configuration theories, this study conceptualizes and analyzes the interplay of different driver domains for suppliers, customers, and their business relationships. In particular, we analyze how service offering, service pricing, service capabilities, and the service infusion process interact in affecting service infusion success and failure. 137 interviews relating to 25 business relationships are analyzed via configuration analysis, particularly fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Results show that different equifinal configurations exist (i.e., different ways to succeed with service infusion). We also find that more is not always better. For example, service infusion success can be achieved without fully developed service capabilities. In addition, successful configurations are often very similar to those leading to failure. A dyadic analysis demonstrates that customer service capabilities are overall more important than those of suppliers. From these findings, we derive priorities for future research. In particular, our study points toward the need to better understand the interplay between service infusion drivers. Second, we advocate the augmentation of research perspectives in service infusion by taking into account the supplier, customer, and dyadic perspectives. Lastly, the importance of understanding drivers of service infusion failure is highlighted. For managers, our study shows the importance of relational audits as a starting point to deciding on how to infuse services in a business relationship.

  • 33. Forsberg, T.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    QFD på TAC ett naturligt arbetssätt In:1998In: QFD Vägen till nöjdare kunder i teori och praktik / [ed] Anders Gustafsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 1998Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34. Forsberg, T.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Antoni, M.
    Process Orientation: The Swedish Experience1999In: Total Quality ManagementArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Fundin, A.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Using Kano's theory of attractive quality to better understand customer experiences with e-services2003In: Asian Journal on Quality, Vol. vol. 4, No. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Fundin, A.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Using the Kano model and technology readiness to better understand customer satisfaction with e-services2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Match or Mismatch: Strategy-Structure Configuration in the Service Business of Manufacturing Companies2010In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 198-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new trend seems to be emerging for multinational manufacturing companies to make a strategic reorientation into becoming service providers. For some companies, such as Kone and IBM, the revenues from services are 50% or more of their total sales. Despite the increasing interest in exploring various aspects of the service part of the business in manufacturing companies, existing research has not focused on the interdependencies between different service strategies and organizational designs. This article studies different service strategies in manufacturing companies and highlights the organizational design necessary for implementing each service strategy. The service strategies explored are aftersales service providers, customer support service providers, outsourcing partners, and development partners. Each service strategy is supported by organizational design factors related to the service orientation of corporate culture, the service orientation of human resource management, and the service orientation of organizational structures. This research concludes that a specific strategy-structure configuration is needed in order to succeed with a chosen service strategy

  • 38.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Eawag Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Innovat Res Util Sect Cirus, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Competitive advantage through service differentiation by manufacturing companies2011In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 64, no 12, p. 1270-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship among the complexity of customer needs, customer centricity, innovativeness, service differentiation, and business performance within the context of companies that have made a service transition from pure goods providers to service providers. A survey of 332 manufacturing companies provides the basis for the empirical investigation. One key finding is that a strong emphasis on service differentiation can lead to a manufacturing firm's strategies for customer centricity being less sensitive to increasingly complex customer needs, which can increase a firm's payoff for customer centricity. In contrast, the payoff from innovativeness appears to be higher if the firm focuses its resources on either product or service innovation; that is, a dual focus does not work well. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for researchers and managers.

  • 39.
    Glaa, Besma
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Linköping University, Sweden .
    Service teams and understanding of customer value creation2019In: Service Innovation for Sustainable Business: Stimulating, Realizing and Capturing the value from Service Innovation / [ed] Per Kristensson, Peter R. Magnusson, Lars Witell, World Scientific Publishing Co. , 2019, p. 117-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The following sections are included: Introduction Service Innovation as a Change in the Customer Value Creation Process What is a Service Team? Different Configurations of Service Teams Service Teams and Their Understanding of Customer Value Creation Conclusion References

  • 40.
    Glaa, Besma
    et al.
    Linköping university.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping university.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    From free to fee: changing the revenue model for individual services2017In: Proceeding of the Spring Servitization Conference: internationalisation through servitization / [ed] Shaun West, Heiko Gebauer, Tim Baines, Birmingham, UK: Aston university , 2017, p. 172-181Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Industrial services have traditionally been provided for free to support product sales. Nowadays, many manufacturers have built a profitable service business while others are struggling to improve their service profitability. Overall, most research focus on service infusion in the value proposition or servitization of the organization. Far less attention has been given to how firms start to charge for free services. The purpose of this research is to increase understanding of how manufacturers change the revenue model for individual services from free to fee. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research was performed as a two-stage research project involving a multiple case study followed by an action research project. First, a multiple case study was performed in eight firms. Data was collected through interviews and workshops with the participating firms. Second, an action research study was performed with a manufacturer working with changing the revenue model for individual services from free to fee. Findings: The current study identified a process with three stages for shifting from service for free to service for fee. The first step is turning the service from a cost center to a profit center. The second step is to create service scenarios for a service business. The third step is to implement specific strategies to break free from free service. The present research identified three specific service scenarios and four strategies to break free from free service. Originality/Value: The change of business model has been an essential step in most models for service infusion and for the transition from service for free to service for fee. The present study expands on the process on a detailed level followed by manufacturers to turn individual services from free to service for fee.

  • 41.
    Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska högskola .
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Service Innovations in Manufacturing firms2009In: QUIS 11 Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42. Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Service Innovations in Manufacturing Firms2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 161-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Technol Management & Econ, Div Serv Management & Logist, Qual Management, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Valtakoski, Aku
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Business Adm, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Serv Res Ctr, CTF, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Two routes of service modularization: advancing standardization and customization2019In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 73-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study aims to investigate service modularization in a manufacturing firm, identifies service modularization processes and examines how these processes change the service module characteristics. Design/methodology/approach - The study is based on a longitudinal case study (2008-2017) of a manufacturing firm. The development of six service modules was analyzed using data from interviews with key informants, informal meetings and internal documentation. Findings - This study suggests five service modularization processes, and that service module characteristics, such as standardization and interconnectedness, change in different ways depending on the service modularization processes used. It further identifies two service modularization routes that each combine the service modularization processes in unique ways with replication as a key process to improve both standardization and customization. Practical implications - This study elaborates a framework for service modularization, which can serve as a guideline for developing service modules. It also highlights the differences between product and service modularization, suggesting that the role of service module characteristics such as standardization and customization is specific for services. Originality/value - This longitudinal case study (2008-2017) provides empirical evidence on service modularization and extends existing knowledge on service modularization processes and how they influence service module characteristics.

  • 44.
    Gremyr, Ida
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Fundin, Anders
    Volvo Construction Equipment and Mälardalen University.
    Understanding new service development and service innovation through innovation modes2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 123-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of innovation modes in understanding challenges of integrated NSD and NPD, and the use of structured NSD processes in manufacturing firms.

    The research is based on a two-stage multiple case study. The first stage is an interview study of 17 key informants representing manufacturing firms in the machine industry. The second stage is an in-depth study of three service innovations at three manufacturing firms based on 16 interviews with key informants.

    The results of the study show that NSD processes are often more structured if the service is developed separately from the product. The fact that different innovation modes benefit from varying degrees of structure in the development process means that integrated service development can be challenging. Furthermore, service innovations often follow a trajectory of innovation modes before succeeding in the market. Some innovation modes occur within the NSD process, while others occur outside the process. One success factor for NSD is the fit between the innovation modes and the NSD process, rather than the NSD process per se.

    This research uses innovation modes to explain why NSD in manufacturing firms is often performed on an ad hoc basis, and how service innovations go through a trajectory of innovation modes. In this way, the study contributes to theory development of service innovation, and specifically service innovations in manufacturing firms.

  • 45. Gustafsson, A.
    et al.
    Johnson, M.D.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Improving the Customer Orientation Process2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46. Gustafsson, A.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Johnson, M.
    Quality Practice in Service Organizations2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47. Gustafsson, A.
    et al.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Johnson, M
    The Role of Quality Practices in Service Organizations2003In: International Journal of Service Industry ManagementArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Aksoy, Lerzan
    Fordham Univ, Dept Mkt, New York, NY 10023 USA..
    Brady, Michael K.
    Florida State Univ, Dept Mkt, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA..
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Mkt, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Sirianni, Nancy J.
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Mkt, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, Dept Business Adm, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Wuenderlich, Nancy V.
    Univ Paderborn, Dept Serv Management, D-33098 Paderborn, Germany..
    Conducting service research that matters2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, p. 425-429, article id SIArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to encourage the reader to think differently about service-related issues and to strive to conduct service research that makes a transformational impact on individuals, organizations and society. The authors suggest that service researchers are in an excellent position to develop research that matters by making stronger connections with theory and elevating purely applied research to research that is higher in both practical relevance and methodological rigor. Design/methodology/approach - This paper takes a conceptual approach, connecting pertinent literature with new ideas highlighted in this special issue. Findings - This paper proposes that service researchers look beyond traditional service applications, take a multi-disciplinary approach to problem-solving and make greater strides towards connecting theory and practice. The authors propose a Model of Rigorous and Relevant Research, and call for fresh thinking across a wide range of research areas, including enhancing the customer experience, crafting innovation, integrating technology and measuring service outcomes. Originality/value - The originality of this essay lies in its focus on revitalizing the discussion on relevance and rigor as a path forward for service research. Additionally, this paper offers new insights on core management aspects of service provision that provide a solid platform for future work in service research.

  • 49.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Brax, Saara
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci & Technol, Business Innovat Technol BIT Res Ctr, Alto, Finland..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Service infusion in manufacturing industries2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 557-563Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Brax, Saara
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Setting a research agenda for service business in manufacturing industries2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 557-563Article in journal (Refereed)
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