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  • 1.
    Carlman, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    ”Det är halvidrott, kanske lite mer än halvidrott”: Idrottsskolan som en praktik för formandet av idrottsbarndomar2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the dissertation was to investigate children’s views on and experiences of The Sport for All programme in school (SAP) (idrottsskolor) and the significance of the activities for children’s ”sports childhood”.

    The study is anchored in the so-called “new sociology of childhood”. Such a standpoint is based on that children are competent social actors with agency. Following that, childhood is constructed both by actors in specific fields and by the children in these social practices.

    The dissertation is based on three interview studies from three different SAPs. In study I fifteen individual interviews were conducted with: the programme manager, three school teachers, two sport club leaders and nine children (aged 9-10). Study II was based on repeated focus group interviews with 15 ten-year-old Swedish children participating in a SAP. In study III individual interviews were conducted with eight children, four years after they completed their participation in a SAP.

     

    In all three studies the children described the SAP as a different sport practice in relation to traditional organized sport. In the SAP sport was offered in a new context with other meanings and functions compared to conventionally organized sport. But, study II showed that children with a strong performance ethos had the capacity to influence and control the practice in the SAP, which contribute to a “competitive atmosphere” in the SAP activities. Further, study III showed that children with a weak interest in sport enjoyed the activities. However, it was not something this certain group of children wanted to continue to practice outside the program. While other participants with an already established interest in sports, experienced a deepening and widening of their sport interest through the SAP.

    In terms of agency, the children’s individual and collective views of sport are important to consider in regard to understanding the SAP practice. The children brought prior knowledge, understanding and skills into the SAP, which can contribute to the experience of the practice.   

  • 2.
    Carlman, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Idrott för alla för alltid?: En idrottskolas betydelse för barns idrottsliv2016In: European Journal for Sport and Society, ISSN 1613-8171, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 97-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore children’s experiences of a Sport for All Programme (SAP) in school. The purpose of the ‘Sport for All’ policy is to give children an opportunity to try different sports, with a focus on play and motor learning rather than organized competition. In this study, we approach children as active agents in constructing the SAP practice in line with the theoretical standpoint that children are competent social actors with agency. The study is based on repeated focus group interviews with 15 ten-year-old children (9 girls, 6 boys) participating in a SAP in the western part of Sweden. The children perceived the SAP as sessions with less emphasis on performance and without organized competitions; it was described as a ‘low threshold’ activity. However, the result showed that the SAP activity was not free from performance-oriented principles. The Sport for All pedagogy needs to consider and handle the consequences of competition principles, especially if the participating children and leaders have a performance ethos.

  • 3.
    Carlman, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Idrottsföreningars arbete med nyanlända – ledares delade upplevelser2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Carlman, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    It’s like half-sport, maybe even a bit more than half-sport: Children’s experience of a Sport for All Programme in School2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The aim of the study was to investigate children’s experiences of The Sport for All programme in school (SAP) (idrottsskolan). The purpose of the SAP is to give children an opportunity to try different sports, with a focus on play and motor learning rather than organized competition. Methods

    The study is based on repeated focus group interviews with 15 ten-year-old children (9 girls; 6 boys) participating in a SAP in the western part of Sweden. In this study we approach children as active agents in constructing the SAP practice in line with the theoretical standpoint that children are competent social actors with agency (Alanen, 2014; James & James, 2004).

    Results

    The children perceived the SAP as sessions with less emphasis on performance and without organized competitions; it was described as a “low threshold” activity. However, the children expressed that sometimes was a “competitive atmosphere” present in the practice. According to the children, this atmosphere was to a large extent created by the behaviour of participating children with a strong winning attitude. This resulted in that children who do not want to participate or could act in a more pronounced "performance-based atmosphere" perceived themselves as excluded from the activities.

    Conclusions

    The result shows how the logic in the SAP is changeable and that this is developed through children’s agency and some children have more power to influence the activities than others. The Sport for All pedagogy needs to consider and handle the consequences of competition principles, especially if the participating children and leaders have a performance ethos.

  • 5.
    Carlman, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Samverkan mellan fritidshem och idrottsföreningar2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Idrott i nya former? En granskning av Karlstad och Forshaga Idrottsskolor2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Idrottsskolor2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    It’s like half-sport, maybe even a bit more than half-sport: Children’s experience of a Sport for All Programme in School2016In: European Journal for Sport and Society, ISSN 1613-8171, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 97-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore children’s experiences of a Sport for All Programme (SAP) in school. The purpose of the ‘Sport for All’ policy is to give children an opportunity to try different sports, with a focus on play and motor learning rather than organized competition. In this study, we approach children as active agents in constructing the SAP practice in line with the theoretical standpoint that children are competent social actors with agency. The study is based on repeated focus group interviews with 15 ten-year-old children (9 girls, 6 boys) participating in a SAP in the western part of Sweden. The children perceived the SAP as sessions with less emphasis on performance and without organized competitions; it was described as a ‘low threshold’ activity. However, the result showed that the SAP activity was not free from performance-oriented principles. The Sport for All pedagogy needs to consider and handle the consequences of competition principles, especially if the participating children and leaders have a performance ethos.

  • 9.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Process evaluation of primary schools physical activity programs2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Utvärdering av SMARTIS-projektet: Slutrapport2009Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    ”Vi kallade oss alltid SMARTISARNA”: En uppföljningsstudie av ett hälsofrämjande skolprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De flesta barn och ungdomar i Sverige är inte tillräckligt fysiskt aktiva. I Sverige idag är det få barn som når den rekommenderade mängden fysisk aktivitet på 60 minuter per dag. Forskningsgenomgångar har dokumenterat att skolbaserade interventioner har möjlighet att förbättra den fysiska statusen hos elever. Värmlands Idrottsförbund och Friskvården i Värmland beslutade 2004 att göra en satsning på ett hälsofrämjande skolprojekt – som fick namnet SMARTIS. Huvudmålet med SMARTIS var att öka barnens fysiska aktivitetsgrad i skolan och på fritiden samt att förbättra den fysiska förmågan. I föreliggande rapport studeras elevers beskrivningar av SMARTIS betydelse för deras levnadsvanor under och efter projektet. Studiens design omfattade individuella intervjuer och en gruppintervju med elever som tidigare deltagit i SMARTIS. Resultatet analyseras och diskuteras utifrån hur eleverna upplevde SMARTIS under sin tid på skolan och vilken betydelse SMARTIS har haft för det liv de lever idag. I rapporten synliggörs att för att ge alla elever möjlighet att utveckla varaktiga beteenden och vanor utanför skolan bör hälsofrämjande arbete i skolan vara relevant för eleverna och att de kan relatera de aktiviteter som genomförs till sig själva och deras vardagliga liv.

  • 12.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Towards a New Logic of Sport Practice for Children: A Case Study of a “Sport for All” School Programme in Sweden2013In: The Swedish Journal of Sport Research, ISSN 2001-6018, Vol. 1, p. 4-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to study children and engaged adults’ experiences of participating in a Sport for All Programme in school (SAP). Fifteen individual interviews were conducted with one programme manager, three schoolteachers, two sport club leaders, and nine children (five girls and four boys aged 9-10). Bourdieu’s (1990) as well as Lave and Wenger’s (1991) theoretical models were used as the analytic tools to study the SAP. The analysis reveals that the organization and the practice of the activities are noticeably related to conventionally organized sport. The analysis also shows that the SAP is a new way of organizing and practicing children’s sport – with its own logic. The absence of organized competition, the less intensive activities, the greater flexibility and variation in the SAP appear to challenge the conscious and unconscious idea of the meaning and function of competitive sport, especially in children’s sport. Thus, the SAP concept calls for a new way of approaching children’s sport, and new demands on those who organize and lead the activities.

  • 13.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Hjalmarsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    A sport for all programme in school: girls’ experience.2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 416-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines a Swedish Sport for All Programme (SAP) in school. We use a case study to discuss girls’ debut in alternative sports programme organized in collaboration between school and the sports movement. The empirical data are derived from repeated focus group interviews with one group of seven 10-year-old girls participating in one SAP. The analyses focus on their subjective experiences and how broader gender structures influence these experiences. Drawing on the results of this study, we argue that certain sports can be interpreted as oppressive activities that produce asymmetric power relationships between different groups of children. Simultaneously, the girls see the idea of sports as joyful activities, without male abuse and oppression or hierarchical gender relationships. Based on the girls’ accounts, we claim that both the leaders and the children actively reproduce gender stereotypes in the SAP.

  • 14.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hjalmarsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Gender regime in a Sport for All programme in school2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The aim of the study was to investigate children’s experiences of The Sport for All programme in school (SAP) (idrottsskolan). The specific purpose with this paper was to investigate if boys and girls have equality accessibility to participate in the SAP. The purpose of the SAP is to give children an opportunity to try different sports, with a focus on play and motor learning rather than organized competition.

    Methods

    This article is based on repeated focus group interviews with one group of 7 ten-year-old girls participating in a SAP in the western part of Sweden. The girls had no, or limited experience, of practice organized sport on their leisure time. The girl’s lived in a low socioeconomic district with a high proportion of immigrants. In the district there is few sports clubs.

    Results

    The result shows how the boys have the power to dominate the practice and influence the girls’ experiences of the SAP. And sometimes the boys take over and control the practice in so considerable proportions that the girls find it difficult to participate in the SAP. The study shows that the boys have a better opportunity to use their agency (Alanen, 2014), partly in cooperation with the leaders, and be a part of and influence the sport activities in the SAP.

     Conclusions

    The girls in the study felt that they were disparaged and excluded cause of the boys’ behaviour. Hence, it is absolutely necessarily that organizer of the SAP pay attention to gender issues and work out guidelines and strategies so that both girls and boys feel included in the SAP:s all activities. As has been discussed before (Flintoff, 2008), and according the results in this study, it requires more than to just start up sport activities and hope that more alternatives will boost more and new participants.

  • 15.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Hjalmarsson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Genusrelaterade erfarenheter av Idrottsskolan: en grupp flickor berättar2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Idrottsskolan innebär att flera idrottsföreningar samverkar med skolan, där barn på

    fritidshemstiden kontinuerligt under en termin ges möjligheten att prova på olika idrotter.

    Den ska bygga på lek och sätta barnen i centrum och inte vara grundad i organiserad

    tävlingsverksamhet. Syftet med studien är att bidra med kunskap om flickors erfarenheter av

    idrottsskolan.

    Metod

    Studien baseras på upprepade (två tillfällen) fokusgruppsintervjuer med en grupp bestående

    av sju stycken tioåriga flickor som deltog i en idrottsskola på västsvensk ort. Flickorna hade

    ingen eller begränsad erfarenhet av organiserad föreningsidrott.

    Teoretisk inramning

    Studien tar stöd den så kallade ”nya” barndomssociologin, vilket innebär att

    barnet sätts i centrum som en aktiv agent i sociala processer. Vidare omfattar studien ett

    genusperspektiv i avsikt att belysa genusrelaterade normer och erfarenheter inom

    idrottsskolans ram.

    Förväntade slutsatser

    Det preliminära resultatet visar att de intervjuade flickorna beskriver pojkarna i idrottsskolan

    på ett genusstereotypt vis och som en homogen grupp. Flickornas berättelser visar också att

    de har mött genusstereotypa uppfattningar från pojkarna om flickor. Enligt deras

    erfarenheter ges pojkarnas agens mer utrymme och de påverkar aktivt idrottsskolans

    innehåll.

  • 16.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Vikström, Carina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Värmlandsidrotten.
    Idrottsföreningarsarbete med nyanlända: ledares delade upplevelser.2017In: Nordisk idrottsvetenskaplig konferens: Idrott i spänningsfältet mellan hälsa och ohälsa / [ed] Krister Hertting and Urban Johnson, Halmstad: Halmstad university , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Detta abstract bygger på preliminära resultat från ett forskningsprojekt med syfte att studera hur idrottsrörelsens arbete med inkludering av nyanlända ungdomar realiseras i idrottsföreningars verksamhet. Mot bakgrund av den stora migrationen de senaste åren har idrotten setts som en viktig arena för att etablera individer med migrationsbakgrund i samhället. Synen på idrottens betydelse är inte minst tydligt då regeringen ger Riksidrottsförbundet (RF) 64 miljoner kronor per år under åren 2015-2018 för att arbeta med nyanlända. RF skriver själva: ”Regeringen ser den kraft som idrotten är och har anslagit medel för idrottsrörelsens etablering av nyanlända.” (RF, 2017).

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Syftet med den del av studien som presenteras i föreliggande abstract är att undersöka idrottledares delade upplevelser av att arbeta med inkludering för att få en ökad förståelse för under vilka villkor nyanlända har möjlighet att idrotta. I projektet utgör barndomssociologi (James & James, 2004) och Sayads migrationssociologi (Sayad & Bourdieu, 2004) teoretisk referensram.

    Metod

    I projektet används en fallstudiedesign (Yin, 2007; Merriam, 1994), där distriktsförbundet Värmlandsidrotten utgör ett fall. Resultatet som redovisas här bygger på fyra fokusgruppsintervjuer med totalt 21 idrottsledare (6 kvinnor och 15 män). Majoriteten av ledarna (19 stycken) hade inte migrationsbakgrund. Ledarna representerar en stor variation av idrotter och former av föreningar från olika geografiska platser i Värmland. Ledarna valdes ut mot bakgrund av att de har arbetat med inkludering av nyanlända i sin förening och att de har fått extra ekonomiskt stöd från Värmlandsidrotten för sitt arbete.

    Resultat

    Ett genomgående tema som framträdde i resultatet var att nyanländas idrottskompetens upplevdes som det främsta hindret för deras möjligheter att idrotta i föreningarna.  Idrottsledarna diskuterade att de nyanlända är på en annan ”nivå”, en lägre nivå, som gör det svårt att inkludera dem i föreningens ordinarie verksamhet. Det handlade då inte enbart om att de inte har deltagit i den specifika idrotten tidigare utan också om att de inte har utövat idrotten ”på riktigt”, på det sätt som idrotten utövas och organiseras i Sverige. Det nämndes bland annat att de mest har ”lekt” idrott och inte har kunskap om exempelvis regler och taktik. Därför var mycket av den verksamhet som föreningarna organiserade olika former av temporära ”prova på” verksamheter som skulle fungera som en sluss in i den ordinarie idrottsverksamheten. Analysen visade att problematiken att inkludera nyanlända i den ordinarie verksamheten hade bidragit till att utmana ledarnas föreställningar om vad svensk idrott är och vilka hinder verksamheten har för nyanlända och även andra grupper av unga med begränsad erfarenhet av traditionell föreningsidrott.  Vidare bidrog det till en ökad diskussion i föreningarna om vad ”ordinarie” verksamhet är och vad för strukturer ”vi vill ha”. Eller som en ledare sa i intervjuerna ”ska vi knuffa dem över trösklarna eller ska vi sänka trösklarna”.

    Diskussion och slutsatser

    Resultatet indikerar att migrationen till Sverige kan påverka ledare och föreningar att reflektera och omvärdera förutsättningarna för tillgängligheten till sin egen verksamhet och då inte enbart för nyanlända utan för barn och unga generellt. Föreningarnas arbete med nyanlända har uppmärksammat ett behov av en ny organisering av deras idrott för att sänka trösklarna och öka tillgängligheten till föreningens verksamhet. Det gäller dock att ta hänsyn till att föreningarna i studien aktivt har sökt medel för sitt arbete och också fått medel beviljade i dialog med Värmlandsidrotten. Ledarna i studien kan därmed ha en högre medevetenhet än andra ledare från andra föreningar om idrottsrörelsens arbete Strategi 2025 (RF, 2017) om att sänka synliga och osynliga trösklar. 

  • 17.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Vikström, Carina
    Karlstad University.
    Inkludering av unga med flyktingbakgrund i värmländsk idrott2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mot bakgrund av den ökade invandringen till Sverige under 2015 beslutade regeringen samma år att stötta Riksidrottsförbundet (RF) med extra medel på 64 miljoner kronor per år mellan 2015 - 2018. Syftet var att ge möjligheter till att skapa fysiska aktiviteter och arbeta med grundläggande introducering av nyanlända flickor och pojkar i det svenska föreningslivet. I föreliggande studie presenteras resultat om hur idrottens inkluderingsarbete genomförts i värmländska idrottsföreningar. Resultatet analyseras och diskuteras utifrån ledarnas idéer och övertygelser om inkluderingsarbete samt vilka möjligheter unga med flyktingbakgrund har att börja och fortsätta idrotta i svensk föreningsidrott. Rapportens syfte är att öka kunskapen om och fördjupa förståelsen för idrottens arbete med inkludering av unga med flyktingbakgrund. Utmaningen i framtida arbete med inkludering är att idrottens aktörer diskuterar och ser över organiseringen av idrotten och vad som är ”ordinarie” verksamhet.

  • 18.
    Carlman, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Patriksson, Göran
    Idrottshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Causes and consequences of dropping out from organized youth sports2013In: Swedish Journal of Sport Research, ISSN 2001-6018, E-ISSN 2001-9475, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 26-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine dropout reasons and various types ofdropouts in relation to demographic variables, various types of sports, physicalactivity, and underlying motivational processes. Retrospective data was collected fromthree cohorts including 1,176 participants, of which 712 stated that they hadsometimes dropped out of organized sport. Findings showed that time-related reasonswere the primary causes for dropping out. It was also revealed that athletes with lowversus high levels of perceived physical competence dropped out to a higher extentbecause of experiencing too much pressure, and athletes reporting low versus highsocial competence withdrew to a higher extent because they did not like theirteammates. Results also showed that girls with a foreign background had a higher rateof dropouts compared to boys with the same background. Girls with foreignbackgrounds were also found to be less physically active after dropping out fromorganized sports.

  • 19.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Patriksson, Göran
    Idrottshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Carlman, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    The longitudinal changes of  participation and drop-out patterns inchildren and youth sports.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since there is a widespread belief that sports contributes to a healthy development, coaches, parents and other representatives acting in the sport environment are often expressing a concern about the high drop-out rate in organized youth sports. However, drop-out decisions made by youths are not a static phenomenon (Patriksson, 1988). In order to be able to capture the mobility, the aim of the study was to examine longitudinal (2 years, 3 waves) changes of participation and drop-out patterns based on self-reports of 920 youth (10-18 years) from Sweden. Results showed that a vast majority (93%) of participants had, to some extent been involved in organized sports when entering the last wave. The participation rate decreased with 7% (75-68%) between 10-12 years, with 13% (66-53%) between 13-15 years and with 8% (42-34%) between 16-18 years. The attrition rate was highest between the ages of 14-16 (19%). Every year, a significant proportion (19%) of those who dropped out of sports returned. Almost a fifth of those who have dropped out of sports returned, but once again withdraw in the same year. A higher proportion of girls than boys (46% vs 37%) withdraw from sports. Further analyses revealed that it is primarily girls with foreign background who drops out. Results also showed that those who drop-out of sports to a larger extent are physical more active (twice a week or more) when compared with those who never have been involved in organized sports (64-66% vs 45-50%). The results are discussed in relation to longitudinal trends shown in previous research (e.g., Findlay, Garner & Kohen, 2009; Patriksson, 1988; Seippel, 2005) but also in relation to studies that have only used cross-sectional or retrospective designs (e.g., Butcher, Lindner & Johns, 2002).

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