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  • 1.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Griffioen, Ben
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Winter, Erwin
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fish Migration River Monitoring Plan2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish have problems passing the Afsluitdijk Dam that separates the Wadden Sea from Lake IJsselmeer. To re-establish the connectivity and thereby allow fish to pass there is an initiative to build a fishway, the Fish Migration River (FMR), at the Konwerderzand sluice complex. This report proposes a monitoring program to evaluate the functionality of the FMR, but also to monitor passage possibilities through the existing sluices. The goals of the monitoring plan are to estimate 1) The overall passage past the Afsluitdijk dam to and from Lake IJsselmeer, 2) The attraction efficiency, 3) The passage efficiency, and 4) The use of the FMR as habitat and for acclimatization for the transition into freshwater.

    We present an overview of previous and ongoing monitoring in the area to establish the current state of knowledge. The report also includes a presentation of available and suitable methods for a future monitoring program considering the broad spectra of target fish species, and their abundances. The proposed program includes a description of study design and available techniques and cost-estimates of the monitoring program.

    The proposed program will target ten species: European eel (aal), flounder (bot), three-spined stickleback (dreidoornige stekelbaars), twait shad (fint), North Sea houting (houting), river lamprey (rieverprik), smelt (spiering), Atlantic salmon (zalm), brown trout (forel) and sea lamprey (zeeprik). The monitoring program includes plans for how to capture, tag and track the study fish using the most suitable tagging techniques. Furthermore, the most optimal sites for installation of automatic data detection stations are identified.

    The total cost for the proposed project is 3.5 M€ and covers both investments in equipment and costs for personnel. However, if costs for investments in techniques such as RFId-stations and fish counters are excluded, the total cost is reduced to 1 M€ for a program running two years before and four years after the completion of the FMR. The program is considered sufficient to evaluate the FMR at Kornwerederzand from the most important perspectives: the overall passage efficiency and the use of the FMR as habitat.

    It should be noted that this report is the first step towards a full-scale monitoring program, giving insight into possible methods, study design and associated costs. The next important step will be to develop the program in more detail and to start the initial phase of the monitoring project. We predict that such activities will identify the need for, and the relevance of, a more extensive monitoring program to study the effects of the FMR on a population level and on a large geographical scale.

  • 2.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Peter
    Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Gullberg, Karl
    Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland: Fisksamhällen, kraftverk och åtgärders potential och kostnadseffektivitet i Gavleån2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många vattendrag i Europa är påverkade av mänskliga aktiviteter som jordbruk, skogsbruk, vattenkraft och annan industriell verksamhet. Vattenkraftens effekter på vandrande fiskarter har varit kända sedan länge och man har arbetat med fiskvägar för uppströmspassage i flera hundra år. Ett problem som då inte beaktats är att fisken både måste ha tillgång till habitat för reproduktion och uppväxt, samt att de även måste kunna passera samma vandringshinder vid nedströmsvandringen. Modern rehabilitering av reglerade vattendrag beaktar dock både fiskens behov av fria vandringsvägar och tillgång på lämpligt habitat.

    Budgeten för åtgärdsarbetet är oftast begränsad och man behöver därför prioritera. Dessutom kan åtgärdsarbetet ta lång tid och det är därför angeläget att börja med de objekt som är speciellt angelägna. Det är inte alltid självklart hur en sådan prioritering skall ske och för att ordningen för åtgärdsarbetet ska vara tydlig och arbetet kunna utföras kostnadseffektivt kan det vara till stor hjälp att använda någon form av verktyg. Det är dock viktigt att välja rätt verktyg och vid valkriterierna bör man beakta hur verktyget värderar och prioriterar åtgärdsnyttan. Slutligen kommer ett sådant verktyg alltid vara en förenkling av verkligheten och man bör således låta det utgöra en del av ett beslutsunderlag som kompletteras med annan information.

    Gavleån ligger i Gästrikland och dess huvudfåra utgörs av en 30 km lång sträcka med 62 meters fallhöjd mellan Storsjön och mynningen i Bottenhavet. Det finns åtta kraftverk längs denna sträcka, men inga fiskpassager. Därför är i dag bara de nedersta 2 km av ån tillgängliga för fiskarter som vandrar upp från havet för reproduktion, tillväxt och övervintring. Större delen av strömsträckorna i Gavleåns huvudfåra är indämda av kraftverken och ån har länge ansetts ha låga naturvärden. I takt med att den allmänna miljömedvetenheten har ökat och ny lagstiftning som Ramdirektivet för vatten (2000/60/EG) och Ålförordningen (1100⁄2007⁄EC) har ställt högre krav på rehabilitering av påverkade vattendrag har dock även Gavleåns potential diskuterats. Till följd av detta har ägaren av de flesta kraftverken i Gavleån, Gävle Kraftvärme AB, tillsammans med Länsstyrelsen i Gävleborg, Gävle kommun och Naturskyddsföreningen beslutat att utreda åtgärdspotentialen för Gavleån inom ramen för projektet ”Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland”. Utredningen består i en fiskeribiologisk och teknisk analys av problemen för migrationsberoende fauna och dess biologiska situation i dag, samt vilka mål som kan uppnås om de rätta åtgärderna tas. Grundläggande frågor som projektet försökt besvara är ”Vilka åtgärder behövs för att rehabilitera Gavleån för vandrande fiskarter, var gör åtgärder god naturvårdsnytta och kan kostnads- och energismarta lösningar implementeras som inte äventyrar vattenkraftsproduktionen?”

    Gavleån och dess biflödens morfologiska status och fisksamhällenas sammansättning har inventerats och redovisas i delrapporten ”Återställande av fiskvandring i Gästrikland - Fisksamhällen, habitattillgång och rehabiliteringspotential i Gavleån”. Innevarande rapport utgör den andra delrapporten och sätter resultaten från provfisken och biotopkarteringen i ett åtgärdssammanhang och värderar åtgärdsnyttan med hjälp av olika prioriteringsverktyg. Slutligen används detta underlag för att rekommendera åtgärdsprogram som syftar till att långsiktigt och hållbart förvalta Gavleåns värden från såväl biologiska, samhällsekonomiska, sociala och kulturella perspektiv utan att allvarligt försämra förutsättningen för vattenkraftproduktion vid åns kraftverk.

    I ett första steg har vi bedömt vilka möjligheter som finns till att återskapa uppströms- och nedströmspassage för fisk vid kraftverken. Dessutom har dagens habitattillgång utretts och potentialen för habitatrestaurering värderats. I nästa steg har resultaten från biotopkartering och provfisken använts för att med hjälp av modeller och prioriteringsverktyg analysera vilken effekt åtgärderna förväntas ha på fiskbestånden. Detta har först studerats för hela fisksamhället utifrån tillgång och lokalisering av strömmande habitat samt förekommande fiskarters vandringsbenägenhet, skyddsvärde och kraftverkens fallhöjd som ett grovt mått på åtgärdens komplexitet och därtill hörande åtgärdskostnad. Därefter har en liknande analys på åtgärdsnyttan genomförts för Gavleåns havsöringspopulation, där resultatet presenteras i form av förväntat antal återvändande havsöringhonor till de olika delsträckorna förutsatt att både uppströms- och nedströmspassage åtgärdas. Slutligen testades två scenarier grundat på dagens habitattillgång respektive motsvarande tillgång efter en omfattande habitatrestaurering.

    Prioriteringsverktygen och resultaten från provfisken och bitopkartering visar främst att åtgärdsnyttan för vandrande strömlevande fiskarter är störst vid kraftverken i Gavleåns nedre och övre delar, eftersom det är här det i dag finns skyddsvärda fiskarter samt kvarvarande strömmande habitat, som dock är i stort behov av biotopåterställning. Troligen har det historiskt sett aldrig funnits möjlighet till fiskvandring längre än till de första strida strömsträckorna med fallhöjd i nedre Gavleån för svagsimmande arter, och endast lax, havsöring, nejonöga och ål har nått längre i ån. Det finns inte belagt att lax eller havsöring nått högre upp i Gavleån än strax uppströms Mackmyra-området.

    I mitten av ån saknas i dag såväl strömmande habitat som skyddsvärda fiskarter. De historiska strömsträckorna är idag stort sett överdämda av dammar i denna del av Gavleån. Dessutom har kraftverken där störst fallhöjd och produktion, vilket i kombination med svårigheter att anlägga åtgärder gör att dessa får en låg prioritet. Vi har utifrån dessa resultat identifierat två prioriterade åtgärdspaket.

    Högst åtgärdsprioritet får Gavleåns nedre delar på sträckan från havet till Tolvfors kraftverk, dvs. återskapad uppströms- och nedströmspassage vid Strömsborgs och Strömdalens kraftverk. Åluppsamlingen av från havet uppvandrande ålyngel måste ske med bästa i dag tillgängliga teknik (BAT), vilket efter att fiskvägar anlagts vid Strömsborg och Strödalen lämpligen sker vid Tolvfors kraaftverk.

    Dessutom behövs habitatrestaurering längs hela sträckan inklusive torrfåran vid Tolvfors kraftverk. För att åtgärderna vid Strömsborgs och Strömdalens kraftverk ska få maximal effekt behöver ett omfattande återställningsarbete ske också av biflödet Kungsbäcken. Fokus för åtgärdsarbetet i detta område ligger på diadroma arter som vandrar upp i Gavleån från havet för reproduktion, födosök samt övervintring, t.ex. ål, lax, flodnejonöga, öring och sik.

    Näst högst åtgärdsprioritet får Gavleåns övre delar på sträckan från Åbyfors kraftverk till Storsjön, vilket innebär passagefrämjande åtgärder och habitatrestaurering vid dammen i norra fåran vid Hälleströmmens kraftverk och vid Forsbacka kraftverk. För att åtgärderna vid Hälleströmsdammen och Forsbacka kraftverk ska få maximal effekt behöver ett omfattande återställningsarbete ske av norra fåran vid Mackmyra (av vissa kallad Hälleströmmen) samt i Spikåsbäcken som mynnar nedströms Mackmyra kraftverk. Sannolikt behövs även en åtgärd för nedströmspassage från Hälleströmmens kraftverk till Hälleströmmen. Fokus för åtgärdsarbetet i detta område ligger på potamodroma arter som vandrar mellan Gavleån, Hälleströmmen och Spikåsbäcken, samt arter som vandrar till och från Storsjön, t.ex. ål, öring, lake, harr och gös. Speciellt högt prioriterad är den blankål som vandrar ut från Storsjön och som bör samlas in vid Forsbacka kraftverk för transport nedströms förbi de övriga sju kraftverken. Inga passagefrämjande åtgärder bedöms således i dag vara motiverade vid Tolvfors, Prästforsen, Åbyfors och Mackmyra kraftverk, medan endast en nedströmspassage behövs vid Hälleströmmens kraftverk.

    Arbetet att ta fram ett beslutsunderlag för åtgärdsarbete kan vara omfattande, men väger man denna kostnad mot kostnaderna för att genomföra åtgärder utan att veta om något åtgärdsbehov finns, hur åtgärderna bör utformas och var de ger störst nytta, är det välinvesterade pengar. I åtgärdsarbetet som helhet utgör kostnader för förstudie och uppföljning en liten andel, i synnerhet om man tar i beaktande kostnader för felaktigt utformade och placerade i åtgärder i avsaknad av beslutsunderlag. I framtiden kommer väl genomförda åtgärdsprojekt öka acceptansen både för naturvård och vattenkraft.

  • 3.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Naturlika fiskvägar i dag och i morgon2012Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Rees, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Ett riktigt ålamörker: Barnens universitet, Karlstads universitet, 17 oktober 2011.2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Habitat compensation in nature-like fishways: Effects on benthos and fish2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of nature-like fishways has become an increasingly common measure to restore longitudinal connectivity in streams and rivers affected by hydroelectric development. These fishways also have the potential to function as habitat compensation measures when running waters have been degraded or lost. The habitat potential has however often been overlooked, and therefore the aim of this thesis was to examine the potential of nature-like fishways for habitat compensation, with special focus on the effect of added habitat heterogeneity.

    This thesis examines the effects of habitat diversity on the macroinvertebrate family composition and functional organization in a nature-like, biocanal-type fishway. The biocanal contained four habitat types; riffle, pool, braided channel and floodplain. The effects of habitat diversity and large woody debris on brown trout habitat choice was also investigated in the biocanal. In addition, and prior to introduction of the threatened freshwater pearl mussel into the biocanal, the suitability of different brown trout strains as hosts for the mussel was examined.

    The results show that the habitat heterogeneity in the biocanal contributed to an increased macroinvertebrate family diversity. The functional organization of the macroinvertebrate community suggests that it was a heterotrophic system and more functionally similar to the main river than to the small streams that it was created to resemble. Brown trout habitat choice studies showed that high densities of large woody debris increase the probability of fish remaining at the site of release. Testing of different brown trout strains as host for the freshwater pearl mussel revealed that both wild and hatchery-reared brown trout strains were suitable hosts. In summary, the results indicate that it is possible to create a fish passage with added value through its high habitat function and that nature-like fishways can be designed to reach multiple species restoration goals.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Macroinvertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway: The effects of habitat designManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-like fishways are designed to imitate the characteristics of natural streams, thereby providing passage and habitat for a variety of aquatic organisms. To develop the concept of nature-like design, a 500-meter long nature-like bypass channel, termed the biocanal, was constructed at the Eldforsen hydroelectric facility, Sweden. It included four habitat types; riffle, pool, floodplain and braided (i.e. with islands) habitats, each replicated three times.  The biocanal resembled a natural stream in terms of hydraulics, gradient, flow regime, substrate etc. and provided a range of habitats to potentially harbor a large biodiversity. Thus the biocanal had a much more varied instream environment than those of conventional fishways. To test the prediction that the biocanal had a positive effect on biodiversity, we compared the physical habitat and benthic fauna composition both among the four biocanal habitat types and with six natural reference streams. After two years 66.7% of the benthic fauna families found in the reference streams had colonized the biocanal. Families present in the reference streams, but not in the biocanal, were predominantly slow colonizers or taxa linked to riparian vegetation, which was scarce and in an early successional stage in the biocanal.

    In the biocanal, pool and floodplain habitats contained the highest number of families, the highest family diversity (Shannon-Weaver) and the highest densities of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Since these habitats contained more families and had higher diversities than the riffle habitats which are typical of conventional nature-like fishways, we suggest that the construction of biocanals indeed possesses the potential for high biodiversity. 

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    The Macroinvertebrate Community in a Nature-like Fishway with Habitat Compensation Properties2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-like fishways are often constructed to restore connectivity in streams exploited for hydropower. They also have the potential to compensate for important habitats that have been degraded or lost. The aim of this thesis was to improve knowledge of the concept of nature-like fishway design, with special focus on their habitat compensation potential. This was done by comparing a nature-like fishway with four different habitat types, termed the biocanal, to six nearby natural reference creeks. In paper I the macroinvertebrate colonization of the biocanal was studied and the community composition was compared to that of the natural reference creeks.

    Furthermore, the potential for the biocanal to contain a diverse macroinvertebrate fauna was investigated. The results showed that the species composition of the benthic fauna in the biocanal was approaching that of the reference creeks and that the different habitat types in the biocanal contributed to the increased family diversity. In paper II the functional organization of the biocanal was studied using the functional feeding group approach. The results showed that after two years, the functional organization in the biocanal resembles that of the natural reference creeks.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Jostein, Skurdal
    Stiftelsen Lillehammer museum.
    Vezza, Paolo
    Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering Politecnico di Torino.
    Comoglio, Claudio
    Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering Politecnico di Torino.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Functional organization and colonization of macroinvertebrates in a nature-like fishway with added habitat heterogeneityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Skurdal, Jostein
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Invertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway in Eldforsen, Sweden; the effect of habitat design2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    A test for suitable fish hosts for the threatened freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) prior to reintroductionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Technical fishways, nature-like fishways or biocanals?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Technical fishways, nature-like fishwaysor biocanals? IRSAE conference. Evenstad, Norge. 10 Augusti, 20102010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Brown trout habitat choice: relative importance of woody debris and river morphology in nature-like fishwaysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Skurdal, Jostein
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Macroinvertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway: The effects of adding habitat heterogeneity2013In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecosystem Restoration, ISSN 0925-8574, Vol. 61, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-like fishways are designed to imitate the characteristics of natural streams, thereby providing both fish passage and habitat for a variety of aquatic organisms. To date, however, the potential for habitat rehabilitation of nature-like fishways has not been fully realized. To develop the concept of how to design a nature-like fishway, a 500-m long nature-like fishway, termed the biocanal, was constructed at the Eldforsen hydroelectric facility, Sweden. It included four habitat types: riffle, pool, floodplain and braided (i.e. with islands), each replicated three times. The riffle sections were considered controls for typical Swedish nature-like fishways. Thus the biocanal had a more varied in-stream environment than those of conventional fishways. To test the prediction that the biocanal had a positive effect on biodiversity, we compared the physical habitat and benthic fauna composition of the more diverse habitat types in the biocanal to the riffle habitats. We also made comparisons between the biocanal and six natural reference streams in the area. After two years, 63% of the benthic fauna families found in the reference streams had colonized the biocanal. Families present in the reference streams, but not in the biocanal, were predominantly slow colonizers or taxa linked to riparian vegetation, which was scarce and in an early successional stage along the biocanal. In the biocanal, pool and floodplain habitats contained the highest number of families, the highest family diversity (Shannon-Weaver) and the highest densities of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Since these habitats contained more families and had higher diversities than the riffle habitats which are typical of conventional nature-like fishways, we suggest that the construction of biocanals indeed possesses the potential for high biodiversity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Hart, Paul BJ
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eriksson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lans, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rees, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Familiarity with a partner facilitates the movementof drift foraging juvenile grayling (Thymallus thymallus) into a new habitatarea2014In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 515-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preferring one social partner over another can enhance fitness. This paper reports that juvenile grayling were significantly more likely to enter and forage in new, upstream habitats when paired with familiar versus unfamiliar social partners. Fish paired with unfamiliar partners or when alone were more reluctant to enter the new area. The entry times for both fish in a familiar pair were significantly correlated, but uncorrelated for unfamiliar fish. These differences between familiars and unfamiliars were consistent over a 2-week period. Fish with familiar partners spent more time within three body lengths of each other than did those with unfamiliars. The results are discussed in relation to optimality models of drift foraging, which do not included sociality. It is suggested that the social dimension creates a more dynamic foraging response to variable environmental conditions and could have consequences for growth.

  • 16.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Enefalk, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Fortum generation.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Jonsson, Bror
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Norsk institutt for naturforskning, Oslo.
    Ice cover alters the behavior and stress level of brown trout Salmo trutta2015In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 820-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface ice in rivers and lakes buffers the thermal environment and provides overhead cover, protecting aquatic animals from terrestrial predators. We tested if surface ice influenced the behavior (swimming activity, aggressive encounters, and number of food items eaten) and stress level (coloration of eyes and body) of stream-living brown trout Salmo trutta at temperatures of 3–4 °C in indoor experimental flumes. We hypothesized that an individual’s resting metabolic rate (RMR, as measured by resting ventilation rate) would affect winter behavior. Therefore, groups of 4 trout, consisting of individuals with high, low, or mixed (2 individuals each) RMR, were exposed to experimental conditions with or without ice cover. Ice cover reduced stress responses, as evaluated by body coloration. Also, trout in low RMR groups had a paler body color than those in both mixed and high RMR groups. Trout increased their swimming activity under ice cover, with the highest activity found in high RMR groups. Ice cover increased the number of aggressive encounters but did not influence the number of drifting food items taken by each group. In mixed RMR groups, however, single individuals were better able to monopolize food than in the other groups. As the presence of surface ice increases the activity level and reduces stress in stream-living trout, ice cover should influence their energy budgets and production. The results should be viewed in light of ongoing global warming that reduces the duration of ice cover, especially at high latitudes and altitudes.

  • 17.
    Österling, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Technical fishways, nature-like fishways or biocanals?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Österling, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Technical fishways, nature-like fishways or biocanals?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 18 of 18
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