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  • 1.
    Appelby, Ralph
    et al.
    Northumbria University.
    Davis, Paul
    Northumbria University.
    Davis, Louise
    Northumbria University.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå universitet.
    An Examination of the Influence of Training Hours on Athlete Burnout.2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Appleby, Ralph
    et al.
    Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Davis, Paul
    Umea University, Sweden.
    Davis, Louise
    Umea University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013). Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Examining Perceptions of Teammates' Burnout and Training Hours in Athlete Burnout2018Ingår i: Journal Of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 316-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of teammates and training load have been shown to influence athletes' physical and psychological health; however, limited research has investigated these factors in relation to burnout. Athletes (N = 140) from a variety of competitive team sports, ranging in level from regional to professional, completed questionnaires measuring individual burnout, perceptions of teammates' burnout, and training hours perweek on two occasions separated by threemonths. After controlling for burnout at time one, training hours were associated with athletes' burnout and perceptions of teammates' burnout at time two. Multilevel modeling indicated actual team burnout (i.e., the average burnout score of the individual athletes in a team) and perceived team burnout were associated with individual's own burnout. The findings highlight that burnout is dynamic and relates to physiological stressors associated with training and psychological perceptions of teammates' burnout. Future research directions exploring potential social influences on athlete burnout are presented.

  • 3.
    Augustsson, Christian
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Andersson, J
    Användning av målsättning hos elitjuniorer i höjdhopp2010Ingår i: SVEBI:s årsbok / [ed] Patriksson, G, SVEBI , 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Borjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Strategy and Leadership, Swedish Defence University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013). Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Davis, Paul
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden..
    Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance2018Ingår i: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SPORT PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 333-346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of flotation REST upon skilled and less skilled golfers' anxiety in terms of physiological indicators of stress, self-rated anxiety scores, muscle tension, and the effect on golf putting. Prior to performing the putting task participants underwent a treatment of flotation REST or a period of resting in an armchair. Participants completed both treatments in a randomized order with a two-week interval. The results showed that both flotation REST and the armchair treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no differences between treatments or athlete skill levels. No significant differences between treatments were revealed regarding self-ratings, level of muscle tension or putting precision. The results indicate that flotation REST may be useful for reducing negative symptoms related to stress and anxiety in general; however, no support for direct positive effects on golf performance were found.

  • 5.
    Davis, L.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Appleby, R.
    Northumbria university Newcastle.
    Davis, P.
    Umeå universitet.
    Wetherell, M.
    Northumbria university Newcastle.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance2018Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 17, s. 1985-1992Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experimental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach-athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 6.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University; University of Gothenburg; niversity of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013). Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway.
    Appleby, Ralph
    Department of Sport, Exercise, and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University.
    Reducing the risk of athlete burnout: Psychosocial, sociocultural, and individual considerations for coaches2019Ingår i: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 444-452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that athletes’ relationships with their coach can act as a risk factor in the development of burnout. Coaching practice may be enhanced through understanding the multidimensional factors that can augment the associations between coach–athlete relationship quality and athlete burnout. The present study explored both individual difference characteristics (gender, age, and sport level) and sociocultural factors (sport type) as moderators of this relationship. Our findings show statistically significant interaction effects for gender and age. Coaches and practitioners working with younger athletes and male performers in particular, are advised to work with strategies aiming to build relationships and reduce the risk of burnout.

  • 7.
    Gerber, M.
    et al.
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Brand, R.
    Sport and Exercise Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Antoniewicz, F.
    Sport and Exercise Psychology, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Isoard-Gautheur, S.
    aboratoire Sport et Environnement Social, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Cedex, France.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Bianchi, R.
    Institute of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    Colledge, F.
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Madigan, D. J.
    School of Sport, York St. John University, York, United Kingdom.
    Brand, S.
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Ludyga, S.
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Implicit and explicit attitudes towards sport among young elite athletes with high versus low burnout symptoms2019Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 37, nr 14, s. 1673-1680Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of cynical attitudes towards elite sport is a core symptom of athlete burnout and has been associated with dropout from elite sport. To date, this phenomenon has mainly been studied by investigating explicit attitudes towards sport, whereas athletes’ automatic evaluations (i.e. implicit attitudes) that have been shown to influence behavior as well were not considered. This study aimed to compare explicit and implicit attitudes towards sport of young elite athletes with high (N = 24) versus low (N = 26) burnout symptoms. Using self-reported measures, general and athlete burnout symptoms were assessed. Additionally, a single-target implicit association test was administered to examine participants’ automatic evaluation of sport. Statistical analysis revealed greater emotional/physical exhaustion and sport devaluation in athletes reporting high compared to low burnout symptoms. Implicit attitudes towards sport did not significantly differ between the groups. Furthermore, no significant correlations were observed between different athlete burnout symptoms and implicit attitudes. Athletes with high burnout symptoms show a tendency to explicitly detach themselves from sport, thus fostering sport devaluation as a core symptom of athlete burnout. However, this process does not seem to be reflected in their implicit attitudes towards sport.

  • 8.
    Gerber, Markus
    et al.
    University of Basel.
    Best, Simon
    University of Basel.
    Meerstetter, Fabienne
    University of Basel.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Bianchi, Renzo
    University of Neuchâtel.
    Madigan, Daniel J.
    York St. John University.
    Colledge, Flora
    University of Basel.
    Ludyga, Sebastian
    University of Basel.
    Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith
    University of Basel.
    Brand, Serge
    University of Basel.
    Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations Between Athlete Burnout, Insomnia, and Polysomnographic Indices in Young Elite Athletes2018Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, nr 6, s. 312-324Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined the association between sleep and burnout symptoms in elite athletes. We recruited 257 young elite athletes (M-age = 16.8 years) from Swiss Olympic partner schools. Of these, 197 were reassessed 6 months later. Based on the first assessment, 24 participants with clinically relevant burnout symptoms volunteered to participate in a polysomnographic examination and were compared with 26 (matched) healthy controls. Between 12% and 14% of young elite athletes reported burnout symptoms of potential clinical relevance, whereas 4-11% reported clinically relevant insomnia symptoms. Athletes with clinically relevant burnout symptoms reported significantly more insomnia symptoms, more dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions, and spent less time in bed during weeknights (p<.05). However, no significant differences were found for objective sleep parameters. A cross-lagged panel analysis showed that burnout positively predicted self-reported insomnia symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral interventions to treat dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions might be a promising measure to reduce subjective sleep complaints among young elite athletes.

  • 9.
    Gerber, Markus
    et al.
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Best, Simon
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Meerstetter, Fabienne
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Walter, Marco
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Ludyga, Sebastian
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Brand, Serge
    University of Basel, Switzerland; Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Bianchi, Renzo
    University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    Madigan, Daniel J.
    York St. John University, United Kingdom.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Effects of stress and mental toughness on burnout and depressive symptoms: A prospective study with young elite athletes2018Ingår i: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 21, nr 12, s. 1200-1205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine in a sample of young elite athletes (a) the presence of clinically relevant symptoms of burnout and depression, and (b) a possible interaction of perceived stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout and depressive symptoms. Design: 6-month prospective study. Methods: A representative sample of 257 young elite athletes (M = 16.82 years, SD = 1.44, 36% females) was recruited in North–Western Switzerland. 197 athletes were followed-up across a 6-month period. Burnout was assessed with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM), and depression with the 9-item depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Values of ≥4.40 (SMBM) and >14 (PHQ-9) were considered indicative of clinically relevant burnout or depression. Stress perceptions were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and mental toughness with the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test stress-buffering effects. Results: The percentage of athletes with clinically relevant levels of burnout and depressive symptoms was 12% and 9%, respectively. Both cross-sectional and prospective analyses showed that compared to participants with low mental toughness, those with higher mental toughness scores reported significantly fewer mental health issues, when exposed to high stress. By contrast, when stress levels were low, mental toughness was unrelated to psychological health complaints. Conclusions: About every tenth young elite athlete reported burnout or depressive symptoms of potential clinical relevance. While high perceived stress was associated with increased psychological health complaints, mental toughness was able to off-set some of the negative consequences resulting from high stress exposure.

  • 10.
    Gerber, Markus
    et al.
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Seelig, Harald
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Kellmann, Michael
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany.
    Ludyga, Sebastian
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Colledge, Flora
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Brand, Serge
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Bianchi, Renzo
    Université de Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    Usefulness of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) as a screening tool for the detection of clinically relevant burnout symptoms among young elite athletes2018Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 39, s. 104-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Having psychometrically sound instruments is essential to the understanding of the determinants and consequences of athlete burnout. Therefore, this study examines the psychometric properties of a German version of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) and its usefulness as a screening tool for the detection of clinically relevant burnout symptoms. Design: Prospective study. Method: 257 young elite athletes were recruited from Swiss Olympic Sport Classes (37% females; M = 16.8 years, SD = 1.4). 197 students were assessed a second time after six months. All students filled in a standardized questionnaire about domain-specific and domain-unspecific burnout symptoms, depressive symptoms, stress, and life satisfaction. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor structure of the ABQ. Moreover, all subscales had acceptable internal consistency. Support was also found for the convergent validity of the ABQ; all subscales were positively correlated with perceived stress, burnout and depression, whereas negative correlations existed with life satisfaction. By contrast, some ABQ subscales shared only limited variance, the three ABQ subscales did not predict each other across time, and none of the ABQ subscales was suitable for the screening of clinically relevant burnout symptoms. Conclusions: While the factor structure and internal consistency of the ABQ was supported, our study corroborates previous concerns about the psychometric properties and validity of the ABQ. While the ABQ has advanced research on athlete burnout, we hold that further debates about the most suitable way to assess burnout among elite athletes are urgently needed.

  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet.
    Burnout in competitive and elite athletes2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensified training regimes and increasing competitive pressure make some athletes leave sports with shattered hopes and dreams. A number of these athletes drop out of sports due to burnout, which is characterized by an enduring experience of emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment and devaluation of sport participation as a consequence of prolonged chronic stress. Loss of engagement and diminished motivation also characterize burnout. But burnout is more than just a simple stress reaction, as not all athletes who experience stress burn out. Study I investigates the prevalence of burnout among competitive athletes. The number of athletes showing high levels of burnout was found to be between 1 and 9%. The number of athletes suffering from severe burnout was estimated at 1-2%. Contrary to what has been speculated, burnout was not more common in individual sports than in team sports. Study II investigated the burnout process using a case-study approach. It was found that burnout can evolve with different levels of severity, time perspectives and characteristics. There appears to be a relationship between overtraining syndrome and burnout, and the study gave support to the notion that burnout is the most severe outcome on the training fatigue continuum. Early success might lead to high expectations and an inner pressure to train, which in the three cases made the athletes ignore signs of maladaptation. Performance-based self-esteem appears to be a “driving force” in the burnout process. In Study III the burnout experience was investigated using qualitative interviews. Lack of recovery, “too much sports” and high external demands were described as causes of burnout. A stressful situation with multiple demands from sport, school and social relationships leads to a total overload, which has both physiological and psychological consequences. Critical factors were a unidimensional identity, performance-based self-esteem, an inflexible organization and feelings of entrapment. These restraining factors made the athletes remain in sports despite negative outcomes. Thus the three studies indicate that burnout is a serious problem in competitive and elite sports, that restraining factors offer an explanation for why athletes remain in sport despite negative outcomes, and that striving for self-esteem is crucial in the development of burnout.

  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet.
    Jakten på den perfekta prestationen2005Ingår i: Årsbok k: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening, Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening , 2005Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Föräldrar och idrott. Föräldrainitierat motivationsklimat.2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Carlin, Maicon
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Podlog, Leslie
    USA.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach2018Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 35, s. 118-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the link between elite athletes' motivational profiles and burnout using a person-centered approach. Participants were 391 Spanish elite athletes (201 males and 190 females), aged 16-30 years who completed questionnaires measuring demographic information, self-determined motivation, and athlete burnout. Latent profile analysis resulted in a five profile solution labeled: amotivation (Class 1), low motivation (Class 2), moderately autonomous motivation (Class 3), amotivated and moderately controlled motivation (Class 4), and highly motivated (Class 5). While no significant differences were found in emotional/physical exhaustion, Class 4 (amotivated and moderately controlled motivation) scored higher than classes 2 (low motivation), 3 (moderately autonomous motivation), and 5 (highly motivated) on a Reduced sense of Accomplishment and Sport Devaluation. Findings are discussed in relation to Self-Determination Theory, suggesting that the quality of one's motivation may be equally, if not more important than the quantity of motivation in determining subsequent health, well-being, and performance outcomes.

  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Carlin, Maicon
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Ericsson, Helena
    Örebro universitet.
    Perfectionism and athlete burnout: Does the motivational climate matter?2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Davis, Paul
    Northumbria Univ, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Skoog, Therese
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Orebro, Sweden..
    Kentta, Goran
    Haberl, Peter
    Mindfulness and Its Relationship With Perceived Stress, Affect, and Burnout in Elite Junior Athletes2015Ingår i: Journal of clinical sport psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 263-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and burnout and whether this relationship is mediated by perceived stress, negative affect, and positive affect in elite junior athletes. Participants were 233 (123 males and 107 females) adolescent athletes, ranging in age from 15-19 years (M = 17.50; SD = 1.08).Bivariate correlations revealed that mindfulness had a significant negative relationship with both perceived stress and burnout. To investigate mediation, we employed nonparametric bootstrapping analyses. These analyses indicated that positive affect fully mediated links between mindfulness and sport devaluation. Further, positive affect and negative affect partially mediated the relationships between mindfulness and physical/emotional exhaustion, as well as between mindfulness and reduced sense of accomplishment. The results point toward mindfulness being negatively related to burnout in athletes and highlight the role of positive affect. Future research should investigate the longitudinal effect of dispositional mindfulness on stress and burnout.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    DeFreese, J. D.
    USA.
    Madigan, Daniel J.
    England.
    Athlete burnout: review and recommendations2017Ingår i: Current opinion in psychology, ISSN 2352-250X, Vol. 16, s. 109-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades, growing concerns regarding the negative implications of athlete burnout have spurred empirical research on the topic. In their citation network analysis of the burnout literature, Gustafsson et al. (2014), cited well over 100 publications on the syndrome. Despite considerable investigation into athlete burnout, there remain a number of unresolved questions and issues. Four main aims guide the current review. First, we highlight various models of athlete burnout. Second, we discuss the measurement of athlete burnout. Third, we describe the symptoms, antecedents, and consequences of athlete burnout with a focus on social perceptions and perfectionism. Finally, we provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of athlete burnout via an illustration of links between theory and practice. It is our hope that this review can stimulate future research in order to help athletes avoid burnout and other severe forms of training maladaptation.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hancock, David
    Indiana university.
    Coté, Jean
    Queens university Canada.
    Describing citation structures in sport burnout literature: a citation network analysis2014Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 620-625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Hassmén, P
    Hassmén, N
    Are athletes burning out with passion?2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Hassmén, P
    Hassmén, N
    Ragnarsson, H
    Burnout in relation to performance based self-esteem and athletic identity2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Hassmén, P
    Kenttä, G
    Praktisk idrottspsykologi2009Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Hassmén, P
    Podlog, L
    Exploring the relationship between hope and burnout in competitive sport2010Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 28, nr 14, s. 1495-1504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Hassmén, Nathalie
    Are athletes burning out with passion?2011Ingår i: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 387-395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hill, Andrew
    Leeds University.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    The interaction betweenperfectionism and parent-initiated climate when predicting burnout among juniorcompetitive athletes2013Ingår i: The 13th ISSP World congress in sport psychology, Beijing, China, June, 2013., 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hill, A.P.
    UK.
    Stenling, A.
    Umeå University.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Profiles of perfectionism, parental climate, and burnout among competitive junior athletes2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, nr 10, s. 1256-1264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that groups of athletes which differ in terms of perfectionism and perceptions of achievement climate can be identified. Moreover, these groups also differ in terms of burnout symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research by examining whether discernible groups can be identified based on scores of perfectionism and perceptions of parent-initiated climate and, then, whether these groups differ in terms of burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-seven Swedish junior athletes (124 males and 113 females aged 16-19) from a variety of sports completed measures of athlete burnout, multidimensional perfectionism, and parent-initiated motivational climate. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: non-perfectionistic athletes in a task-involving climate, moderately perfectionistic athletes in a task-involving climate, highly perfectionistic athletes in a task-involving climate, and highly perfectionistic athletes in a mixed climate. The latter two groups reported higher levels of burnout in comparison to other groups. The findings suggest that junior athletes high in perfectionism may be at comparatively greater risk to burnout and that this may especially be the case when they perceive their parents to emphasize concerns about failure and winning without trying one’s best.

  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Holmberg, H-C
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    An elite endurance athlete’s recovery from underperformance aided by a multidisciplinary sport science support team2008Ingår i: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 267-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Hassmén, Peter
    Athlete Burnout: An Integrated Model and Future Directions2011Ingår i: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 3-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Stockholms universitet.
    Prevalence of burnout in adolescent competitive athletes2007Ingår i: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 21, s. 21-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Durand-Bush, Nathalie
    University of Ottowa.
    The process of burnout: A multiple case study of three elite endurance athletes2007Ingår i: International Journal of Sport Psychology, ISSN 0047-0767, Vol. 38, s. 388-416Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Lemyre, P-N
    Motivation and burnout in elite athletes2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Lundkvist, Erik
    University of St Andrews, U.
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Conceptual Confusion and Potential Advances in Athlete Burnout Research2016Ingår i: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 123, nr 3, s. 784-791Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Working with perfectionism in elite sport: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy perspective2016Ingår i: The psychology of perfectionism in sport, dance, and exercise / [ed] Andrew Hill, Routledge, 2016, 1Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Tod, David
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Cognitive behavioral intervention in sport psychology: A case illustration of the exposure method with an elite athlete2017Ingår i: Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, ISSN 2152-0704, E-ISSN 2152-0712, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 152-162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One common method in Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) to treat anxiety problems is exposure, but there are few articles examining its applicability to sport. The aim of this article is to give a background of the use of exposure in sport and present a case of how exposure can be used with athletes. The athlete was a 17-year-old female cross-country skier with high levels of performance anxiety. In the case description, common procedures in CBT such as behavioral analysis, psychoeducation, and exposure are presented, as well as how anxiety can be managed. After the intervention the athlete perceived lower levels of anxiety as well as improved behavioral repertoire (e.g., less avoidant behaviors and more functional sport-specific behaviors). This case may be used to help practitioners consider the use of exposure in competitive sports.

  • 34.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Lundqvist, E
    Hassmén, P
    Hjälm, S
    Stress och utmattning hos elitfotbollstränare: Organisationens roll2009Ingår i: Årsbok: Svensk Idrottspsykologisk Förening / [ed] Lindwall, M., & Johnson, U, Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening , 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Martinent, Guillaume
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Guillet-Descas, Emma
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Performance based self-esteem and athlete-identity in athlete burnout: A person-centered approach2018Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 38, s. 56-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance-based self-esteem and a self-identity dominated by being an athlete have been associated with athlete burnout. Our aim is to extend previous research by adopting a person-centered approach and examining whether profiles of burnout can be identified based on the athletes’ identity and performance-based self-esteem. Swedish junior athletes completed measures of athlete burnout, athlete identity, and performance-based self-esteem. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: Low burnout profile (n = 131), Moderate burnout profile (n = 178), Moderately high burnout profile (n = 125) and High burnout profile (n = 37). Higher scores of athletic identity were significantly less likely to be in the high burnout profile and athletes with higher scores of performance-based self-esteem were significantly more likely to be in the high burnout profile compared to the other three burnout profiles. These findings suggest that athletes with a performance-based self-esteem might be at greater risk of experiencing burnout.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Nilsson, S
    Mindfulnessförmågan och dess relation till affekt och stressrelaterad utmattning hos elitjuniorer2010Ingår i: Årsbok: Svensk Idrottspsykologisk Förening / [ed] Lindwall, M., & Johnson, U, Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening , 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Podlog, L
    Westin, M
    Lochbaum, M
    Werner, S
    Alricsson,
    Predictors of Hope Among Youth Swedish Downhill Skiers: The Influence of Autonomy Support, Need Satisfaction and Motivation2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Podlog, L
    Westin, M
    Lochbaum, M
    Werner, S
    Alricsson, M
    Developing Engagement Among High Performance Youth Athletes: The Role of Autonomy Support, Need Satisfaction and Motivation2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah, USA.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Positive Psychology and Elite Sport: a Potential Nurturing Relationship?2013Ingår i: The 13th European Congress of Psychology, Stockholm 9-12 July. , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Sagar, S. S.
    Leeds Beckett Univ, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, England.
    Stenling, A.
    Umeå universitet.
    Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, nr 12, s. 2091-2102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19years (M=17.4years, SD=1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure.

  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Sandrine, Isoard-Gautheur
    1Laboratoire Sport et Environnement Social, Université de Grenoble .
    Trouilloud, David
    1Laboratoire Sport et Environnement Social, Université de Grenoble .
    Gulliet-Descas, Emma
    Centre de Recherche et d’Innovation sur le Sport, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Loughborough University.
    Athlete Burnout and theCoach-Athlete relationship2013Ingår i: The 13th ISSP World congress in sport psychology, Beijing, China, June, 2013., 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Skoog, Thérese
    The mediational role of stress in the relation between optimism and burnout in competitive athletes2012Ingår i: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 183-199-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Skoog, Thérese
    Örebro universitet.
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Hope and athlete burnout: Stress and affect as mediators2013Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 640-649Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    In this study we examined the relationship between trait hope and burnout in elite junior soccer players and whether stress and positive and negative affect mediated this relationship.

    Methods

    Participants were 238 Swedish soccer players (166 males, 71 females; one did not indicate gender) aged 15–19 years who completed questionnaires measuring trait hope, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and athlete burnout (i.e., emotional/physical exhaustion, a reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation).

    Results

    Bivariate correlations were consistent with hope theory contentions indicating significant negative relationships between hope and all three burnout dimensions. The relationship between hope and emotional/physical exhaustion was fully mediated by stress and positive affect. For sport devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment, stress and positive affect partially mediated the relationship with hope. In contrast, negative affect did not mediate the relationship between hope and any of the burnout dimensions.

    Conclusion

    The results support earlier findings that hope is negatively related to athlete burnout. Support was also found for the hypothesis that high hope individuals would experience less stress and therefore less burnout. Promoting hope may be relevant in reducing the likelihood of this detrimental syndrome.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Smith, A.L
    Hassmén, P
    Peer motivational climate and burnout perceptions of intensively sport involved adolescents2010Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, nr 11, s. 453-460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Smith, A.L
    Hassmén, P
    Hassmén, N
    Peer motivational climate and burnout perceptions in adolescent athletes2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 46.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Föräldrar och idrott: Föräldrainitierat motivationsklimat.2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Hassmén, Peter
    et al.
    Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Kenttä, Göran
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden; University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Hjälm, Sören
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013). Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway.
    Burnout symptoms and recovery processes in eight elite soccer coaches over 10 years2019Ingår i: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 431-443Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Elite sport can be stressful, which increases the risk for burnout symptoms to develop. Especially when not balanced with sufficient recovery. To study the burnout–recovery process, eight elite soccer coaches were followed for 10 years. All eight were active elite coaches at the inception of this study and reported elevated emotional exhaustion scores on Maslach’s Burnout Inventory Educators Survey (MBI-ES). The coaches completed MBI-ES three additional times (year 3, 7, and 10), and they were also interviewed on the same occasions. At the 3-year follow-up, seven of the eight coaches reduced their exhaustion scores. The coach presenting with unchanged scores both at the 3 - and 7-year follow-up was the only one still coaching at the elite level. All coaches revealed during the interviews that they struggled to manage their work–life balance well; some worked too many hours, some experienced difficulty in managing conflicting role-demands, and some wrestled with external pressures. Their approach to recovery was, however, similar. Apart from moving away from coaching at the elite level, they unanimously mentioned that they changed their approach to coaching to make recovery possible. They achieved the latter by, for example, increasing control and delegating responsibility. According to our longitudinal results, burnout frequently regarded as an end-state can decrease over time. Provided that decisive action is taken to change situational factors and personal demands. This frequently meant withdrawing from coaching, which in turn explains why coach retention remains a serious challenge for most organizations with teams/athletes competing at the elite level. © The Author(s) 2019.

  • 48.
    Hassmén, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholms universietet.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Flett, Gordon
    York University, Canada.
    Hewitt, Paul
    Ottowa University, Canada.
    Perfectionistic Cognitions and Coach Burnout.2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Hjälm, Sören
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet.
    Burnout in elite soccer coaches2007Ingår i: Journal of Sport Behavior, ISSN 0162-7341, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 415-427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    et al.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, UFRAPS, Lab SENS, Grenoble, France..
    Guillet-Descas, Emma
    Univ Lyon 1, Res & Innovat Ctr Sport, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Athlete Burnout and the Risk of Dropout Among Young Elite Handball Players2016Ingår i: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 123-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative feelings that are part of burnout syndrome may prompt athletes to drop out of their sport. The objective of the current study was therefore to examine the influence of athlete burnout profiles on playing status 6 years later. The participants of this study were 458 boys and girls between 14 and 18 years old (M = 15.44; SD =.95) enrolled in elite handball training centers. Cluster analysis on athlete burnout and multinomial logistic regressions on the playing status were conducted. The results suggest that those individuals with a "higher burnout" profile at Time 1 were more likely to have stopped playing handball 6 years later. It therefore seems important to develop strategies to prevent burnout in young athletes enrolled in elite training structures and to promote long-term engagement and well-being in elite sporting activity.

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