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  • 1.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Injury risks in schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity or autismspectrumdisorder: Results from two school-based health surveys of 6- to 17-year-old children in Sweden2016In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 58, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Sweden and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been associated with an increased risk of injury in pediatric populations elsewhere in the world. Current evidence regarding the possible link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and injury risk appears limited, even though some potentially risk-increasing symptoms overlap. The purpose of this study was thus to study the association between both ADHD and ASD concerning the risk of injury among Swedish schoolchildren. Methods: Two samples were used: a population based register study containing data from 18,416 children ranging from the ages of 6-17 years collected by school nurses during 2012/2014 (Survey A), and a national cross-sectional study of 3202 ninth-grade children (similar to 15 years old) collected from 92 schools in 2011 (Survey B). The data were analyzed using chi(2)-tests and log binomial generalized linear models to obtain risk ratios (RR), comparing cases reportedly affected by ADHD or ASD to unaffected controls. Results: After adjusting for confounders, ADHD was associated with a 65% increased risk of injury (RR 1.65 [95% CI: 132-2.05] in Survey A, and a 57% increased risk of injury (RR 1.57 [95% CI: 1.27-1.95]) in Survey B. ASD was not significantly associated with any differences in injury risk (RR 0.81 [95% CI: 0.57-1.14]). Conclusions: The results indicate that there is an elevated injury risk among Swedish schoolchildren with ADHD but not for children with ASD. Future studies should focus on causal mechanisms mediating the association between ADHD and injuries in order to facilitate injury prevention strategies. Practical applications: Parents and teachers of schoolchildren with ADHD should be made aware of the elevated injury risks associated with the diagnosis. Safety experts and injury control professionals should consider the development of specialized prevention strategies in order to reduce these risks.

  • 2.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Does gender moderate the association between intellectual ability and accidental injuries?: Evidence from the 1953 Stockholm Birth Cohort study2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 106, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Funktionsnedsättningar som riskfaktor för olycksfall och andra skador.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ellonen, Noora
    et al.
    Police Coll Finland, Tampere, Finland..
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Tindberg, Ylva
    Sormland Cty Council, Ctr Res & Dev, Eskilstuna, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lucas, Steven
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Current Parental Attitudes Towards Upbringing Practices in Finland and Sweden 30 Years after the Ban on Corporal Punishment2015In: Child Abuse Review, ISSN 0952-9136, E-ISSN 1099-0852, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 409-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty years have now passed since Sweden and Finland, as the first countries in the world, enacted national legislation against corporal punishment. This study examines the current attitudes towards corporal punishment among Finnish and Swedish parents of newborn to 12-year-old children. Differences between the countries in parents' attitudes towards upbringing practices in relation to socio-demographic background factors were also analysed. The study was based on identical survey data collected separately in Finland and Sweden in 2011 and later merged for analysis. The survey included questions regarding parental behaviour and attitudes towards upbringing practices. Data were analysed using univariate tests (chi-2) and logistic regression. The analysis showed that a significantly larger proportion of Finnish parents approved of slapping or hitting their children compared to Swedish parents (OR = 6.20). Swedish parents, on the other hand, approved of shaking more than Finnish parents (OR = 0.54). Furthermore, a larger proportion of Finnish parents had positive attitudes towards non-violent types of punishments compared to Swedish parents. The socio-demographic background factors did not explain the differences between the countries. Cultural factors that may plausibly influence these attitudes are discussed. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 5.
    Engh, Lisbet
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Lin, Ping-I
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Can school attachment modify the relation between foster care placement and school achievement?2018In: British Journal of School Nursing, ISSN 1752-2803, E-ISSN 2052-2827, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 175-185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    There is more to Life than Risk Avoidance: Elderly Peoples Perspectives of Falls and Compliant Flooring2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-9, article id 1479586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Falls are the most common cause of injury in all ages and are especiallydifficult to prevent among residential care residents. Compliant flooring has beenproposed as a measure to prevent fall-injury, however little is known regarding theimplementation aspects in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to explore thefrail elderly person's view on falls, the risk of fall-injury, prevention in general andspecifically compliant flooring as an injury preventative measure. Methods. In this qualitative study, we used the grounded theory method and conductedin depths interviews with eight elderly people in residential care.Results. The identified categories were Falling as a part of life, Fearing theconsequences and A wish to prevent falls and injuries. Through the results is was clearthat There is more to life than risk avoidance, permeated the interviews, thereforeforming the grounded theory. The interviewees viewed falls as something common andnormal, and were uninterested in focusing on the risk of falls. Although they wanted toprevent falls, it was often difficult to integrate preventative measures into their everydaylife. They embraced the idea of an injury reducing compliant flooring, but their maininterests lie elsewhere.Conclusions. The results in this paper propose explanations on the obstacles ofimplementing fall prevention measures in an elderly frail population. The findings cangive us insights as to why interest, compliance for active fall prevention measures arelow, and on various factors that have to be taken under consideration in the process ofconstructing prevention. Compliant flooring is a passive fall injury prevention measurethat does not require the target group to make active decisions, adapt or activelyparticipate in the program. Therefore, we conclude that complaint flooring, from theperspective of the residents, can work well in residential care.

  • 7.
    Gustavsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rahm, GullBritt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of Impact-Absorbing Flooring in Residential Care from the Perspectives of Enrolled Nurses2017In: Journal of Housing for the Elderly, ISSN 0276-3893, E-ISSN 1540-353X, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 367-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Falls are a daily occurrence in nursing homes and few interventions for reducing fall-related injuries have proven to be effective. Impact absorbing flooring (IAF) in residential care has shown promising results in reducing fail-injuries and in the process of developing and implementing IAF all aspects are valuable to explore. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study is to describe the enrolled nurses (ENs) experiences of IAF. We carried out focus group interviews with ENs and used content analysis to process the data. The ENs experienced both negative and positive aspects with the IAF. Importantly, the ENs perceived the IAF as effective in preventing fall-injuries. They also appreciated the improvements in acoustics. Negative aspects were that the flooring initially was challenging to walk on and that it made it harder to maneuver heavy equipment. A significant and transferable finding in this study was the importance of the ENs' perceived difficulty in preventing fall-injuries amongst elderly people living in nursing homes. This seemed to be a driving force to accept the intervention. Although IAF affects the working conditions in a nursing home, ENs are willing to accept these issues given the perceived effectiveness of the intervention.

  • 8.
    Janson, Staffan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Barnmisshandel: Den aktuella situationen i världen och i Sverige2013In: Barnläkaren, ISSN 1651-0534, Vol. 2013, no 5, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Janson, Staffan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Långberg, Bodil
    Kroppslig bestraffning och annan kränkning av barn i Sverige: en nationell kartläggning 20112011Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Barnmisshandel ur barns och ungas perspektiv: Omfattning, hälsa, avslöjande och stöd2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Child abuse is a major public health problem which is largely hidden in the society.

    The main aim of the thesis was to study child maltreatment from children’s and young people’s perspectives focusing on prevalence, health, disclosure and support.

    The thesis is based on four studies. Quantitative and qualitative data from three national surveys of child maltreatment, including children in different age groups and young adults, have been analysed.

    The results showed that child maltreatment is prevalent and there is a large degree of overlap between maltreatment types. Neglect and witnessing intimate partner violence were the types that overlapped most with other types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment was strongly associated to psychosomatic symptoms and impaired quality of life. Young people who have been victims of child maltreatment described the psychological consequences, such as painful memories, low self-esteem and depression. The psychological abuse was described as particularly detrimental. Victims of sexual abuse expressed feelings of shame and guilt. About half of the severely abused children did not disclose the abuse, mainly because of lack of trust in adults. Many children felt that they did not receive adequate support when they disclosed the maltreatment, particularly because they experienced a lack of child perspective among professionals. Children and young people experienced positive support from the school health services which they considered to have a particularly important role in the detection and support of maltreated children. The results emphasize an increased awareness among professionals to recognise and respond to child maltreatment.

  • 11.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    CHILD MALTREATMENT FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE: PREVALENCE, HEALTH, DISCLOSURE AND SUPPORT2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, p. A159-A159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Barns liv och hälsa i Värmland 20142015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Young adult's personal views on childabuse2010In: Nordic Journal of Social Research, ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Otterman, Gabriel
    Uppsala universitet.
    Tindberg, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lucas, Steven
    Uppsala universitet.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Disclosure of maltreatment and perceived adult support among Swedish adolescents2017In: Child Abuse Review, ISSN 0952-9136, E-ISSN 1099-0852, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 451-464Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Svensson, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Tindberg, Y
    Uppsala universitet.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Multiple psychosomatic symptoms can indicate child physical abuse: results from a study of Swedish schoolchildren2012In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 324-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    To examine whether children with self-reported experiences of either physical abuse alone or combined with intimate partner violence report more psychosomatic symptoms than other children and to explore whether these possible associations are enhanced by school-related factors, chronic condition and demographic factors.

    METHODS:

    A national cross-sectional study of 2771 pupils in grades 4, 6 and 9 from 44 schools in Sweden was carried out in 2006 (91% response rate). Data were analysed with univariate tests (chi-square), multiple logistic regression analyses and stratified logistic regression analyses, expressed as crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals.

    RESULTS:

    There was a strong association between reported physical abuse and multiple (three or more) psychosomatic symptoms among schoolchildren (AOR 2.12). Chronic condition was the only determinant that had an obvious enhancing effect on the association between physical abuse and psychosomatic symptoms in childhood.

    CONCLUSION:

    This study shows that multiple psychosomatic symptoms are associated with child physical abuse. Health professionals therefore need to pay special attention to schoolchildren who complain about the co-occurrence of psychosomatic symptoms and pattern of symptoms, which could not be easily explained by other causes.

  • 16.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Tindberg, Ylva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lucas, Steven
    Uppsala universitet.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Quality of life among Swedish school children who experienced multitype child maltreatment2015In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 320-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:The aim of this study was to examine the overlap between child maltreatment types and their association with quality of life among school children.

    METHODS:A national cross-sectional study of 3202 grade nine Swedish pupils of 15 years of age was carried out in 2011 with an 84% response rate. Data were analysed using Pearson chi-square and multiple linear regression analyses.

    RESULTS:Of the total sample, 650 children (20%) reported at least one type of maltreatment. There was a large degree of overlap between maltreatment types. In particular, neglect and witnessing intimate partner violence overlapped with most other types of maltreatment. There was a significant relationship between the degree of abuse and multitype maltreatment. Results showed a linear relationship between the number of types of maltreatment and quality of life (p < 0.001), indicating a dose-response relationship.

    CONCLUSION:The results emphasise the negative impact of child maltreatment on children's lives and highlight the importance of taking the broad spectrum of child maltreatment into account in both research and practice. A more comprehensive assessment of the width of maltreatment among professionals may help to identify the most seriously maltreated children and lead to an improved ability to target intervention and prevention at these children.

  • 17.
    Koivula, Tanja
    et al.
    The Foundation for Disabled Children and Youth, Finland.
    Ellonen, Noora
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Huhtala, Heini
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Paavilainen, Eija
    University of Tampere, Finland; South Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Finland.
    Psychological and physical violence towards children with disabilities in Finland and Sweden2018In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 317-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes psychological aggression and physical violence by Swedish and Finnish mothers (N = 3420) towards their 0- to 12-year-old children with disabilities (N = 286) by comparing such behaviour with the mothers of children without disabilities (N = 3134). The survey data are based on representative samples from Finland and Sweden of mothers’ reports of their behaviour towards their child in conflict situations. Mothers of children with disabilities reported more psychological aggression towards their child than did mothers of children without disabilities. Mothers used psychological aggression, especially towards children with neurological/psychological disabilities. However, the only significant difference regarding physical violence was repetitive use of mild physical violence. Overall, the analysis suggests that children with neurological/psychological disabilities are more exposed to both psychological and physical violence than children without disabilities or children with somatic/developmental disabilities.

  • 18.
    Larsson, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    von Kobyletzki, Laura
    Carlstedt, Fredrik
    PVC-flooring in early childhood and diagnosis of autism 10 years later2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lucas, Steven
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Försummelse av barn: ett försummat problem2014In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, no 47, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the home, it has received relatively little attention in both research and medical practice. Up to one in six children in the western world experience physical or psychological neglect during their upbringing. Severe neglect is associated with anatomical and physiological changes in the brain that in turn are coupled to cognitive impairment, impulsivity, and disturbances in concentration and social behavior. Reducing the risk of neglect requires the provision of preventive interventions at the individual and societal level, both universally and targeted to parents and children in need of special support. Health care services can play a key role in the prevention and early detection of neglect in childhood.

  • 20.
    Lucas, Steven
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Tindberg, Ylva
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bully, bullied and abused. Associations between violence at home and bullying in childhood2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 27-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim was to examine experiences of bullying among Swedish adolescents and whether victims and perpetrators were also exposed to violence in the home, with particular focus on how abuse severity affected the risk of exposure to bullying. Methods: A nationally representative sample of pupils aged 14-15 responded to a questionnaire exploring exposure to corporal punishment and other types of violence. Results were analysed using Pearson's chi-square and multiple logistic regression, adjusting for factors regarding the child, the parents and the families' socioeconomic status. Results: Among the 3197 respondents, a significant proportion reported at least one incident of either bullying victimisation (girls 36%, boys 26%) or bullying perpetration (girls 24%, boys 36%). Physical and emotional violence in the home, including witnessed intimate partner violence, were significantly associated with both bullying victimisation and bullying perpetration. Odds ratios for exposure to bullying rose with increasing frequency and severity of abuse. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 for any event of abuse vs. single episodes of bullying to 20.3 for multiple types of abuse vs. many episodes of bullying. The child's gender and the presence of a chronic health condition were consistently associated with nearly all levels of abuse and bullying. Conclusions: Bullying experiences are common among youth and are clearly associated with abuse. Frequent bullying, whether as victim or perpetrator, warrants particular vigilance, as it appears to be an indicator of severe violence in the home.

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