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  • 1.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy for stress-related problems: Two single-case studies of parents of children with disabilities.2014In: Clinical Case Studies, ISSN 1534-6501, E-ISSN 1552-3802, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 472-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many parents who have children suffering from some form of chronic illness or mental disorder may experience chronic stress reactions of various types. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been proved to be effective in reducing stress-related problems, but there seems to be no study to date in which CBT has been tested on this specific parent group. Two case studies were therefore performed. Case 1 centered on a 47-year-old married woman, who has lived in Sweden for 12 months. She described how she had become increasingly exhausted, and she wanted help to find strategies enabling her to cope with everyday life. Case 2 featured a 45-year-old single mother, who had been on part-time sick leave due to depression and stress. She described how she had always been anxious and worried and had had two episodes of depression. Both women had sons diagnosed with autism/Asperger syndrome. One of the women met the criteria for pathological burnout, while the other woman was just below the limit. The focus of the therapy for both women was on exhaustion, depression, and sleeping difficulties. In addition, therapy in Case 1 involved under-stimulation and in Case 2, anxiety. When the therapy ended, genuine improvements were registered for both clients. The results show that CBT can be an effective treatment of symptoms for this group of parents so that they can provide adequate support to their children, thus facilitating everyday life for a child with a chronic illness or disorder.

  • 2.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for health-related quality of life: Comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions: A pilot feasibility study2017In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on parents of children with chronic conditions has shown that this parent group frequently suffers from psychological problems such as deteriorating life quality and stress-related disorders. Objective: The present feasibility study focuses on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and life satisfaction of parents of children with chronic conditions. Method: The study was conducted using a repeated measures design and applied either group-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT; n = 10) or a group-based mindfulness programme (MF; n = 9). The study participants were wait-listed for six months. Results:The results indicate improvements for participants in both treatment groups regarding certain areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction. After eight group therapy sessions, parents in the two treatment groups significantly improved their Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as well as their scores on the mental subscales Vitality, Social functioning, Role emotional and Mental health. In addition, some of the physical subscales, Role physical, Bodily pain and General health, showed considerable improvement for the MF group. When testing for clinical significance by comparing the samples with mean values of a norm population, the MCS scores were significantly lower at pre-measurements, but no significant differences were observed post-measurement. For the Physical component summary (PCS) scores, a significantly higher score was observed at post-measurement when compared to the norm population. Moreover, the results indicate improvement in life satisfaction regarding Spare time, Relation to child and Relation to partner. Conclusion: The study concludes that CBT and mindfulness may have a positive effect on areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction.

  • 3.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Muotka, Joona
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for stress and burnout: a waiting list controlled pilot study comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 389-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Parents of children with chronic conditions often experience a crisis with serious mental health problems for themselves as a consequence. The healthcare focus is on the children; however, the parents often worry about their children's health and future but are seldom offered any counselling or guidance.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two group-based behavioural interventions on stress and burnout among parents of children with chronic conditions.

    Design, participants and setting

    After a waiting list control period (n = 28), parents were offered either a cognitive behavioural (CBT, n = 10) or a mindfulness program (MF, n = 9).

    Results

    Both interventions decreased significantly stress and burnout. The within-group effect sizes were large in both interventions (CBT, g = 1.28–1.64; MF, g = 1.25–2.20).

    Conclusions

    Hence, the results of this pilot study show that treating a group using either CBT or mindfulness can be an efficient intervention for reducing stress levels and burnout in parents of children with chronic conditions.

  • 4.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    A modification of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for Anorexia Nervosa – a case study2012In: Clinical Case Studies, ISSN 1534-6501, E-ISSN 1552-3802, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 201-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study illustrates the treatment of an adult woman who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). For approximately 10 years, the client had suffered from various forms of eating disorders and had had several unsuccessful encounters with the health care services. In this study, she was treated with a modification of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E). CBT-E is a relatively new treatment guide with a transdiagnostic perspective on eating disorders. In all, the treatment consisted of 14 sessions where most sessions were held on a weekly basis. Thereafter, a maintenance and follow-up was conducted via email and with the aid of self-help literature. Treatment time lasted for 8 months followed by a follow-up of 4 months. In this study, the content of each session is described, as are the modifications that were made. The modifications were made to increase motivation and self-esteem, as well as perceived control of eating, which, in itself, is a contribution to increased efficiency and a clarification of important treatment components. Apart from a description of treatment interventions, the study shows the weight gain and other clinically significant components regarding eating disorders that concern, among other things, self-esteem and general mental health. The results of this study demonstrate that this treatment, with the proposed modifications, has been highly effective for this client and hence provides a positive anticipation that this might be a more effective treatment in general for people with AN.

  • 5. Eklund, C.
    et al.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, L.
    Borg, S.
    Abstinence fear in methadone maintenance withdrawal:: A possible obstacle for getting off methadone1997In: Substance Use & Missuse 32: 779-792, 1997Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Eklund, C.
    et al.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, L.
    Borg, S.
    Factors associated with successful withdrawal from methadone maintenance treatment in Sweden1995In: The International Journal of the Addictions 30: 1335-1353, 1995Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Eklund, C.
    et al.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, L.
    Borg, S.
    Patient perceptions of psychological and physiological withdrawal symptoms and positive factors associated with gradual withdrawal from methadone maintenance treatment: a prospective study1997In: Substance Use & Missuse 32: 1599-1618, 1997Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Eklund, C.
    et al.
    Melin, L.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, S.
    Detoxicication from methadone maintenance treatment in Sweden:: long-term outcome and effects on quality of life and life situation1994In: The International Journal of the Addictions, 29: 627-645, 1994Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Ekman, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Modified CBT using visualization for Autism spectrum disorder(ASD), anxiety and avoidance behavior2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    The Cognitive Profile of Persons with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder2018In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 14, p. 304-311, article id CPEMH-14-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often comorbid with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). But to what extent can obsessional symptoms in individuals with ASD be considered “genuinely” comorbid OCD – or are there other mechanisms that are related to ASD? Which mechanisms in OCD with and without ASD share common features? People with ASD have a cognitive profile characterized by “mindblindness”; the antecedent is often referred to in terms of not knowing how to perform or behave and this is the cause of discomfort. This raises the question whether individuals with ASD and comorbid OCD share the same cognitive elements of responsibility interpretation and the same fear of causing harm as individuals who merely have OCD.

    Objective: The aim of the present study is therefore to evaluate the extent of responsibility interpretation in individuals with OCD alone compared with people experiencing OCD in the context of ASD.

    Methods: Two instruments, the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS) and the Responsibility Interpretations Questionnaire (RIQ), were administered to three groups of participants: (i) individuals diagnosed with OCD (n = 32); (ii) individuals with ASD and OCD (n = 19); and (iii) non-clinical control participants (n = 23).

    Results: Results indicate significant differences in all measures of responsibility belief (interpretation of obsession and assumption of responsibility) between the OCD-only group and the two other groups.

    Conclusion: The conclusion is that OCD in people with ASD is not as “genuine” as in people with only OCD, according to cognitive behavioral theory of OCD.

  • 11.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Modified CBT using visualization for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), anxiety and avoidance behavior: A quasi-experimental open pilot study2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 641-648Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Helander, A.
    et al.
    Von Wachenfeldt, J.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Liljeberg, P.
    Borg, S.
    Comparison of breath-ethanol and urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol testing with self-reports for detection of recent alcohol use during outpatient treatment: a study on methadone patients1999In: Drug & Alcohol Dependence 56: 33-38, 1999Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Henriksson, Sophie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Anclair, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on health-related quality of life: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainee therapists2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was carried out to examine the treatment effect of cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists at a university clinic, focusing on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) optimism and symptoms. The study was conducted through a repeated measures design and included a treatment group (n = 21), which received cognitive behavioral therapy for an average of 10.7 therapy sessions and a control group (n = 14), that was put on a wait list for 8.6 weeks on average. After treatment, the treatment group improved significantly concerning general health (p = 0.028) and optimism (p = 0.027). In addition, clients improved in several areas within mental health and displayed some reduction in anxiety symptoms. Concurrently, the results also indicated some improvement within the control group, which may have been caused by the initial therapeutic contact, expectancy effects or spontaneous remission. The study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy provided by trainee therapists may have a positive effect on areas within HRQOL and optimism.

  • 14.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Acute alcohol tolerance in cognitive and psychomotor performance:: Influence of the alcohol dose and prior alcohol experience1997In: Alcohol 14: 125-130, 1997Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Acute alcohol tolerance in social drinkers:: Changes in subjective effects dependent on the alcohol dose and prior alcohol experience1997In: Alcohol 14: 373-378, 1997Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Beck, O.
    Hjemdahl, P.
    Liljeberg, P.
    Almström, U.
    Brodin, K.
    Von Wachenfeldt, J.
    Borg, S.
    Rated well-being in relation to plasma concentrations of l- and d-methadone in satisfied and dissatisfied patients on methadone maintenance treatment1999In: Psychopharmacology 143: 385-393, 1999Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Eklund, C.
    Withdrawal from methadone maintenance treatment:: Reasons for not trying to quit methadone2002In: Eur. Addict. Res. 8: 38-44, 2002Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Hiltunen, Arto J.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad Univ, Dept Psychol, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Eklund, Calle
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Alcohol & Drug Dependence, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borg, Stefan
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Alcohol & Drug Dependence, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The first 38 methadone maintenance treatment patients in Stockholm: 15-year follow-up with a main focus on detoxification from methadone2011In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aims: The present study investigated the first 38 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients in Stockholm. The aim was: (i) to investigate the possible predictive factors for successful treatment termination, and (ii) the long-term outcome effects and life situation of MMT patients and those who terminated the treatment. Methods: The patients were interviewed at the start and approximately 15 years later, and divided into four groups: (1) no withdrawal attempts, (2) forced to stop the treatment, (3) successful tapering and (4) non-successful tapering. Results: The predictive factor found that Group 1 showed a lower life quality compared with Groups 3 and 4. Fifteen years later, the life situations of Groups 3 and 4 were significantly more stable. Also the subjective well-being in Group 3 was significantly higher. Over all, Group 2 showed significantly more illicit drug use compared with Group 3. The social life situation was significantly improved for all patients during the 15 years. Conclusion: This study confirms our earlier findings that the ultimate goal of MMT for the motivated patients with good progress should be an opiate-free life. The life situation and subjective well-being seems to be higher after successful termination of MMT.

  • 19.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kocys, Elo
    Perrin-Wallqvist, Renée
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: An Evaluation of Therapies provided by Trainees at the University Psychotherapy Training Center2013In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the psychotherapy training center at Karlstad University, a study was carried out to examine the levels of symptom change and satisfaction with therapy in a heterogeneous population of clients treated using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) by less experienced trainee therapists with limited theoretical education. The clients received an average of 11 therapy sessions. The results suggested that CBT performed by less experienced trainee therapists can be effective. According to client estimations, a statistically significant reduction in symptoms, measured using the Symptoms Checklist, was achieved for seven of nine variables (p ≤ .006), as well as a significant increase in satisfaction with life (p ≤ .001). Also, the pre- and posttherapy measurements using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale showed a statistically significant improvement in the clients' condition. According to the therapists' estimations, 64% (SD = 32.01) of the clients experienced a significant improvement in their condition. In addition, the results of a survey of client satisfaction demonstrated that the clients were very pleased with the therapy received. Also the therapists were, to a great extent, satisfied with the treatment process itself, including the supervision received, and very satisfied with the client alliance. A correlation analysis between the clients' perceived level of improvement and therapist satisfaction showed a strong correlation between the two variables (r = .50, p < .005). By including the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS) in our study it was possible to measure trueness to therapy form. An analysis of the CPPS results confirmed that the form of therapy used at the training site was more strongly CBT than psychodynamic interpersonal treatment (p ≤ .001). The CBT subscale score indicated that the therapy was characteristic of CBT, confirming that the interventions used in the therapy belong to the CBT genre.

  • 20.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Koechling, U.M.
    Voltaire-Carlsson, A.
    Borg, S.
    Subpopulations of alcohol-dependent patients:: differences in psychological functioning between high- and low-frequency alcohol consumers1996In: Alcohol & Alcoholism 31: 429-438, 1996Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Lafolie, P.
    Martel, J.
    Ottosson, E.-C.
    Boreus, L.
    Beck, O.
    Borg, S.
    Hjemdahl, P.
    Subjective and objective symptoms in relation to plasma methadone concentration in methadone patients1995In: Psychopharmacology, 118: 122-126, 1995Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Saxon, L
    Borg, S
    Reduction of aggression during benzodiazepine withdrawal: Effects of flumazenil2010In: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, ISSN 0091-3057, E-ISSN 1873-5177, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 148-151Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Saxon, L.
    Skagerberg, S.
    Acute tolerance during intravenous infusion of alcohol: Comparison of performance during ascending and steady state concentrations: a pilot study2000In: Alcohol 22: 69-74, 2000Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Saxon, L
    Skagerberg, S
    Borg, S
    Should mood during intravenous alcohol administration be studied as a bi- or unipolar phenomenom?: A pilot study2010In: Alcohol, ISSN 0741-8329, E-ISSN 1873-6823, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 393-400Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hubicka, Beata
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Källmén, Håkan
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Bergman, Hans
    Personality Traits and Mental Health of Severe Drunk Drivers in Sweden2010In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 723-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was intended to investigate personality characteristics and mental health of severe driving under influence (DUI) offenders in a Swedish cohort. More specifically the aim was to investigate the personality traits as assessed by The NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and aspects of mental health as assessed by the symptom checklist (SCL-90) as compared to the general population. The subjects were 162 severe DUI offenders (with the BAC >0.099%) with an age range of 18-88 years, 143 males and 19 females. It was found that the openness to experience and conscientiousness scales of NEO-PI-R differentiated Swedish DUI offenders from Swedish norm population. The differences between the DUI group and the general population on the on SCL-90 scales were all significant except on the Hostility scale. Two main subtypes of DUI offenders identified were roughly comparable to types I and II alcoholics, as in Cloninger's typology. Among all the scales used (personality traits, psychiatric comorbidity and alcohol use), the only factor that was predictive for future relapses to drunk driving was the factor of depression.

  • 26. Högström Brandt, A.-M.
    et al.
    Thorburn, D.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, S.
    Prediction of relapses in alcohol dependent patients1999In: Alcohol 18: 35-42, 1999Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Lindblom, Sophia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Criminality, thinking patterns and treatment effects: Evaluation of the Swedish cognitive intervention programme ‘new challenges’ targeting adult men with a criminal lifestyle2018In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, Vol. 19, p. 204-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cognitive intervention programme 'New Challenges' targeting adult men with a criminal lifestyle was evaluated in a pilot study. The participants were divided into a cognitive treatment group (n = 32) and a control group (n = 11). In the control group, six participants had no treatment and five participated in 12-step treatment. The participants were measured pre and post using the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), the abridged version of sense of coherence (SOC), Positive and Negative Affect Scale, and Bergström's quality of programme delivery (QPD). The results of the treatment group showed that criminal thinking patterns dropped significantly from high values to close to normal level. SOC and positive affect increased significantly in the treatment group. Both SOC and positive affect showed positive correlation with QPD. Regarding the possible influence of the 12-step treatment, there was no difference in the control group between participants receiving 12-step treatment and those not receiving treatment. The main conclusion is that the cognitive treatment programme 'New Challenges' can contribute to reduced criminal thinking and increased SOC and positive affect, which may prove to be important precursors of reduced criminality.

  • 28.
    Lindblom, Sophia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Evaluation of the Cognitive Intervention Programme "A New Direction" Targeting Young Offenders in Sweden2017In: Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, ISSN 1404-3858, E-ISSN 1651-2340, ISSN 1404-3858, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 176-190Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Livheim, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Pettersson, Annie
    Maisa, Abd
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    ACT via Internet: a Randomised, Controlled Pilot Trial Study of a Web-based ACT Program for the Prevention of Mental Health Problems for University Students2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Sairanen, Essi
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Lappalainen, Päivi
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Psychological inflexibility explains distress in parents whose children have chronic conditions2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 7, article id e0201155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiential avoidance, cognitive defusion, and mindfulness have all been associated with psychological disorders and well-being. This study investigates whether they predict psychological distress, i.e., symptoms of burnout, depression, stress and anxiety, in parents of children with chronic conditions. We hypothesized that these factors would exhibit a large degree of common variance, and that when compared to mindfulness and defusion, experiential avoidance on its own would predict a larger proportion of unique variance. 75 parents of children with chronic conditions having burnout symptoms who participated in an intervention study completed measures of burnout, stress, anxiety, depression, experiential avoidance, cognitive defusion, and mindfulness at the beginning of the intervention study (baseline). We ran several regression analyses to assess the predictive ability of these different constructs. Experiential avoidance on its own accounted for 28-48% of the variance in different psychological symptoms. Cognitive defusion and mindfulness did not make a significant contribution to explaining burnout, stress and anxiety, but cognitive defusion contributed to explaining depression. The results confirmed our hypothesis, supporting research on the importance of psychological flexibility as a central factor in understanding the occurrence of psychological distress.

  • 31.
    Sairanen, Essi
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Dept Social & Psychol Studies, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Psychol, Jyvaskyla, Finland..
    Lappalainen, Paivi
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Psychol, Jyvaskyla, Finland..
    Kaipainen, Kirsikka
    Tampere Univ Technol, Pervas Comp, Tampere, Finland..
    Carlstedt, Fredrik
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Anclair, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Dept Social & Psychol Studies, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Effectiveness of a web-based acceptance and commitment therapy intervention for wellbeing of parents whose children have chronic conditions: A randomized controlled trial2019In: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, ISSN 2212-1447, Vol. 13, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Saxon, L.
    et al.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hjemdahl, P.
    Borg, S.
    Gender related differences in benzodiazepine withdrawal: a single-blind pilot study2001In: Psychopharmacology 53: 231-237, 2001Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Saxon, L.
    et al.
    Hjemdahl, P.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Borg, S.
    Effects of flumazenil in the treatment of withdrawal: a double-blind pilot study1997In: Psychopharmacology 131: 153-160, 1997Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Saxon, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Henriksson, Sophie
    Karlstad University.
    Kvarnström, Adam
    Karlstad University.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Affective changes during cognitive behavioural therapy: As measured by PANAS2017In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 13, p. 115-124, article id CPEMH-13-115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Stark, Victoria
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Affect at the different phases of cognitive behavioral therapy: An evaluation of psychotherapy provided by candidates2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Tönne, U.
    et al.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Engelbrektsson, K.
    Björwell, H.
    Vikander, B.
    Borg, S.
    Personality charasteristics in primary benzodiazepine-dependent patients: comparison with controls and polydrug users1998In: Personality and Individual Differences 24: 797-804, 1998Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Tönne, U.
    et al.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Vikander, B.
    Engelbrektsson, K.
    Bergman, H.
    Bergman, I.
    Leifman, H.
    Borg, S.
    Neuropsychological changes during steady-state and withdrawal in primary benzodiazepine dependent patients1995In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 91: 299-304, 1995Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Vikander, Britt
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Alcohol & Drug Dependence, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koechling, Ulrike M.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Alcohol & Drug Dependence, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borg, S
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Alcohol & Drug Dependence, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tönne, Ulla
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Alcohol & Drug Dependence, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Benzodiazepine tapering:: A prospective study2010In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 273-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Benzodiazepines (BZD) are the most widely used sedative-hypnotics, and evidence is rapidly accumulating suggesting potential BZD dependence, association of chronic use with adverse effects and a definite abstinence syndrome produced by withdrawal. Aims: The present investigation followed prospectively long-term BZD users over 1 year following graded BZD withdrawal in terms of clinical and withdrawal symptoms. Methods: Clinical symptoms were measured by the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) and by the Newcastle Anxiety and Depression Diagnostic Index (NADDI) in a sample of BZD users over a 50-week period following graded BZD withdrawal. Results: The results showed that the frequency and severity of clinical symptomatology measured by both scales significantly decreased over time. A detailed analysis of possible patterns of symptoms on both scales revealed four patterns: 1) a gradual decrease over the 50-week time period; 2) an increase in the severity of symptoms at the onset of tapering and a decrease in severity post-tapering; 3) an increase in the severity of symptoms 4 weeks after the cessation of BZD tapering; and 4) no change over the 50-week time period. Rate of BZD withdrawal was associated with CPRS ratings of global illness at admission and at end of treatment, but was not associated with duration or dosage of BZDs, type of BZD, prescriptive and/or non-prescriptive drug use prior to admission, marital status, sex or age. Conclusions: The results of the present study provide a detailed picture of the pattern of symptoms, their time course and multidimensional determinants of the BZD withdrawal symptoms.

  • 39. Voltaire-Carlsson, A.
    et al.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Beck, O.
    Stibler, H.
    Borg, S.
    Detection of relapses in alcohol dependent patients:: Comparison of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in serum, 5-hydroxytryptophol in urine, and self-reports1993In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 17: 703-708, 1993Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Voltaire-Carlsson, A.
    et al.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Koechling, U.M.
    Borg, S.
    Effects of long-term abstinence on psychological functioning:: a prospective longitudinal analysis comparing alcohol-dependent patients and healthy volunteers1996In: Alcohol 13: 415-421, 1996Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 40 of 40
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