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• 1. Almotasem, Ahmed
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
A molecular dynamic study on the influence of carbide particles in ferrite on material transfer during nanoscratching of ferritic iron2016In: Proceedings of the 10th International Tool Conference: TOOL, 10th International TOOL Conference : 04th to 07th October 2016, Bratislava, Slovakia / [ed] Simancik, Frantisek, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
• 2.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
Adhesion between ferrite iron-iron/cementite countersurfaces: A molecular dynamics study2016In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 103, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)

The adhesive properties of Fe(110)/Fe(110) and Fe3C(001)/Fe(110) countersurfaces have been investigated by using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results show that Fe3C/Fe exhibits a relatively lower adhesion compared to the Fe/Fe. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the adhesive properties between 300â700Â K has been examined. The results demonstrate that, with increasing the temperature, the values of the adhesion force and the work of adhesion continuously decrease in the case of Fe3C/Fe; they initially slightly increase up to 500Â K then decrease in the case of Fe/Fe. Furthermore, the effect of lattice coherency between Fe/Fe has been examined and found to slightly reduce the adhesion. These results explain how carbides improve galling resistance of tool steel observed during dry sliding.

• 3.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Assiut University, Egypt.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
Tool microstructure impact on the wear behavior of ferrite iron during nanoscratching: An atomic level simulation2017In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 370-371, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)

In the present work, molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the impact of the tool microstructure on the wear behavior of ferrite workpiece during nanoscratching. The tool microstructure was modified by varying the carbide (cementite) contents. The simulation results show that dislocations are the primary mechanism for plastic deformation of the workpiece material. It is found that total dislocation length varies significantly depending on the carbide content in the tool. Furthermore, other tribological phenomena were also observed to depend on the carbide contents. For example, the average value of frictional forces decreased while the normal force increases with increasing carbide contents, and hence the friction coefficient was decreased. Additionally, the shape and size of lateral and frontal pileups are lowered. The structural analysis of the pileup region reveals the loss of long range order and start of amorphisation. The temperature distribution of the pileup regions showed an increase of the pileup temperature when carbide is added into tool. The wear volume is considerably reduced when the carbide content increases. The average scratch hardness was found to decrease and the result was analyzed with the theoretical Taylor hardening model.

• 4.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceAssiut University Assiut Egyp.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
Atomistic insights on the wear/friction behavior of nanocrystalline ferrite during nanoscratching as revealed by molecular dynamics2017In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 101-Article in journal (Refereed)

Using embedded atom method potential, extensive large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanoindentation/nanoscratching of nanocrystalline (nc) iron have been carried out to explore grain size dependence of wear response. MD results show no clear dependence of the frictional and normal forces on the grain size, and the single-crystal (sc) iron has higher frictional and normal force compared to nc-samples. For all samples, the dislocation- mediated mechanism is the primary cause of plastic deformation in both nanoindentation/nanoscratch. However, secondary cooperative mechanisms are varied significantly according to grain size. Pileup formation was observed in the front of and sideways of the tool, and they exhibit strong dependence on grain orientation rather than grain size. Tip size has significant impact on nanoscratch characteristics; both frictional and normal forces monotonically increase as tip radii increase, while the friction coefficient value drops by about 38%. Additionally, the increase in scratch depth leads to an increase in frictional and normal forces as well as friction coefficient. To elucidate the relevance of indentation/scratch results with mechanical properties, uniaxial tensile test was performed for nc-samples, and the result indicates the existence of both the regular and inverse Hall-Petch relations at critical grain size of 110.9 angstrom. The present results suggest that indentation/scratch hardness has no apparent correlation with the mechanical properties of the substrate, whereas the plastic deformation has.

• 5. Brauer, H.E.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
In situ intercalation of the layered compounds TiS2, ZrSe2, and VSe21995Conference paper (Refereed)
• 6. Brauer, H.E.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
The electronic structure of ZrSe2 and Csx ZrSe2 studied by angle-resolved photoemission1995In: J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 7741 (1995)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 7. Brauer, H.E.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Modifying the electronic structure of TiS2 by alkali metal interaction1999In: J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11, 8957 (1999)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 8. Brauer, H.E.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Na and Cs intercalation of 2H-TaSe2 studied by photoemission2001In: J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 9879-9895 (2001)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 9. Brauer, H.E.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Electronic structure of pure and alkali metal intercalated VSe21998In: Phys. Rev B 58, 10031 (1998)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 10. Brauer, H.E.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Band mapping of in situ Cs intercalated transition metal dichalcogenides1996In: Surf. Sci. 357-358, 345 (1996)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 11. Escudero-Pascual, A.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Privacy for location data in mobile networks, a summary2003Conference paper (Refereed)

EU Directive 2002/58/EC has introduced, by means of Art. 9, special protection for location data other than traffic data. In this paper, we argue that also location data within traffic data can contain sensitive information about the relative positioning and co-located displacements of mobile nodes and thus also

requires special protection.

Brief discussions are given to how mobility is supported in IP networks, to the level of privacy protection for location data that was introduced in the new European Union data protection directive, and to means of protecting privacy by technology. The concept of \textit{co-located displacements in

MobileIP} is introduced and we show how the home agent will be able to determine whether or not a set of mobile nodes move in a co-located fashion.

Finally we present how, also for location information within traffic data, privacy-enhancing technologies can be used to provide the level of privacy protection that is required by Art. 9 of the EU Directive 2002/58/EC for location data other than traffic data.

• 12.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Framework V1: PRIME project deliverable D14.1a2005Report (Refereed)

This document establishes the Framework Version 1 for the PRIME (Privacy and Identity Management

for Europe) project, which is a holistic framework that provides a detailed map of privacy-enhancing

identity management: it defines the problem space, the vision of PRIME, terminology and concepts,

models for users, metaphors, application scenarios, the legal, social and technical options, possible

business cases, and the technical challenges. In particular, the framework also encompasses a technical

architecture that specifically focuses on how the various mechanisms can or must interrelate.

The PRIME Framework V1 describes work in progress and presents first project results that were

achieved after the first year of the project. It will be further elaborated and refined for the next PRIME

Framework versions.

• 13.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Retention of Micro-fragments in Cluster Slack: A First Model2009In: First IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security (WIFS 2009), London, UK: IEEE Signal Processing Society, 2009, p. 31-35Conference paper (Refereed)

In current forensic practice it is regularly needed to determine whether some set of files have been present on a storage medium or not. File carving techniques are readily used as a tool in such examinations. However, if all clusters holding the files searched for have been overwritten, remains of the previous files only resides in the cluster slack. In this work we elaborate on the factors that influence how many such cluster slack Â¿micro-fragmentsÂ¿ that can be expected to be detected. We identify a set of factors that influence the micro-fragment retention characteristics. One such characteristic is the file size distribution of the files overwriting the original files. We derive analytical expressions for three different file size distributions, which allows us to examine the retention characteristics even if the overwriting files come from different sources.

• 14. Gurnett, Michael
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
Core-level spectroscopy study of the Li/Si(111)-3x1, Na/Si(111)-3x1 and K/Si(111)-3x1 surfaces2005In: Phys. Rev. B 71, 195408 (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 15.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
Photoemission study of the Li/Ge(111)-3×1 reconstruction2009In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, ISSN 0039-6028, Vol. 603, no 4, p. 727-735Article in journal (Refereed)

In this article we report our findings on the electronic structure of the Li induced Ge(1 1 1)–3 × 1reconstruction as determined by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (ARUPS) and core-level spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The results are compared to the theoretical honeycomb-chain-channel (HCC) model for the 3 × 1reconstruction as calculated using density functional theory (DFT). ARUPS measurements were performed in both the and directions of the 1 × 1 surface Brillouin zone at photon energies of 17 and 21.2 eV. Three surface related states were observed in the direction. In the direction, at least two surface states were seen. The calculated band structure using the single-domain HCC model for Li/Ge(1 1 1)–3 × 1 was in good agreement with experiment, allowing for the determination of the origin of the experimentally observed surface states. In the Ge core-level spectra, two surface related components were identified, both at lower binding energy with respect to the Ge bulk peak. Our DFT calculations of the surface core-level shifts were found to be in fair agreement with the experimental results. Finally, in contrast to the Li/Si(1 1 1)–3 × 1 case, no double bond between Ge atoms in the top layer was found

• 16.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Classification and Analysis of Errors in Wide Area Networks2005Conference paper (Refereed)

The error logs of routers in a WAN contain huge amounts of information about the functioning of individual components in the network. Errors may induce other errors and possibly chains

of errors. An attempt is made to classify and analyse certain chains of errors. Such a systematic approach will hopefully lead to improved possibilities for detecting malfunctioning components. Test have been performed on log data generated in SUNET. Results are presented and discussed.

• 17.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Information Technology and Computational Physics2001Conference paper (Refereed)
• 18.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Some notes on public key cryptographic systems2002Conference paper (Refereed)

Public key cryptography is a very important means of obtaining confidentiality in computer security. There are only a few currently known mathematical functions that have the required properties to allow the implementation of public key cryptography. One of the most widespread public key

cryptographic systems, RSA, which is based upon the integer factoring problem, will be discussed. It is explained how a quantum computer, if ever constructed, is able to factorize integers into its prime constituents in polynomial time. In that case the RSA cryptosystem will not provide any confidentiality anymore. However, the elliptic curve cryptosystem, which is based upon a different mathematical problem for which currently no efficient algorithm exists, not even for a quantum computer, will, in that case, still be able to provide full computer security

• 19.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
The Molecular Electron Propagator1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
• 20.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Fragment Retention Characteristics in Slack Space: Analysis and Measurements2010In: Proceedings Security and Communication Networks (IWSCN), 2010 2nd International Workshop on  Security and Communication Networks, IEEE Computer Society, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)

When files are deleted, their information is not removed from the storage media. This is a well known fact, and there exist numerous undelete utilities to recover newly deleted files. When deleted files have been partly overwritten, the data from the part of the file that remains in unallocated space can be readily extracted by file carving. Such carving is often performed in forensic investigations. Furthermore, as a consequence of file system implementation specifics, there additionally exist small remains of the previous files in the space at the end of new files. In this paper we focus on these small remains of previous files, or micro-fragments, that exist even after all the space allocated to the previous file has been reallocated to new files. We derive expressions for modeling the number of micro-fragments that can be expected to be found, and perform experiments to evaluate the analytical model. The obtained results indicate good correspondence between the analytical predictions and the measured results.

• 21.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
A Log Archiving System for Wide Area Networks2004Conference paper (Refereed)

Monitoring and maintaining modern Wide Area Networks is a complex and time consuming task. These are networks that are owned by different Internet Service Providers all over the world. The demands for accessibility grow hand in hand with the

increasing number of services and users. This makes effective troubleshooting more important than ever.

There is an obvious lack of tools today to support the analysis of the state of these networks. This work is an attempt to make this analysis faster, more accurate, and to reduce the demands on the network technicians. Today a technician has to work his way through a huge amount of log data produced by the routers in the network. Finding the cause of the problems often requires great skill, experience, and intuition.

The goal of this work is to speed up the process of nailing down the source of errors in the network. The basic approach is to store the data in a database. This allows for fast access, for the possibility of combining different methods of analysis, and for filtering out irrelevant information. Furthermore a database

also allows for the possibility of presenting statistics and tracking faults over longer periods of time.

• 22.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
A comparison between the Möller-Plesset and Green's function perturbative approaches to the calculation of the correlation energy in the many-electron problem1990In: J. Chem. Phys. 93, 5826 (1990)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 23.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Green's function calculations using non Hartree-Fock orbitals1992In: Int. J. Quantum Chem. 43, 259 (1992)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 24.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Natural energy orbitals and the One-particle Green's function1988In: Int. J. Quantum Chem. 34, 289 (1988)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 25.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
A correlation potential for molecular systems from the single particle Green's function1988In: J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3638 (1988)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 26.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
On the Relationship between Confidentiality Measures: Entropy and Guesswork2007In: WOSIS / [ed] Mariemma Inmaculada Yagüe del Valle and Eduardo Fernández-Medina, INSTICC Press , 2007, p. 135-144Conference paper (Refereed)

In this paper, we investigate in detail the relationship between entropy and guesswork. The aim of the study is to lay the ground for future efficiency comparison of guessing strategies. After a short discussion of the two measures, and the differences between them, the formal definitions are given. Then, a redefinition of guesswork is made, since the measure is not completely accurate. The change is a minor modification in the last term of the sum expressing guesswork. Finally, two theorems are stated. The first states that the redefined guesswork is equal to the concept of cross entropy, and the second states, as a consequence of the first theorem, that the redefined guesswork is equal to the sum of the entropy and the relative entropy.

• 27. Starnberg, H.I.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
3D to 2D transition by Cs intercalation of VSe21993In: Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3111 (1993)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 28. Starnberg, H.I.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Photoemission study of pure and Cs intercalated VSe21994In: Mod. Phys. Lett. B 8, 1261 (1994)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 29. Starnberg, H.I.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Valence band photoemission study of Cs intercalated VSe21994In: Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. }{\bf 244}, 391 (1994) (Proceedings ISIC 7)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 30. Stoltz, S.E.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Evidence for Rb intercalation in TiTe22003In: Europhys. Lett. 64, 816 (2003)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 31. Stoltz, S.E.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Rb deposition on TiSe2 and TiTe2 at 100 K and at room temperature studied by photoelectron spectroscopy2005In: Phys. Rev B 71, 125403 (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 32. Stoltz, S.E.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Rb intercalation of 1T-TaSe$_2$ studied by photoelectron spectroscopy2003In: Phys. Rev B 67, 125107 (2003)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 33. Strocov, V.N.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Absolute Determination of the Layer-Perpendicular Band Structure of VSe2 and TiS2 by Combined Very-Low-Energy Electron Diffraction and Photoemission1998In: J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 5749 (1998)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 34. Strocov, V.N.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
New method for absolute bandstructure determination by combining photoemission with very-low-energy diffration: Application to layered VSe21996In: Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 467 (1997)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 35. Strocov, V.N.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
Determining unoccupied bands of layered materials by VLEED: implications for photoemission band mapping1996In: J. Phys. Condens. Matter8, 7549 (1996)Article in journal (Refereed)
• 36.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). CMM, Characterization and modeling of materials.
Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
Band splitting of quantum wells of thin Ag films on Sn/Si(111)√3×√32017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 041402-1-041402-6Article in journal (Refereed)

High-resolution valence band spectra of ultrathin Ag films on Sn/Si(111)√3×√3 show intrinsic splitting of the quantum-well states (QWSs). Especially at low coverages, the QWSs of such a system display delicate coupling characters with the bulk bands from the substrate. The observed QWS splitting agrees well with the result of the theoretical calculation. We found that the splitting originates from an interface with a finite thickness. In addition, the interface also causes a large sp band splitting due to the Umklapp scattering in the Γ−M direction of the Ag(111) surface Brillouin zone.

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