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  • 1.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland.
    Rysz, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
    Nilsson, Svante
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Svensson, Mattias
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Multilayer formation in spin-coated thin films of low-bandgap polyfluorene:PCBM blends2005In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 17, no 50, p. L529-L534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blends of the low-bandgap polymer poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-5,5- (4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole] (APFO-3) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl–C61–butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were spin-coated from chloroform solution into thin films, which were examined with dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry. For blends with high PCBM content, the depth profiles show composition waves that were caused by surface-directed phase separation during spin-coating. The formation of such multilayer structures by spontaneous self-stratification is likely to have implications for optimization strategies for the performance of organic solar cells

  • 2.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Control of phase separation in blends of polyfluorene (co)polymers and the C60-derivative PCBM2005In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 152, no 1-3, p. 109-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When creating thin films of polymer blends, interesting morphologies are formed because of phaseseparation. In particular for conjugated polymers, which are used as active material in optoelectronic devices, it is very important to understand the parameters that influence the phaseseparation process and to achieve control over the morphology. The overall goal of this blend morphology study is to contribute to the design of device structures with desired performance.

    Here we present results of morphology studies on thin films of polyfluorene-based blends with the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The polymers used are poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (F8) and four different copolymers of F8. The thin films are spin coated from chloroform solutions onto silicon substrates and their surface morphology is imaged by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). We observe that the size and the shape of the domains in the film depend on the structure of the polymer. The nature of the monomer that, together with F8, is building the repeating unit in the copolymers has a strong effect on the phaseseparation in the polymer: PCBMblend. Since phaseseparation is influenced by interactions between components of the blend and the solvent, these results indicate that the degree of chemical interaction between polymer, solvent and PCBM, is different for the different blends. For the systems that form larger domains there is a clear correlation between the domain size (area) and the polymer/PCBMblend ratio. We also observe that the spin speed affects the thickness of the films and that the domain size increases with increasing thickness, primarily due to longer drying times

  • 3.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Svante
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Andersson, Mats
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Vertical phase separation in spin-coated films of a low bandgap polyfluorene/PCBM blend: Effects of specific substrate interaction2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 8, p. 3906-3912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the effect of the substrate on the vertical phase separation in spin-coated thin films of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-5,5-40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole] (APFO-3) blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Compositional depth profiles of the films are measured by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).We found that changing the substrate from silicon to gold affects the composition profile near the substrate interface. This is caused by a specific interaction between the polymer (APFO-3) and the gold surface, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The composition profile in the area away from the substrate interface, as well as the enrichment of the free surface with APFO-3, remain however unaffected by the choice of substrate. The vertical composition was also analysed for APFO-3:PCBM films spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated with a thin layer of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS).

  • 4.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Svante
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Rysz, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Department of Physics, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Department of Physics, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry / Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Influence of solvents and substrates on the morphology and the performance of low-bandgap polyfluorene:PCBM photovoltaic devices2006In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 6192, p. 61921X-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spin-coated thin films of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (APFO-3) blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are used as the active material in polymer photovoltaic cells. Such blends are known for their tendency to phase separate during film formation. Tuning the morphology of the blend in a controlled way is one possible road towards higher efficiency. We studied the effect of adding chlorobenzene to chloroform-based blend solutions before spin-coating on the conversion efficiency of APFO-3:PCBM photodiodes, and related that to the lateral and vertical morphology of thin films of the blend. The lateral morphology is imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the vertical compositional profile is obtained by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The profiles reveal compositional variations consisting of multilayers of alternating polymer-rich and PCBM-rich domains in the blend film spin-coated from chloroform. The vertical compositional variations are caused by surface-directed spinodal waves and are frozen in during the rapid evaporation of a highly volatile solvent. With addition of the low-vapour pressure solvent chlorobenzene, a more homogeneous vertical composition is found. The conversion efficiency for solar cells of this blend was found to be optimal for chloroform:chlorobenzene mixtures with a volume-ratio of 80:1. We have also investigated the role of the substrate on the morphology. We found that blend films spin-coated from chloroform solutions on PEDOT:PSS-coated ITO show a similar compositional structure as the films on silicon, and that changing the substrate from silicon to gold only affects the vertical phase separation in a region close to the substrate interface

  • 5.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Rysz, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Nelson, Jenny
    Imperial College, London, U.K..
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Device Performance of APFO-3/PCBM Solar Cells with controlled morphologyManuscript (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Björström Svanström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Rysz, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Zhang, Fengling
    nic Electronic (COE), Linköping University, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    IFM and Center of Organic Electronic (COE), Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Benson-Smith, Jessica
    Department of Physics, Imperial College, London, U.K..
    Nelson, Jenny
    Department of Physics, Imperial College, London, U.K..
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Device performance of APFO-3/PCBM solar cells with controlled morphology2009In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 21, no 43, p. 4398-4403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer/fullerene solar cells with three different device structures: A) diffuse bilayer, B) spontaneously formed multilayer, and C) vertically homogenous thin films, are fabricated. The photocurrent/voltage performance is compared and it is found that the self-stratified structure (B) yields the highest energy conversion efficiency.

  • 7. Cricenti, A.
    et al.
    Selci, S.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Reihl, B.
    On the position of the empty surface state band on Si(111)2x11990In: Phys. Rev. B 41, 12908 (1990)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ericsson, Leif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Grützelius Hirvonen, Helena
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Controlled distribution of ZnO nanoparticles on Si/SiO2 surfaces2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlled distribution of ZnO nanoparticles on Si/SiO2 surfacesIn recent years the properties and applications of ZnO nanomaterials has been extensively examined, partly due to the potential of ZnO as UV and visible light emitter and detector. Much of the previous work concern synthesis and growth of ZnO in different forms. In this survey, we have primarily studied commercially available nanoparticles and how they can be distributed on surfaces, aiming for future applications in e.g. photovoltaic devices. Later custom synthesised ZnO particles will be used in collaboration with Prof. Gunnar Westin at Uppsala University.ZnO nanoparticles, non-coated and organo-silane coated, with an average size of 70 nm from Alfa Aesar GmbH & Co KG, Germany, have been used in different dispersions for application on surfaces and the aim has been to achieve a controllable distribution of particles. In order to achieve this, different substrate preparations, solvents for dispersion and application methods have been used. Characterisation of the particle distribution has been done with Optical Microscopy (OM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The chemical and the crystallographic properties of the particles have also been investigated using Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).The substrates used are Si(001) with different preparations to create hydrophobic or hydrophilic surfaces. Nanoparticles were applied to the substrates using drop-coating and spin-coating. Several different solvents, including water, 1,2-PMA and chloroform, have been used for dispersions, yielding the possibility to use vapour pressure and solubility parameters to control the distribution. Separated particles are observed in all of the examined samples below a certain ZnO concentration. The amount of separated particles is dependent on the surface used, the solvent and the preparation procedure. A trend that can be followed from micro-scale to nano-scale is that smaller agglomerates correspond to more separated particles. Particles of different forms have been identified for later characterization.

  • 9.
    Ericsson, Leif K E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    AFM and STM Study of ZnO NanoplatesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface morphology and electronic structure of hexagonal ZnO nanoplates have been studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). It was found that these nanoplates are terminated by their polar (0001) surfaces. The AFM investigation was performed in the ambient conditions with the nanocrystals “as grown”. Surprisingly, the AFM images of the top surfaces revealed an interesting triangular reconstruction, which was earlier observed only after cycles of sputtering and annealing of the ZnO(0001) surface in Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) systems. The surface atomic and electronic structures of these nanoplates have been further studied by STM and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS) in UHV. The STM images also showed a triangular structure with single atomic steps. In addition, a 2x2 surface reconstruction has been observed with high resolution STM. This reconstruction agrees well with the recently proposed model that involves the removal of 1/4 of the topmost Zn atoms on the ZnO(0001) surface.

  • 10.
    Ericsson, Leif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Microwave assisted rapid growth of flat ZnO(0001) platelets2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ericsson, Leif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals for individual surface analysis2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ericsson, Leif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Magnusson, Kjell O.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Zakharov, Alexei A.
    Maxlab, Lund University.
    ZnO nanocrystals on SiO2/Si surfaces thermally cleaned in ultrahigh vacuum and characterized using spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscopy2010In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 438-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal cleaning in ultrahigh vacuum of ZnO nanocrystals distributed on SiO2/Si surfaces has been studied using spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscopy (SPELEEM). This study thus concern weakly bound ZnO nanocrystals covering only 5%–10% of the substrate. Chemical properties, crystallinity, and distribution of nanocrystals are used to correlate images acquired with the different techniques showing excellent correspondence. The nanocrystals are shown to be clean enough after thermal cleaning at 650 °C to be imaged by LEEM and x-ray PEEM as well as chemically analyzed by site selective x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (μ-XPS). μ-XPS shows a sharp Zn 3d peak and resolve differences in O 1s states in oxides. The strong LEEM reflections together with the obtained chemical information indicates that the ZnO nanocrystals were thermally cleaned, but do not indicate any decomposition of the nanocrystals. μ-XPS was also used to determine the thickness of SiO2 on Si. This article is the first to our knowledge where the versatile technique SPELEEM has been used to characterize ZnO nanocrystals.

  • 13.
    Ericsson, Leif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Zakharov, Alexei A.
    Characterization of nano-ZnO using SPELEEM and STM2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterization of nano-ZnO using SPELEEM and STMLeif Ericsson1, Kjell Magnusson1 and Alexei Zakharov21) Karlstad University, Sweden, 2) MAX-lab, Lund University, SwedenFuture functional applications of nanostructured ZnO, a wide bandgap semiconductor, include optical, electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices. Much of the previous research has mainly concerned synthesis and growth of ZnO in different forms. In a previous survey, we have studied commercially available nanoparticles (Alfa Aesar GmbH, Germany) with an average size of 70 nm, in dispersions spin coated on SiO2/Si(001) surfaces. Using 2-10 mg/ml in ethanol and using ultrasound, we have prepared surfaces with a varying number of separated individual nanoparticles. These particles have been characterized with SEM and AFM, to reveal variations in morphology and size, and degree of agglomeration.In the present study, we have used Low-Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM) and Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM), the latter using synchrotron radiation, to further characterize the ZnO nanoparticles in terms of crystallinity, chemical state and electronic properties. The experiments have been done at MAX-lab, Lund, Sweden, at Beamline I311, using a system supplied by ELMITEC GmbH, Germany. In addition to microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy from selected areas down to 1,3 micrometer, micro-XPS, has been used, yielding detailed spectroscopic information with this degree of lateral resolution.After a low-temperature anneal at 500 °C, LEEM images from 25 micrometer show strong (0,0)-reflections from separated areas of sizes down to less than 100 nm, in accordance with expectations for the size of the ZnO particles. Different electron energies show reflections from different grains due to orientation of the nanoparticles. Further annealing at 650 °C improves the LEEM image, yielding evidence for a fair degree of crystallinity and surface cleanliness in accordance with peak intensities from micro-XPS.The chemical state and electronic properties of both ZnO particles and SiO2/Si(001) substrate were studied with micro-XPS and PEEM, yielding well-resolved peaks from Zn 3d and Si 2p, which were used to create PEEM images with a perfect complementarity between Zn 3d and Si 2p based images. micro-XPS from ZnO nanoparticle agglomerates, ZnO free SiO2/Si(001) surface as well as mixed areas has been collected, showing differences in binding energies.For characterization of atomic structure and electronic structure with yet higher lateral resolution, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy, STM-STS, has been applied and preliminary result will be presented.

  • 14.
    Ericsson, Leif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Photoemission study of ZnO nanocrystals: Thermal annealing in UHV and induced band bending2013In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 612, p. 10-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanocrystals distributed by spin-coating on SiO2/Si surfaces were annealed in UHV and studied in situ by synchrotron radiation based X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Changes in chemical composition and electronic structure of ZnO nanocrystal surfaces were found with increasing annealing temperatures. Annealing at 650 °C reduces the surface contaminant levels without any observed de-composition of ZnO. After annealing at 700 °C an initial de-composition of ZnO together with further reduction of contaminants was observed. As a result, 650 °C is found to be the optimal annealing temperature for thermal cleaning of ZnO nanocrystals. Chemical changes and induced point defect formation cause changes in the band structure of the ZnO/SiO2/Si system. An upward band bending of 0.7 eV on the surfaces of the ZnO nanocrystals was found after annealing at 300 °C. The bands on the surfaces of ZnO nanocrystals gradually bend downwards with increasing annealing temperatures. A downward band bending of 1.4 eV is the result after annealing at 750 °C for 1 h. This large downward band bending is explained as due to the change in balance of oxygen vacancies and zinc vacancies on the surfaces of ZnO nanocrystals.

  • 15. Grehk, T.M.
    et al.
    Götelidh, M.
    Karlsson, U.O.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Gray, S.M.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    The clean and Cs-exposed Si(111)3x3:B surface studied with photoemission1995In: Phys. Rev. B52, 11165 (1995)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Gurnett, Michael
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Holleboom, Thijs Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Widstrand, Susanna
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Johansson, M.K.-J.
    Gray, S.M.
    Core-level spectroscopy study of the Li/Si(111)-3x1, Na/Si(111)-3x1 and K/Si(111)-3x1 surfaces2005In: Phys. Rev. B 71, 195408 (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Gurnett, Michael
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Widstrand, Susanna
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Angle-resolved photoemission study of the single-domain Si(111) 3×1/6×1 -Ag surface2002In: Phys. Rev. B 66, 161101 (R) (2002)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Studies of the electronic band structure of three Cd-compound II-VI semiconductors1987Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Flodström, S.A.
    Experimental surface electronic band structure of the (1010) surfaces of CdS and CdSe1988In: Phys. Rev. B 38, 6137 (1988)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Flodström, S.A.
    Valence- and conduction-band electronic structure of wurtzite CdSe1987In: Phys. Rev. B 35,2556 (1987)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Flodström, S.A.
    Valence band structure and final states in photoemission from (1120) surfaces of CdS and CdSe1988In: Phys. Rev. B 38, 1285 (1988)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Flodström, S.A.
    Mårtensson, P.
    Nicholls, J.M.
    Karlsson, U.O.
    Engelhardt, R.
    Koch, E.E.
    The electronic structure of wurtzite CdS studied using angle-resolved u.-v. photoelectron spectroscopy1985In: Solid State Commun. 55,643 (1985)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Flodström, S.A.
    Persson, P.E.S.
    Valence band and surface electronic structure of CdTe1988In: Phys. Rev. B 38, 5384 (1988)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Karlsson, U.O.
    Straub, D.
    Flodström, S.A.
    Himpsel, F.J.
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    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
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    Device performance of APFO-3/PCBM solar cells with controlled morphology2009In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 21, no 43, p. 4398-4403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer/fullerene solar cells with three different device structures: A) diffuse bilayer, B) spontaneously formed multilayer, and C) vertically homogenous thin films, are fabricated. The photocurrent/voltage performance is compared and it is found that the self-stratified structure (B) yields the highest energy conversion efficiency

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    Zincblende-CdSe on GaSb(110) : characterization of epitaxial growth and electronic structure1995In: J.Vac.Sci.Technol., A 13, 666 (1995)Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Electronic structure of the InP(110) surface : an inverse photoemission study1991In: Surf. Sci. Lett. 243, L31 (1991)Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Inverse photoemission of alkali-metal overlayers on semiconductors1993Conference paper (Refereed)
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    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    The electronic structure of alkali-metal layers on semiconductor surfaces1992In: Appl. Phys. A 55, 449 (1992)Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
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    Rigid band behavior of Nd2-xCexCuO4-y : A direct and inverse photoemission study1990In: Solid State Commun. 74, 31 (1990)Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Inverse photoemission studies of clean and metal covered semiconductor surfaces1989Conference paper (Refereed)
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    Surface structural transition of Si(111)2x1 induced by sodium1992In: Surf. Sci. 269/270, 1005 (1992)Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Hara, S.
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    Angle-resolved photoemission study of the hydrogenated 3C-SiC(001)-2x1-H surface2001In: Surf. Sci. 479, 247 (2001)Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Angle-resolved photoemission from stoichiometric GaN(0001)-1x12005In: Surf. Sci, 584, 169 (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 55
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