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  • 1.
    Boe, Ole
    et al.
    School of Behavioural Sciences and Education, Borås University College.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Selart, Marcus
    School of Social Sciences, Växjö University.
    Does the Use of Decision Heuristics Influence Impulse Buying?2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study a survey was performed in order to investigate if the use of heuristics in decision-making has an influence on the impulse buying tendency. Another aim of the study was to see if there were any age differences with regard to the use of heuristics and the impulse buying tendency. The study was conducted with students from Göteborg University and Karlstad University in Sweden (n = 69), with different educational backgrounds. Participants filled out a booklet of questions divided in two parts. One part measured impulse buying tendencies, and the second part measured the use of heuristics in decision-making. One hypothesis was that impulse buyers would use heuristics to a higher degree than planned buyers. It was also hypothesized that young participants would be more impulsive buyers because they use heuristics more than older participants. The results gave no support to the hypothesis that impulse buyers would use heuristics to a higher degree than planned buyers. Support for the second hypothesis was received as 20-24 year old high achievers on the heuristics test were found to be significantly more impulsive buyers than low achievers in the same age group.

  • 2.
    Ettema, D
    et al.
    Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Department of Psychology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Out-of-Home Activities, Daily Travel, and Subjective Well-Being2010In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 723-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that utility theory that underpins current cost-benefit analyses of daily travel needs to be complemented. An alternative theoretical framework is to this end proposed which applies subjective well-being (SWB) to travel behaviour analysis. It is posited in this theoretical framework that participation in goal-directed activities, facilitated or hindered by travel, contributes to SWB, that the degree of travel-related stress in participating in these activities reduces SWB, and that positive affect associated with travel in itself has an impact on SWB.

  • 3. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    How in-vehicle activities affect work commuters’ satisfaction with public transport2012In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 24, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has recently questioned the commonly held opinion that travel time is valued as negative, arguing that engagement inactivities during travel may make these trips more enjoyable or productive. Satisfactionwith travel has to date been assessed using utility-based models or measures of productivity of the trip. The present study is the first to assess the influence of activities performed during travel on publictransport users’ subjective well-being. To this end, a survey was conducted in Sweden in 2010 in which activities during the work commute by publictransport were recorded and subjective well-being during travel was measured retrospectively using the Satisfactionwith Travel Scale (STS). Results show that talking to other passengers has the strongest positive effect on STS, whereas activities related to entertainment and relaxation lead to lower STS, possibly since engaging in these activities reflect unsuccessful attempts to abate boredom. In addition, it is found that activities during travel may have a more positive effect on the commute back home, suggesting that the mindset related to the destination influences travel satisfaction.

  • 4.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. University of Gothenburg.
    Travel Mode Use, Travel Mode Shift and Subjective Well-Being: Overview of Theories, Empirical Findings and Policy Implications2016In: Mobility, Sociability and Wellbeing of Urban Living / [ed] Wang, Donggen, He, Shenjing, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gärling, Tommy
    The University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    The effect of activities on the move on travel satisfaction of public tranport commuters2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While utility based models invariably suggest indicate that the utility of travel time is negative, some studies have argued that travel may in certain circumstances be valued less negatively or even positively. In particular, the opportunity to engage in meaningful or enjoyable activities during travel is hypothesized to lead to a more positive valuation of travel. This study presents results of a study of travel satisfaction of Swedish public transport commuters as a function of engagement in activities on the move. Satisfaction is measured using the satisfaction with travel (STS) scale (Ettema et al., 2011), which is based on the subjective well-being literature and includes affective and cognitive components. The results suggest that, contrary to our expectation, working in PT does lead to a higher travel satisfaction, and that engaging in entertainment or relaxation is associated with lower travel satisfaction, probably since it masks boredom. Travellers talking to other passengers have a higher travel satisfaction.

  • 6.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University Utrecht, Netherland.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Season and Weather Effects on Travel-Related Mood and Travel Satisfaction.2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of season and weather on mood (valence and activation) and travel satisfaction (measured by the Satisfaction with Travel Scale). Analyses are presented of 562 time-sampled morning commutes to work made by 363 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities asking them to use smartphones to report their mood in their home before and directly after the commutes. These reports as well as satisfaction with the commute obtained in summer and winter are linked to weather data and analyzed by means of fixed-effects regression analyses. The results reveal main effects of weather (temperature and precipitation) on mood and travel satisfaction (temperature, sunshine, precipitation, and wind speed). The effects of weather on mood and travel satisfaction differ depending on travel mode. Temperature leads to a more positive mood, wind leads to higher activation for public transport users, and sunshine leads to a more negative mood for cyclists and pedestrians. Sunshine and higher temperatures make travel more relaxed although not for cycling and walking, and rain and snow lead to a higher cognitive assessed quality of travel.

  • 7.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Satisfaction with travel and subjective well-being (SWB): Development and tests of a measurement tool2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 167-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fujii, S
    Satisfaction With Travel and Subjective Well-Being (SWB): Development and Tests of a Measurement Tool2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Moerdijk, S
    The Road to Happiness?: Measuring Satisfaction of Dutch Car Drivers with Their Travel Using the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS)2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Moerdijk, Sjef
    Centre for Transport and Navigation, The Netherlands.
    The road to happiness: Measuring Dutch car drivers’ satisfaction with travel2013In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 27, no May, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that travellers’ anticipated trip utility may differ from the utility they actually experience when making the trip. This implies that it is important to investigate not only the factors underlying trip decision making, but also the actual experience of the trip. To that end, this paper presents an empirical test of the satisfaction with travel scale (STS) that was developed to measure travellers’ satisfaction with travel. STS measures travel satisfaction in terms of two affective (positive activation versus negative de-activation and positive de-activation versus negative activation) and one cognitive dimension. The STS was applied in the Netherlands in a survey of car users. The results suggest that the reliability of the measurement scales is satisfactory to good, and that they are indicative of an overarching concept of travel satisfaction. Regression analyses carried out with the three STS dimensions as dependent variables show that STS is influenced by experienced traffic safety, annoyance with other road users, the trip being tiring, being distracted by billboards, and lack of freedom to choose speed and lane. In addition, travel purpose and personal characteristics play a role. Overall, the findings provide support for the validity of the STS as a tool to measure satisfaction with travel. It is concluded that using tools such as STS may provide relevant insights into how qualitative and design-related factors influence the attractiveness of trips made by car or other travel modes.

  • 11.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, S
    Ettema, D
    Gärling, T
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A psychometric analysis of the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS)2011In: Satisfaction with Different Travel Modes / [ed] K Dziekan , T Gehlert, T Gärling, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A happy work commute2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Japan.
    Ettema, Dick
    The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 500, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Psychometric analysis of the satisfaction with travel scale2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 48, p. 132-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Tillfredsställelse med vardagliga resor oavsett färdmedel - psykometrisk analys av STS Skalan2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Goteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.

  • 16.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Elin
    Umeå universitet.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Bilen en lyxvara vi kan vara utan2011In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, p. 110828-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Huck, Jana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Transtheoretical Model of Change during Travel Behavior Interventions: An integrative review2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 581-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify the relevant empirical work, to synthesize its findings, and to thus attain a general understanding of the application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in transport behavior research. An integrative literature review was used to determine whether or not the implemented interventions impact the stages and processes of travel behavior change. Data was collected from different databases. English language articles published between 2002 and 2017 were included. After sequentially narrowing the search and removing duplicates, 53 relevant papers remained, 13 of which fulfilled the stated criteria of constituting a transport intervention study using the TTM as a reference frame. The final 13 studies were classified and categorized according to stages and processes in the TTM. Findings showed that none of the interventions met the method requirements for a proper evaluation of design and outcome measurement. Reporting did not follow a standardized structure desirable when enabling comparative analyses. Allowing for these shortcomings, it is inferred that positive travel behavior changes have been obtained during some interventions. Importantly, although it was stated that the empirical studies were based on the TTM, the included interventions were implemented irrespective of the individual’s stage of change. For future research, it will be necessary to conduct evaluations of higher quality.

  • 18.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht university, Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg.
    Measuring Satisfaction with Travel and Emotional Well-being.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with the Work Commute2012In: Proceedings abstractbook ICTTP 2012: The 5th international conference on traffic and transport psychology, 29-31 August 2012, Groningen, The Netherlands, 2012, p. 38-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a mail survey of 951 residents of three urban areas of Sweden, satisfaction with their most recent work commutes was measured using self-report rating scales developed in previous research. The ratings were aggregated to index measures of two affective (stressed versus relaxed, alert versus sleepy) and one cognitive (high versus low standard) satisfaction component. Positive correlations were demonstrated with a measure of affect balance constructed from self-reports from memory of frequency times intensity of daily negative affects experienced last month subtracted from frequency times intensity of daily positive affects experienced last month. The affect balance measure was in turn positively correlated with ratings of overall life satisfaction. The results also showed that feelings during the work commutes were predominantly positive or neutral. Explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities would either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom.

  • 20.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gamble, A
    Bergstad Jakobsson, C
    Ettema, D
    Impact of Performance of Out-of-Home Activities on Affective and Cognitive Subjective Well-Being2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Ettema, D
    Travel and Subjective Well-Being2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Gamble, A
    Bergstad Jakobsson, C
    Ettema, D
    Car-use, Satisfaction with Travel and Subjective Well-Being2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Jakobsson Bergstad, C
    Gamble, A
    Hagman, O
    Polk, M
    Gärling, T
    Ettema, D
    Impacts of Routine Out-of-Home Activities on Subjective Well-Being2010Report (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ståhl, Michael
    Karlstad University.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Travel and residual emotional well-being2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 49, p. 159-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the question of how work commutes change positive versus negative and active versus passive mood experienced after the commutes. Analyses are presented for 230 time-sampled morning commutes to work, made by 146 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities, asking them to use smartphones to report mood before, directly after, and later in the work place after the commute. The results show that selfreported positive emotional responses evoked by critical incidents are related to mood changes directly after the commute but not later in the day. It is also shown that satisfaction with the commute, measured retrospectively, is related to travel mode, travel time, as well as both positive and negative emotional responses to critical incidents.

  • 25.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Suzuki, H
    Fujii, S
    Kitagawa, S
    Nakai, S
    Gärling, T
    Eriksson, L
    Ettema, D
    The relationship between subjective well-being and satisfaction with daily travel2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Olsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Minskat bilresande viktigast2013In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Frostell, Björn M.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH.
    Assefa, Getachew
    Canada.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Modeling both direct and indirect environmental load of purchase decisions: A web-based tool addressing household metabolism2015In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 71, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer awareness is continuously increasing towards pro-environmental behavior. Thus, we developed a web-based environmental feedback tool EcoRunner, which is designed for Swedish households aiming at increasing the awareness in a more pro-environmental direction. The conceptual model of EcoRunner has been developed based on top-down and bottom-up approaches connecting economic activities within a household to environmental pressures (both direct and indirect). In addition, the development of the tool includes a multi-level model aiming at better tailor-made advice to consumers. In this paper, we examine the EcoRunner tool with average single Swedish household expenditures as well as explore options for reductions and systems effects. Analysis shows that food and non-alcoholic beverages, fuel for personal transport (e.g. car) and air transports have significant environmental pressures. In addition, this study suggests that EcoRunner could be used in education systems as an environmental feedback tool to enlighten consumers motivation and change consumption patterns. 

  • 28. Fujii, Satoshi
    et al.
    Suzuki, Haruna
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    How satisfaction with work commute differs among Sweden, Netherland and Japan?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed satisfaction with travel scale in previous research. The ratings on the scales were aggregated to index measures of two affective (stressed versus relaxed, alert versus sleepy) and one cognitive (high versus low standard) satisfaction component. In this presentation we will report the comparative analysis on satisfaction with work commute between Sweden, Netherland and Japan, using the data of samples of car users in the countries. In the analysis, we will firstly see how such ratings differ among the countries. We will then investigate the determinants of the difference while considering difference of distribution of personal attributes (such as age, sex, and others) and trip attributes (such as travel time duration, commuting travel mode, and others), and the difference of the attributes of work commute environment (such as the level of average traffic congestion). Lastly, we will see the difference of satisfaction with travel among the countries while controlling by the abovementioned variables that affect on the satisfaction. We will discuss why this differences were found while considering differences that were not measured in this research such as cultural difference.

  • 29.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Ettema, Dick
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    How Daily Travel Influences Emotional Well-Being2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Ettema, Dick
    Suzuki, Haruna
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Preferences Aggregated for Sequences of Events2012In: International Journal of Psychology. Special Issue XXX International Congress of Psychology "Research Area: Consumer/Economic", Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, Vol. 47, no 179, p. 113-114Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31. Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Influences on Current Mood of Experienced Sequences of Events2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Suzuki, Haruna
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Tillfredställelse med hela arbetsresan baserat på tillfredsställelse med dess delar2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Jakobsson Bergstad, Cecilia
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Gamble, Amelie
    Gothenburg University.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Gothenburg University.
    Hagman, Olle
    Gothenburg University.
    Polk, Merrit
    Gothenburg University.
    Ettema, Dick
    Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Subjective Well-Being Related to Satisfaction with Daily Travel2011In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research demonstrates an impact on subjective well-being (SWB) of affect associated with routine performance of out-of-home activities. A primary aim of the present study is to investigate whether satisfaction with daily travel has a positive impact on SWB, either directly or indirectly through facilitating the performance of out-of-home activities. A secondary aim is to determine whether emotional-symbolic or instrumental reasons for car use results in higher satisfaction with daily travel than other travel modes. A survey of a population-based sample of 1,330 Swedish citizens included measures of car access and use, satisfaction with daily travel, satisfaction with performance of out-of-home routine activities, and affective and cognitive SWB. The results confirmed that the effect on affective and cognitive SWB of satisfaction with daily travel is both direct and indirect via satisfaction with performance of activities. Percent weekly car use had a small effect on satisfaction with daily travel and on affective SWB, although fully mediating the effect of satisfaction with performance of the activities. This suggests that car use plays a minor role for satisfaction with daily travel and its effect on SWB. This role may be larger if investigated after a forced reduced car use.

  • 34.
    Jakobsson Bergstad, Cecilia
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gamble, Amelie
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hagman, Olle
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Polk, Merrit
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Affective-Symbolic and Instrumental-Independence Psychological Motives Mediating Effects of Socio-Demographic Variables on Daily Car Use2011In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Jakobsson Bergstad, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gamble, Amelie
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hagman, Olle
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Polk, Merritt
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Influences of affect associated with routine out-of-home activities on subjective well-being2012In: Applied Research in Quality of Life, ISSN 1871-2584, E-ISSN 1871-2576, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of a random sample of 1,330 Swedish residents assessed the relationships between affect associated with performance of routine out-of-home activities, mood, and judgments of life satisfaction (cognitive subjective wellbeing, CSWB). Regression analyses showed that sociodemographic variables accounted for most variance in CSWB (7%) and least in mood (2%). In agreement with previous research, CSWB increased with income, employment, and cohabiting with a spouse, and had a U-formed relationship with age. Affect associated with routine activities accounted for more variance than the socio-demographic variables in mood (30%) and in CSWB (13%). Mood partially mediated the effect on CSWB of affect associated with the activities. The results suggest that future policy-related research should consider the possibility that community-provided resources that facilitate performance of routine out-of-home activities would increase life satisfaction

  • 36. Jakobsson, C.
    et al.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The role of the car for everyday activities and subjective well-being2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Johansson, L.-O.
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gärling, T.
    Göteborgs univeristet.
    Adverse Impact of Fairness on Efficient Outcomes of Resource Allocation Decisions2003Report (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Johansson, L-O.
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gärling, T.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Weighing third-party fairness, efficiency, and self-interest in resource allocation decisions2007In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 28, p. 53-68-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Perceived Accessibility of Public Transport as a Potential Indicator of Social Inclusion2016In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived accessibility has been acknowledged as an important aspect of transport policy since the 70s. Nevertheless, very few empirical studies have been conducted in this field. When aiming to improve social inclusion, by making sus-tainable transport modes accessible to all, it is important to understand the factors driving perceived accessibility. Un-like conventional accessibility measures, perceived accessibility focuses on the perceived possibilities and ease of en-gaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. We define perceived accessibility in terms of how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, which is not necessarily the same thing as the objec-tive standard of the system. According to previous research, perceived accessibility varies with the subjectively-rated quality of the mode of transport. Thus, improvements in quality (e.g. trip planning, comfort, or safety) increase the per-ceived accessibility and make life easier to live using the chosen mode of transport. This study (n=750) focuses on the perceived accessibility of public transport, captured using the Perceived Accessibility Scale PAC (Lättman, Olsson, & Fri-man, 2015). More specifically, this study aims to determine how level of quality affects the perceived accessibility in public transport. A Conditional Process Model shows that, in addition to quality, feeling safe and frequency of travel are important predictors of perceived accessibility. Furthermore, elderly and those in their thirties report a lower level of perceived accessibility to their day-to-day activities using public transport. The basic premise of this study is that sub-jective experiences may be as important as objective indicators when planning and designing for socially inclusive transport systems.

  • 40.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Development and test of the Perceived Accessibility Scale (PAC) in public transport.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A new approach to accessibility – Examining perceived accessibility in contrast to objectively measured accessibility in daily travel2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility has conventionally been measured and evaluated ignoring user perceptions in favor of focusing on travel time and distance to a number of pre-determined destinations. Acknowledging this gap, we recently developed a scale for perceived accessibility PAC (Lättman, Friman, & Olsson 2016b) aimed at capturing the individual perspective of accessibility with a certain travel mode. In this paper, we 1) further develop the PAC measure of perceived accessibility in order to capture how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, 2) compare levels of perceived accessibility between residential areas and main travel modes, and 3) compare residents’ perceived accessibility to the objective accessibility level for the same residential area. Data from 2711 residents of Malmö, Sweden show that perceived accessibility is consistently different from objective accessibility across 13 residential areas, with minor differences in levels of perceived accessibility between areas. Surprisingly, bicycle users rate their accessibility significantly higher than those who mainly use the car or public transport for daily travel, contrary to objective accessibility assumptions. These differences point at the importance of including perceived accessibility as a complementary tool when planning for and evaluating transport systems.

  • 42.
    Lättman, Katrin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Development and test of the perceived accessibility scale (PAC) in public transport2016In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 54, p. 257-263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Olsson, E Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Den lyckliga arbetspendlaren2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Effects of Certainty on Decision Making Under Uncertainty: Using Subsidies to Reduce Production of Environmentally Harmful Products2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Experimental Simulations of a Subsidy System to Reduce Production of Environmentally Harmful Products2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Lycka och vardagligt resande2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Reducing production of environmentally harmful products2005Report (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Res dig lycklig2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Sales of Environmentally Harmful Products: An Experimental Study of the Impact of Governmental Subsidies on Price Setting2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The Dyadic Subsidy Game: Effects of Uncertain and Changing Subsidies on Price Setting2004Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 87
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