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  • 1.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Contracting for service quality: managing the prerequisite for service2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Managing service quality through contracts – an analysis of public tendering contracts2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Managing service quality with contracts - a study of contracts in the public transport business2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Service quality in contracts an analysis of service quality in public tendering contracts2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Service quality on three management levels: a study of service quality in public tendering contracts2010In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 317-334Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    To manage public procured services using contracts2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Using contracts to manage services: A study of contracts in public transport2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contracts play a key role in many business to business relationships. Service organisations are no exception. Despite a growing interest of services and how services are managed, research on how to use contracts to manage services has been surprisingly sparse in service research. The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to a deeper understanding of using contracts to manage services in business-to-business relationships. Contract theories together with concepts from service research are used to enrich and understand how contracts are used to manage services and thus make contributions to service research. The thesis will give an empirically grounded understanding of managing services through contracts.

    The thesis consists of six separate papers, all based on data gathered from contractual relationships between contractors and service providers. The results are based on studies of authentic contracts which are not the case in most previous studies. The methods used for gathering and analysing data involve case studies, content analysis of authentic contracts, interviews and document studies of the public transport sector in Sweden which is an empirically rich area for studying contracts.

    The three main contributions of this dissertation are; firstly, an extended understanding of how contracts are used to manage the prerequisites for service quality for the parties involved. It was found that the concept service quality is brought forward on three interdependent managerial levels; from a detailed operational level, to a systemic oriented strategic level, and also a visionary rhetorical level each specifying the prerequisite for the services. To manage the prerequisites, the contracts rely on three identified means; laws and regulations, standards and measurements and economical incentives. Secondly, the detailed contents and rigidity of the contracts bring forward an inflexible and asymmetric relationship, where the parties are restricted in their activities. Here the contracts become a substitute for trust and commitment instead of supporting the development of trust and commitment. Finally, the thesis deepen the understanding of the role of contracts in governing services, from being a static abbreviator to a dyadic market based relationship, to becoming a dynamic tool for developing and sustaining a value creating and value driven collaborative network.

  • 8.
    Camén, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Contract partner relationships: a study of managing relationships in public transportManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Camén, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Management of Relationships in a Public Tendering Context2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The theory of contracts indicates that formal contracts has to be complemented some sort of relationship management. At least this is the ideal situation, expected to exist on a business-to-business market, where there exists no formal regulations preventing exchanges of actors. In other contexts, there could be a conflict between the role played by formal contracts and the parties freedom to exercise the relationship management needed in order to create long-term viable relationships. The focus in this paper is therefore to investigate how relationships evolve and are managed in a context where a formal contract is the governing factor, controlling the service delivered. As empirical context, we have used the public transport area, were it exist long-term dyadic contractual relationships resulting from public tendering processes. The results of the paper indicate that the contract to a high extent governs the relationship, and very little space is left over to the parties to handle the relationship freely. This stresses the importance of how the contract is formulated, since the way the contract is written affect the outcome for a long period of time

  • 10.
    Camén, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Rundh, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Contracts as a Cornerstone in the Relationship Building2012In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 208-223Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Camén, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Rundh, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    To trust or not to trust: formal contracts and the building of long-term relationships2011In: Management Decision, ISSN 0025-1747, E-ISSN 1758-6070, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 365-383Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Camén, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Lidestam, Helene
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Dominating factors contributing to the high(er) costs for public bus transports in Sweden2016In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 59, p. 292-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of what are the underlying reasons for the increasing cost of public transport in general and bus services in particular in a Swedish context. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with managers at the bus operators as well as the authority organizations. This paper contributes by identifying nine categories that can be the dominating factors behind the increasing costs of public bus services in Sweden. The identified categories of cost drivers are; of traffic appearance (peak times), greening of buses, age requirements, the contract period, the accessibility customization, special requirements on buses, collective agreements (working time regulation), tendering and contracting process, and finally, counterproductive political governance. It can be concluded that many of the cost drivers originate from the circumstances of the process of public procurement, such as different demands for different regions in Sweden as well as the trade-off between the bus operators' wishes for higher flexibility in the contracts and the traffic authorities' fear of more risks and thereby higher bids in the end. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Camén, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Lidestam, Helene
    Linköpings universitet.
    Subjektiva kriterier i upphandlingsunderlagen och dess uppföljning2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Camén, Carolina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Åkesson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Do contracts restrict front-line employees to be innovative and co-create value?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Contractual Governance for Public Service Value Networks2011In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, Vol. 22, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Contractual Governance for Sustainable Service2005In: QRAM - Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, Vol 2, No 1, 2005Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Values based governance and service innovation for facilitating sustainable public transport value network: the importance of the interlink between public governance, CSR, contractual governance and business model2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osborne (2010) has argued for New Public Governance as a significant paradigm for public services delivery, embracing policy-making and a range of inter-organizational and networked-based modes for public services delivery (ibid. p. 413).  This thinking is an alternative to Public Administration or New Public Management, which the idea for “Public Governance and public service delivery: as a research agenda for the future” (Osborne, 2010). The indication of policy-making as a governance issue and co-production, co-creation for service delivery combine the public governance literature with the service literature. We agree with this and will take this a step further and argue for interlink between public governance, CSR, contractual governance and business model guided by a service business logic (Lusch and Vargo, 2014). Those concepts are contextually interlinked. In this article the specific public service context is “public transport value network” (Enquist et al, 2011). In that context the contractual governance is crucial guided by service business logic.

    In this article we will use examples of “Public transport value networks” from the city-regions of Stockholm, London and Paris to illustrate our conceptual framework. All of those city-regions have to handle economic, social and environmental issues as societal challenges. The societal challenges in those city-regions are driven by proactive policy-making and facilitating of resources for change. Service innovation is an important tool for change (Lusch and Vargo, 2014) but for societal issues the influence of CSR –practice and sustainable development has to be included as part of the service innovation processes (Edvardsson et al, 2013). Lusch and Vargo (2014) talk about strategic thinking and taking advantage of unstable environments. This is what societal challenges is all about.  This is also in line with SD-logic which are essentially co-creating value for customers and other stakeholders and facilitating, rather than just predicting to provide service” (ibid. p. 191).  We will introduce and argue for values based governance, service innovation and the important role of shared values for sustainable service business (Edvardsson et al, 2013).  Service networks need shared institutions (rules) to function effectively and coordinate activities among actors (Lusch and Vargo, 2014). These institutions have to cooperate in service networks based on shared values and shared meanings (Edvardsson et al, 2013).

    Public Transport Value Network as a dynamic and transformative values based service network is about facilitating the network in the interaction of governmental agencies, service providers and the customers/citizens in the network. To facilitate a public/private partnership for public service in a value network is also about designing the right contracts for sharing the cost for setting up and running the network, increase numbers of travellers which use the network and improve positive effects for society. The service providers have their business models, the public transport authority have theirs and those models have to meet in a joint contract. Public Transport for co-creating value for people and developing sustainability for society and the different business models and contractual governance has to be based on the same values based service logic.

    Key words: Service innovation, values based governance, contractual governance, public transport value network

  • 18.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Evaluating service scape in public transport2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    How can relationships in a public procurement setting be managed to achieve a high quality service?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Service Development in Outsourced Public Service Networks: A Study in the Public Transport Sector2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When public-sector services are outsourced to private commercial operators, the issue of new-service development can become problematical because the political/social objectives of the controlling authority are often different from the commercial imperatives of the private operator. These (often conflicting) imperatives can cause difficulties in new-service development with regard to both: (i) deciding what new services are required; and (ii) deciding how the service-development process should proceed. This study takes a qualitative approach in investigating what happens during the development of new services in the Swedish public-transport sector, in which services are contractually outsourced from public authorities to private commercial operators by public tender. The results of the study show that: (i) the development of new services in this context is especially challenging; (ii) conflicts do arise between public and commercial interests; (iii) collaborative service development is significantly hampered by the regulatory framework and contractual arrangements; and (iv) the contracts themselves actually represent an important aspect of the overall service-development process. The implication for managers is that the formulation of tendering documents and contracts must be seen as an important determinant of service development, often for many years in advance.

  • 21.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Understanding Service Development in Outsourced Service Networks: a Study of Service Developments in the Public Transport Area2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Coping with service development in a forced relationship context2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Market relations and relationship markets in public tendering: - convergent or divergent?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Rundh, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Relationships in Constructed Service Development Networks: A study ofservice development within Public Organizations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Rundh, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    To Trust or Not Trust - Formal Contracts and the Building of Long-Term Relationship, in Proceedings of the 25th IMP Conference in Marsielle2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Johansson, Tobias
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Business, Orebro, Sweden..
    Siverbo, Sven
    Univ West, Business Adm, Trollhattan, Sweden..
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Managing cooperation, coordination, and legitimacy: Control of contracted public services2016In: Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, ISSN 1368-0668, E-ISSN 1758-4205, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1012-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to create knowledge about what factors explain the design of control systems for contracted public services. Design/methodology/approach - Questionnaire data analyzed with structural equation models. Findings - Legitimacy-seeking is the most important driver in explaining intensity in control of contracted public services. Competition increases the intensity of control which is opposite to standard transaction cost reasoning. Coordination requirements do not affect the design of control systems for contracted public services. Research limitations/implications - The study suffers from limitations in the form of the use of perception and questionnaire data and imposes restrictions on empirical generalization. Practical implications - Supplier competition may add control costs rather than lower them. The strong focus on stakeholder alignment may induce more intensive control than necessary for supplier alignment. Originality/value - The authors add important knowledge on the determinants of control system design for contracted public sector services. The authors conceptualize and measure the control system in use in a more compelling manner than previous research.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Siverbo, Sven
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Offentliga organisationers styrning av privata utförare2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trenden i många välfärdsstater är att konkurrensutsättning och privata utförare är ett tydligt alternativ till egenregiproduktion för att leverera service och välfärd till medborgare. Sverige är inget undantag. Förklaringen är ideologiska strömningar men också en vilja att effektivisera och skapa nytänkande inom offentligt finansierade verksamheter. För att ambitionerna med konkurrensutsättning ska kunna realiseras måste de offentliga huvudmännen styra sina privata utförare. För närvarande vet vi dock väldigt lite om hur styrningen av privata utförare i offentlig sektor utformas, vad som förklarar utformningen och vilken betydelse den har för olika verksamheter i olika situationer. Trots det debatteras frågan livligt i politik och media. I den här rapporten utgår vi från teori om styrning av samarbete och samordning när en organisation ska styra en annan. Genom att studera upphandlad verksamhet i svenska kommuner söker vi förklaringar till hur, varför och med vilket utfall offentliga huvudmän styr sina privata utförare. Det empiriska materialet är insamlat med enkäter skickade till privata utförare inom äldreomsorg och teknisk verksamhet.

  • 28.
    Lidestam, Helene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet; VTI; K2.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lidestam, Björn
    VTI; Linköpings universitet.
    Evaluation of cost drivers within public bus transports in Sweden2018In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 69, no SI, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The supply of public transport in Sweden has been continuously increasing and as a consequence thereof, the cost for bus traffic has also increased. However, many indicators show that costs for public transports in Sweden in recent years have increased more than supply. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to test and evaluate the importance of the nine previously identified cost drivers (Camén & Lidestam, 2016) of public bus transports in Sweden. A mixed-method design, which included both focus groups and a questionnaire, was used. The questionnaire, with quantitative rating scales, was sent to representatives from the bus operators and from the Public Transport Authorities (PTAs). In the focus groups, industry associations, consultants, and politicians also participated. The results reveal what the dominating cost factors are, as well as the factors considered to be the most important, according to actors within the Swedish bus transport sector. The most important cost driver identified is peak traffic and the costs of its consequences.

  • 29.
    Rundh, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gottfridsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Contracts as Cornerstones in the Relationship Building2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Sundstrom, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish Govt Agcy Innovat Syst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Serv Res Ctr, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Serv Res Ctr, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Service innovation as a political process2017In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 37, no 5-6, p. 341-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation processes are driven by stakeholders in interaction and are understood and sketched as a value negotiation process that consists of an iterative process of securing potential value in service. While previous research has focused on service innovation as a harmonious closed system, our study explores service innovation as a political process in which stakeholders negotiate to create and secure future value. Data are collected through interviews and participant observations in four different case studies. Our study contributes to the field by illuminating service innovation as a political process and explaining how this is operationalized. The findings also contribute to an understanding of how stakeholder resources impact a chosen strategy; the resulting strategy's impact on the service concept vis-a-vis its potential value; and how several involved stakeholders formulate, negotiate, and secure future potential value, which are the activities that drive a service innovation process.

  • 31.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Design thinking in public procured contract – is it possible?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
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