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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Hultman, Jens
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Öringtäthet och rekrytering hos flodpärlmussla2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Björn L
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Karlsson, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Recruitment of the threatened mussel Margaritifera margaritifera in relation to mussel population size, mussel density and host density2012In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 22, p. 526-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic, abiotic factors are considered main causes of recruitment failure of unionid mussels, including the freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera). In this large-scale investigation, we instead examined the relationship between biotic factors and mussel recruitment.

    Juvenile mussel density was positively related to both mussel population size and density of which the last appeared to be a more accurate measure of recruitment.Host fish density of young-of-the-year and older brown trout (Salmo trutta) were positively related to recruitment. Moreover, the mean density of both age classes of fish, when grouped into density classes was positively related to juvenile mussel density, an effect that decreased at trout densities above 10 trout 100 m-2.There was a higher relative importance of mussel population size and density than trout density to recruitment.To increase recruitment of juvenile mussels, managers may apply measures that increase mussel density, and trout density up to about 10 trout 100 m-2 in connection to mussel beds. Mussel beds may also be managed and one possible measure within small and sparse mussel populations may be to concentrate the remaining mussels to areas where trout density is high. Likewise, young-of-the-year trout may also be moved to areas of high mussel density, as young trout individuals are relatively resident during their first year. This may increase mussel larval infection rates and mussel recruitment.

  • 3. Bergengren, Jakob
    et al.
    Olsson, Ivan
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    The thick shelled river mussel (Unio crassus) brings LIFE+ back to rivers.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Griffioen, Ben
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Winter, Erwin
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fish Migration River Monitoring Plan2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish have problems passing the Afsluitdijk Dam that separates the Wadden Sea from Lake IJsselmeer. To re-establish the connectivity and thereby allow fish to pass there is an initiative to build a fishway, the Fish Migration River (FMR), at the Konwerderzand sluice complex. This report proposes a monitoring program to evaluate the functionality of the FMR, but also to monitor passage possibilities through the existing sluices. The goals of the monitoring plan are to estimate 1) The overall passage past the Afsluitdijk dam to and from Lake IJsselmeer, 2) The attraction efficiency, 3) The passage efficiency, and 4) The use of the FMR as habitat and for acclimatization for the transition into freshwater.

    We present an overview of previous and ongoing monitoring in the area to establish the current state of knowledge. The report also includes a presentation of available and suitable methods for a future monitoring program considering the broad spectra of target fish species, and their abundances. The proposed program includes a description of study design and available techniques and cost-estimates of the monitoring program.

    The proposed program will target ten species: European eel (aal), flounder (bot), three-spined stickleback (dreidoornige stekelbaars), twait shad (fint), North Sea houting (houting), river lamprey (rieverprik), smelt (spiering), Atlantic salmon (zalm), brown trout (forel) and sea lamprey (zeeprik). The monitoring program includes plans for how to capture, tag and track the study fish using the most suitable tagging techniques. Furthermore, the most optimal sites for installation of automatic data detection stations are identified.

    The total cost for the proposed project is 3.5 M€ and covers both investments in equipment and costs for personnel. However, if costs for investments in techniques such as RFId-stations and fish counters are excluded, the total cost is reduced to 1 M€ for a program running two years before and four years after the completion of the FMR. The program is considered sufficient to evaluate the FMR at Kornwerederzand from the most important perspectives: the overall passage efficiency and the use of the FMR as habitat.

    It should be noted that this report is the first step towards a full-scale monitoring program, giving insight into possible methods, study design and associated costs. The next important step will be to develop the program in more detail and to start the initial phase of the monitoring project. We predict that such activities will identify the need for, and the relevance of, a more extensive monitoring program to study the effects of the FMR on a population level and on a large geographical scale.

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    Fish_Migration_River_Monitoring_Plan
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  • 5.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Naturlika fiskvägar i dag och i morgon2012Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Naturlika fiskvägar i dag och i morgon
  • 6.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Vezza, Paolo
    Comoglio, Claudio
    Levein, Ulf
    Löfqvist, Magnus
    Ålprojekt Alsterälven - Lägesrapport för 20102010Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Forsberg, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Hebrand, M
    Olsson, M
    Renöfält, B
    Karlsson, H
    Johansson, M
    Biokanalers egenskaper och möjligheter2009Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, S
    Ålprojekt 2007-2013, Naturresurs rinnande vatten2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Rees, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Ett riktigt ålamörker: Barnens universitet, Karlstads universitet, 17 oktober 2011.2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Kläppe, S
    Alenäs, I
    Återställning av vandringsväg för fisk vid Hertings kraftstation i Ätran2009Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ferreira-Rodríguez, Noé
    et al.
    Universidade de Vigo, Spain; Ovidius University Constanţa, Romania.
    Beggel, Sebastian
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Geist, Juergen P.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Modesto, Vanessa
    CNR - The National Research Council, Italy.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Riccardi, Nicoletta
    CNR - The National Research Council, Italy.
    Sousa, Ronaldo
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Urbańska, Maria
    Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland.
    Freshwater Mussels as Sentinels for Safe Drinking Water Supply in Europe2023In: ACS - ES & T Water, E-ISSN 2690-0637, Vol. 3, no 12, p. 3730-3735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of the European Union (EU) Drinking Water Directive, freshwater mussels (Order Unionoida: Bivalvia) can help us face the challenges of safe drinking water provisions for all citizens in the EU. Specifically, the implementation of high frequency noninvasive (HFNI) valvometers allows the early detection of eventual pollution events in drinking water treatment plants. Currently real-time behavioral analysis is deployed in a number of EU countries, and we foresee a bright future as new technological advances are developed concerning HFNI valvometers. 

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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Jakobi Sustainability AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Dept Environm & Life Sci, River Ecol & Management, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Temperature during embryonic development in brown trout influences juvenile behaviour in encounters with predators2023In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in thermal conditions during embryogenesis can have far-reaching impact throughout ontogeny and may give rise to behavioural variation. Many animals, such as salmonids, exhibit behavioural trade-offs related to foraging and predator avoidance. How embryonic temperature affects these behaviours has remained unexplored. Not only abiotic conditions during embryogenesis but also biotic factors such as predator conditioning may affect fish behaviour, especially anti-predator responses. We examined how elevated temperatures and predator odours throughout embryogenesis affect the behaviour of 28-37 mm young-of-the-year brown trout (Salmo trutta) in encounters with predators, namely Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar; 20 cm) and burbot (Lota lota; 40 cm). Juvenile brown trout were more active and aggressive if they were incubated in warmer water as eggs than if they were incubated in colder water, and trout remained inactive longer when encountering predators if they were cold incubated. Brown trout were less active and aggressive when an Atlantic salmon was present than when a burbot or no predator was present. Behavioural responses did not differ between trout that had been subjected to water with versus without predator odours during embryogenesis, possibly because brown trout were not subjected to conspecific alarm cues during egg incubation. This study shows that thermal conditions during embryogenesis can influence fish behaviour early in life and thus contribute to behavioural variation, with potential effects on life history. Considering the rapid warming of northern regions, elevated embryonic temperatures may contribute substantially to variation in salmonid behaviour in the near future. Variation in environmental conditions during embryogenesis of salmonids can have far-reaching impact throughout ontogeny and may give rise to variation in anti-predator behaviour. In a laboratory experiment, we showed that elevated temperatures throughout embryogenesis increased the activity and aggression of 28-37 mm brown trout fry and reduced the time to first movement in encounters with predators (burbot and Atlantic salmon). Predator odour during embryogenesis did not affect brown trout fry behaviour.image

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    fulltext
  • 13.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Manuscript: Temperature and predator-mediated regulation of cortisol and brain gene expression in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Temperature and predator-mediated regulation of plasma cortisol and brain gene expression in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2020In: Frontiers in Zoology, E-ISSN 1742-9994, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Temperature affects many aspects of performance in poikilotherms, including how prey respond when encountering predators. Studies of anti-predator responses in fish mainly have focused on behaviour, whereas physiological responses regulated through the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis have received little attention. We examined plasma cortisol and mRNA levels of stress-related genes in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) at 3 and 8 degrees C in the presence and absence of a piscivorous fish (burbot,Lota lota). Results A redundancy analysis revealed that both water temperature and the presence of the predator explained a significant amount of the observed variation in cortisol and mRNA levels (11.4 and 2.8%, respectively). Trout had higher cortisol levels in the presence than in the absence of the predator. Analyses of individual gene expressions revealed that trout had significantly higher mRNA levels for 11 of the 16 examined genes at 3 than at 8 degrees C, and for one gene (retinol-binding protein 1), mRNA levels were higher in the presence than in the absence of the predator. Moreover, we found interaction effects between temperature and predator presence for two genes that code for serotonin and glucocorticoid receptors. Conclusions Our results suggest that piscivorous fish elicit primary stress responses in juvenile salmonids and that some of these responses may be temperature dependent. In addition, this study emphasizes the strong temperature dependence of primary stress responses in poikilotherms, with possible implications for a warming climate.

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  • 15.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of temperature and a piscivorous fish on diel winter behaviour of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2019In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 64, no 1+, p. 1797-1805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low winter temperatures constrain predator-detection and escape capabilities, making poikilotherms vulnerable to predation. Investigations of temperature effects on predator-prey interactions can therefore be of special importance in light of ongoing climate change, where winter temperatures are predicted to increase substantially at northern latitudes. Behavioral responses of stream fishes to terrestrial predators in winter are well recognised, whereas responses to predatory fish have received little attention. Using stream flumes, we examined the anti-predator behaviour of one-summer-old brown trout (Salmo trutta) at 3 and 8 degrees C in the presence and absence of burbot (Lota lota) under night, dawn, and daylight conditions. Burbot was placed upstream of the trout, separated by net screens. Lower temperature and the presence of burbot reduced trout activity. Light increased trout shelter use, and trout sheltered more in the presence of burbot. An interaction between the presence of burbot and light conditions affected trout position in the flumes: at night and dawn, trout positioned themselves further downstream when burbot were present than when absent, whereas during the day, trout maintained the same position in the presence or absence of the predator. Our results suggest that piscivorous fish, in addition to terrestrial predators, shape the behaviour of prey fishes in streams during winter. We show how predator avoidance results in altered diel patterns of juvenile brown trout under winter conditions, and that temperature has additional effects on trout behaviour.

  • 16.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Brijs, Jeroen
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Näslund, Joacim
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Wengström, Niklas
    Gothenburg University, Sweden; Swedish Anglers Association, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adamsson, Marie
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Závorka, Libor
    Gothenburg University, Sweden; Toulouse University, France.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Höjesjö, Johan
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Encystment of parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) larvae coincides with increased metabolic rate and haematocrit in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2017In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, p. 1353-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gill parasites on fish are likely to negatively influence their host by inhibiting respiration, oxygen transport capacity and overall fitness. The glochidia larvae of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (FPM, Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)) are obligate parasites on the gills of juvenile salmonid fish. We investigated the effects of FPM glochidia encystment on the metabolism and haematology of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus,1758). Specifically, we measured whole-animal oxygen uptake rates at rest and following an exhaustive exercise protocol using intermittent flow-through respirometry, as well as haematocrit, in infested and uninfested trout. Glochidia encystment significantly affected whole-animal metabolic rate, as infested trout exhibited higher standard and maximum metabolic rates. Furthermore, glochidia-infested trout also had elevated levels of haematocrit.The combination of an increased metabolism and haematocrit in infested fish indicates that glochidia encystment has a physiological effect on the trout, perhaps as a compensatory response to the potential respiratory stress caused by the glochidia. When relating glochidia load to metabolism and haematocrit, fish with low numbers of encysted glochidia were the ones with particularly elevated metabolism and haematocrit. Standard metabolic rate decreased with substantial glochidia loads towards levels similar to those of uninfested fish. This suggests that initial effects visible at low levels of encystment may be countered by additional physiological effects at high loads, e.g. potential changes in energy utilization, and also that high numbers of glochidia may restrict oxygen uptake by the gills.

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  • 17.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Do predator odours and warmer winters affect growth of salmonid embryos?2023In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, no 1, article id e12747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions early in ontogeny can have considerable effects later on in life. Many salmonids spawn during the autumn, and temperature during subsequent embryogenesis may have far-reaching effects on life-history traits, especially when considering ongoing climate change. Even biotic conditions during embryogenesis, such as predation threat, may affect later life stages. Here, we examined how predator odours and increased temperatures affect embryonic growth and development of a fish (brown trout Salmo trutta). We found that embryos had lower body mass and greater yolk volume close to hatching when subjected to predator odours. Trout embryos incubated at temperatures representing natural winter conditions were larger than embryos incubated at higher temperatures, although the latter hatched earlier. Fry sizes at emergence did not differ between treatments, perhaps because of compensatory growth during spring. This study shows that predator presence can have similar effects on embryonic growth of salmonids as warming winters, with possible impact later in ontogeny. 

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    fulltext
  • 18.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Petersson, Tina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hojesjo, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Naslund, Joacim
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wengstrom, Niklas
    Göteborgs universitet; Swedish Anglers Assoc, Gothenburg,.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Heavy loads of parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera L.) larvae impair foraging, activity and dominance performance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)2018In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The life cycle of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) includes a parasitic larval phase (glochidia) on the gills of a salmonid host. Glochidia encystment has been shown to affect both swimming ability and prey capture success of brown trout (Salmo trutta), which suggests possible fitness consequences for host fish. To further investigate the relationship between glochidia encystment and behavioural parameters in brown trout, pairs (n = 14) of wild-caught trout (infested vs. uninfested) were allowed to drift feed in large stream aquaria and foraging success, activity, agonistic behaviour and fish coloration were observed. No differences were found between infested and uninfested fish except for in coloration, where infested fish were significantly darker than uninfested fish. Glochidia load per fish varied from one to several hundred glochidia, however, and high loads had significant effects on foraging, activity and behaviour. Trout with high glochidia loads captured less prey, were less active and showed more subordinate behaviour than did fish with lower loads. Heavy glochidia loads therefore may negatively influence host fitness due to reduced competitive ability. These findings have implications not only for management of mussel populations in the streams, but also for captive breeding programmes which perhaps should avoid high infestation rates. Thus, low levels of infestation on host fish which do not affect trout behaviour but maintains mussel populations may be optimal in these cases.

  • 19.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Åsman, Veronika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Winter Behavior of Juvenile Brown Trout in a Changing Climate: How Do Light and Ice Cover Affect Encounters with Instream Predators?2023In: Fishes, E-ISSN 2410-3888, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 521Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During winter, stream fishes are vulnerable to semi-aquatic predators like mammals and birds and reduce encounters by being active in darkness or under surface ice. Less is known about the behavior of fishes towards instream piscivorous fishes. Here, we examined how surface ice and light affected the anti-predator behavior of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) in relation to piscivorous burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus, 1758) and northern pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758) at 4 degrees C in experimental flumes. Trout had lower foraging and swimming activity and spent more time sheltering when predators were present than when absent. In daylight, trout's swimming activity was not affected by predators, whereas in darkness trout were less active when predators were present. Trout consumed more drifting prey during the day when ice was present, and they positioned themselves further upstream when under ice cover, regardless of light conditions. Trout stayed closer to conspecifics under ice, but only in the presence of pike. Piscivorous fishes thus constitute an essential part of the predatory landscape of juvenile trout in winter, and thus loss of ice cover caused by climate warming will likely affect trout's interactions with predators.

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  • 20.
    Geist, Juergen
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Thielen, Frankie
    Fondation Hëllef fir d'Natur/natur & ëmwelt, Luxembourg.
    Lavictoire, Louise
    Freshwater Biol Assoc, YMCA North Campus, Newby Bridge, England..
    Hoess, Rebecca
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Altmueller, Reinhard
    Baudrimont, Magalie
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Blaize, Christine
    Bretagne Vivante – Société pour l’ Étude et la Protection de la Nature en Bretagne (SEPNB), France.
    Campos, Miquel
    Freshwater Mussel Breeding Lab Lake Banyoles, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Carroll, Paul
    Friend of the River Clodiagh Group, Kilmeaden Water Plant, Ireland.
    Daill, Daniel
    Consultants in Aquatic Ecology and Engineering – blattfisch e.U., Austria.
    Degelmann, Wolfgang
    Bund Naturschutz Hof, Germany.
    Dettmer, Rainer
    Denic, Marco
    Landschaftspflegeverband Passau eV, Germany.
    Dury, Pierrick
    Federat Peche Finistere, Pisciculture Favot, France.
    de Eyto, Elvira
    Marine Institute, Ireland.
    Grunicke, Felix
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Gumpinger, Clemens
    Jakobsen, Per J.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Kaldma, Katrin
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia; Haljala Municipality, Estonia.
    Klaas, Kunnar
    Haljala Municipality, Estonia.
    Legeay, Alexia
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Mageroy, Jon Hamner
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Norway.
    Moorkens, Evelyn A.
    Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Ireland.
    Motte, Gregory
    Public Service of Wallonia, Agriculture, Natural Resources and the Environment, DEMNA, Directorate of Nature and Water, Belgium.
    Nakamura, Keiko
    Environmental Service Department, Sociedad Aragonesa de Gestión Agroambiental (SARGA), Zaragoza, Spain; University of Valencia, Spain.
    Ondina, Paz
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Pichler-Scheder, Christian
    Spisar, Ondrej
    BIVALVIA, Czech Republic.
    Reis, Joaquim
    Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Schneider, Lea D.
    The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Sweden.
    Schwarzer, Arno
    Selheim, Heidi
    Biologische Station Städte Region Aachen e.V., Germany.
    Soler, Joaquin
    Université de Tours, France.
    Taskinen, Jouni
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Taylor, John
    Cynrig Fish Culture Unit, Llanfryanch, UK.
    Strachan, Ben
    Kielder Salmon Centre, Environment Agency, UK.
    Wengstroem, Niklas
    Swedish Anglers Assoc, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Zajac, Tadeusz
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Captive breeding of European freshwater mussels as a conservation tool: A review2023In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 1321-1359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater mussels are declining throughout their range. Their important ecological functions along with insufficient levels of natural recruitment have prompted captive breeding for population augmentation and questions about the usefulness and applicability of such measures. This article reviews the current state of captive breeding and rearing programmes for freshwater mussels in Europe. It considers the various species, strategies, and techniques of propagation, as well as the different levels of effort required according to rearing method, highlighting the key factors of success. Within the last 30 years, 46 breeding activities in 16 European countries have been reported, mainly of Margaritifera margaritifera and Unio crassus. Some facilities propagate species that are in a very critical situation, such as Pseudunio auricularius, Unio mancus, and Unio ravoisieri, or multiple species concurrently. In some streams, the number of released captive-bred mussels already exceeds the size of the remaining natural population. Rearing efforts range from highly intensive laboratory incubation to lower intensity methods using in-river mussel cages or silos. Most breeding efforts are funded by national and EU LIFE(+) grants, are well documented, and consider the genetic integrity of the propagated mussels. Limited long-term funding perspectives, the availability of experienced staff, water quality, and feeding/survival during early life stages are seen as the most important challenges. Successful captive breeding programmes need to be combined with restoration of the habitats into which the mussels are released. This work will benefit from an evidence-based approach, knowledge exchange among facilities, and an overall breeding strategy comprising multiple countries and conservation units.

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  • 21.
    Gomes-Dos-Santos, A.
    et al.
    The University of Porto, PRT.
    Lopes-Lima, M.
    The University of Porto, PRT ;.
    Machado, A. M.
    The IUCN SSC Mollusc Specialist Group, GBR.
    Marcos Ramos, A.
    The Polytechnic Institute of Beja, PRT ; CEBAL Ctr Biotecnol Agr & Agroalimentar Alentejo, PRT.
    Usié, A.
    The Polytechnic Institute of Beja, PRT ; CEBAL Ctr Biotecnol Agr & Agroalimentar Alentejo, PRT.
    Bolotov, I. N.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS.
    Vikhrev, I. V.
    Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS.
    Breton, S.
    University of Montreal, CAN.
    Castro, L. F. C.
    The University of Porto, PRT.
    da Fonseca, R. R.
    University of Copenhagen, DNK.
    Geist, J.
    Technical University of Munich, DEU.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Prié, V.
    National Museum of Natural History, FRA.
    Teixeira, A.
    Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, PRT.
    Gan, H. M.
    GeneSeq Sdn. Bhd, MYS.
    Simakov, O.
    University of Vienna, AUT.
    Froufe, E.
    The University of Porto, PRT.
    The Crown Pearl: a draft genome assembly of the European freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)2021In: DNA research, ISSN 1340-2838, E-ISSN 1756-1663, Vol. 28, no 2, article id dsab002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since historical times, the inherent human fascination with pearls turned the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) into a highly valuable cultural and economic resource. Although pearl harvesting in M. margaritifera is nowadays residual, other human threats have aggravated the species conservation status, especially in Europe. This mussel presents a myriad of rare biological features, e.g. high longevity coupled with low senescence and Doubly Uniparental Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA, for which the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly known. Here, the first draft genome assembly of M. margaritifera was produced using a combination of Illumina Paired-end and Mate-pair approaches. The genome assembly was 2.4 Gb long, possessing 105,185 scaffolds and a scaffold N50 length of 288,726 bp. The ab initio gene prediction allowed the identification of 35,119 protein-coding genes. This genome represents an essential resource for studying this species' unique biological and evolutionary features and ultimately will help to develop new tools to promote its conservation.

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Jostein, Skurdal
    Stiftelsen Lillehammer museum.
    Vezza, Paolo
    Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering Politecnico di Torino.
    Comoglio, Claudio
    Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering Politecnico di Torino.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Functional organization and colonization of macroinvertebrates in a nature-like fishway with added habitat heterogeneityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Skurdal, Jostein
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Invertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway in Eldforsen, Sweden; the effect of habitat design2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    A test for suitable fish hosts for the threatened freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) prior to reintroductionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Technical fishways, nature-like fishways or biocanals?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Technical fishways, nature-like fishwaysor biocanals? IRSAE conference. Evenstad, Norge. 10 Augusti, 20102010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Brown trout habitat choice: relative importance of woody debris and river morphology in nature-like fishwaysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Skurdal, Jostein
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Macroinvertebrate colonization of a nature-like fishway: The effects of adding habitat heterogeneity2013In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecosystem Restoration, ISSN 0925-8574, Vol. 61, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-like fishways are designed to imitate the characteristics of natural streams, thereby providing both fish passage and habitat for a variety of aquatic organisms. To date, however, the potential for habitat rehabilitation of nature-like fishways has not been fully realized. To develop the concept of how to design a nature-like fishway, a 500-m long nature-like fishway, termed the biocanal, was constructed at the Eldforsen hydroelectric facility, Sweden. It included four habitat types: riffle, pool, floodplain and braided (i.e. with islands), each replicated three times. The riffle sections were considered controls for typical Swedish nature-like fishways. Thus the biocanal had a more varied in-stream environment than those of conventional fishways. To test the prediction that the biocanal had a positive effect on biodiversity, we compared the physical habitat and benthic fauna composition of the more diverse habitat types in the biocanal to the riffle habitats. We also made comparisons between the biocanal and six natural reference streams in the area. After two years, 63% of the benthic fauna families found in the reference streams had colonized the biocanal. Families present in the reference streams, but not in the biocanal, were predominantly slow colonizers or taxa linked to riparian vegetation, which was scarce and in an early successional stage along the biocanal. In the biocanal, pool and floodplain habitats contained the highest number of families, the highest family diversity (Shannon-Weaver) and the highest densities of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Since these habitats contained more families and had higher diversities than the riffle habitats which are typical of conventional nature-like fishways, we suggest that the construction of biocanals indeed possesses the potential for high biodiversity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Harbicht, Andrew
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Environmental and anthropogenic correlates of migratory speeds among Atlantic salmon smolts2021In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 358-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dams, weirs, and hydropower facilities are often cited as migratory barriers which impart significant reductions in fitness among migratory fish species. Even where upstream and downstream passage options are available, barrier passage can still often result in energetic or physical costs which compound delays or cause mortality. Past studies have identified variables associated with such fitness reductions, though few examine their effects in the context of the whole river scale. To this end, we assessed the migratory rates and downstream passage of radio-tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts through nine river sections (including two reservoir sections and one dammed section) along a 20 km stretch of river. Migration stoppages were not found to be elevated in reservoir or dammed sections, while migration rates were best described by physical river properties (width), biological traits (smolt total length), and seasonal variables (diel period) rather than anthropogenic factors. These results suggest the negative effect of reservoirs may primarily be due to their influence on river width and may be negligible when width is largely unaffected by an impoundment. Similarly, spilling water during fish migrations as a mitigative measure appears to make delays negligible. These conditions and actions may not completely marginalize the effect of dams, however, as a negative trend was still observed resulting from passage effects at the dam.

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  • 30.
    Hart, Paul BJ
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eriksson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lans, Linnea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rees, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Familiarity with a partner facilitates the movementof drift foraging juvenile grayling (Thymallus thymallus) into a new habitatarea2014In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 515-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preferring one social partner over another can enhance fitness. This paper reports that juvenile grayling were significantly more likely to enter and forage in new, upstream habitats when paired with familiar versus unfamiliar social partners. Fish paired with unfamiliar partners or when alone were more reluctant to enter the new area. The entry times for both fish in a familiar pair were significantly correlated, but uncorrelated for unfamiliar fish. These differences between familiars and unfamiliars were consistent over a 2-week period. Fish with familiar partners spent more time within three body lengths of each other than did those with unfamiliars. The results are discussed in relation to optimality models of drift foraging, which do not included sociality. It is suggested that the social dimension creates a more dynamic foraging response to variable environmental conditions and could have consequences for growth.

  • 31. Henrikson, Lennart
    et al.
    Arvidsson, BjörnKarlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.Österling, MartinKarlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Aquatic Conservation with Focus on Margaritifera margaritifera: Proceedings of the International Conference in Sundsvall, Sweden, 12-14 August, 20092012Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (L.) has attracted a large human interest, since the mussel is fascinating from biological, cultural andenvironmental perspectives. The mussel has a complicated life cycle dependingon host fish, and has great demands on its habitat. Furthermore, the mussel is anenvironmental indicator, and is used as an umbrella and flagship species. Pearl fishing has been described in Sweden as early as in the 16th century and by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century.

    Many freshwater pearl mussel populations have insufficient recruitment and therefore decrease in numbers, and many populations are even extinct. Therefore, conservation work on the freshwater pearl mussel is going on all over Europe. Actions to preserve the freshwater pearl mussel will also favour other aquatic species – freshwater pearl mussel conservation is aquatic biodiversity conservation! WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) Sweden implemented the project “The Freshwater Pearl Mussel and its habitats in Sweden” during 2004-2009 (LIFE04NAT/SE/000231). The overall objective was to improve the habitats of juvenile freshwater pearl mussels and the host fish brown trout Salmo trutta in21 streams. The actions were improvements of the biotopes, re-introduction of mussels, information to the stakeholders, and development of planning methods. An international conference “Aquatic Conservation with Focus on the Freshwater Pearl Mussel Margaritifera margaritifera” was held in Sundsvall 12–14 August, 2009. In these proceedings, presentations from the conference are published.

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  • 32.
    Lafage, Denis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sadler, J. P.
    University of Birmingham.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Local and landscape drivers of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies in riparian ecosystems: A worldwide meta-analysis2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 1-12, article id e02697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-boundary fluxes of organisms and matter, termed “subsidies,” are now recognized to be reciprocal and of roughly equal importance for both aquatic and terrestrial systems, even if terrestrial input to aquatic ecosystems has received most attention. The magnitude of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies is well documented, but the drivers behind these subsidies and their utilization by terrestrial consumers are characteristically local-scale studies, limiting the inferences that can be drawn for broader geographic scales. We therefore built and analyzed a database of stable isotope data extracted from 21 studies worldwide, to identify both landscape-scale (catchment) and local-scale (100-m riparian zone) variables that may affect the diet of terrestrial predators in riparian ecosystems. Our meta-analysis revealed a greater magnitude of aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies (>50%) than previously reported, albeit with large geographic and inter-annual variations. Moreover, we demonstrated a large effect of landscape-scale factors on aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies, particularly anthropogenic land use and tree cover. Local human population was the only relevant factor at the local scale. We also found that studies on landscape-scale and anthropogenic land use effects on aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidies are strongly under-represented in the ecological literature, which limits the general inferences that can currently be drawn about landscape effects. We suggest that landscape-scale studies could improve our understanding of how land use and environmental change might influence future patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem function.

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  • 33.
    Nygvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Havforskningsinstituttet, Norway..
    Hedenberg, Filippa
    Student, Karlstads universitet.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    von Proschwitz, Ted
    Göteborg Museum Natur Historiska.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Tracking the movement of PIT-tagged terrestrial slugs (Arion vulgaris) in forest and garden habitats using mobile antennas2020In: Journal of molluscan studies, ISSN 0260-1230, E-ISSN 1464-3766, Vol. 86, p. 79-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nylin, Soren
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Janz, Niklas
    Stockholms univesitet.
    Embracing Colonizations: A New Paradigm for Species Association Dynamics2018In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 4-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parasitehost and insectplant research have divergent traditions despite the fact that most phytophagous insects live parasitically on their host plants. In parasitology it is a traditional assumption that parasites are typically highly specialized; cospeciation between parasites and hosts is a frequently expressed default expectation. Insectplant theory has been more concerned with host shifts than with cospeciation, and more with hierarchies among hosts than with extreme specialization. We suggest that the divergent assumptions in the respective fields have hidden a fundamental similarity with an important role for potential as well as actual hosts, and hence for host colonizations via ecological fitting. A common research program is proposed which better prepares us for the challenges from introduced species and global change.

  • 35.
    Piccolo, John
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Durtsche, Richard D.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Future rivers, dams and ecocentrism.2019In: The Ecological Citizen, ISSN 2515-1967, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 173-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the authors look at the subject of ecocentrism and future rivers, focusing mainly on the effects of hydroelectric production. Although rivers also have been dammed for irrigation and flood control in addition to hydroelectricity, the production of ‘carbon-free’ energy has recently been touted as a major solution to climate change. The trade-off between clean energy and the negative impacts of hydropower offers much food for thought for ecocentric theory – how much biodiversity loss are we justified in allowing now, for example, to avert complete ecosystem collapse in the future if we continue to rely on fossil fuel? The authors intend this article to be a starting point for discussion of rivers and ecocentrism in general, and they conclude with some specific suggestions regarding rivers and hydropower.

  • 36.
    Rock, Sebastian L.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Lund University.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of parasitic freshwater mussels on their host fishes: a review2022In: Parasitology, ISSN 0031-1820, E-ISSN 1469-8161, Vol. 149, no 14, p. 1958-1975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater mussels in the order Unionida are highly adapted to parasitize fish for the primary purpose of dispersal. The parasitic larval stage affixes itself to the gills or fins of the host where it becomes encysted in the tissue, eventually excysting to develop into a free-living adult. Research on the parasitic interactions between unionids and their host fishes has garnered attention recently due to the increase in worldwide preservation efforts surrounding this highly endangered and ecologically significant order. With the exception of heavy infestation events, these mussels cause minor effects to their hosts, typically only observable effect in combination with other stressors. Moreover, the range of effect intensities on the host varies greatly with the species involved in the interaction, an effect that may arise from different evolutionary strategies between long- and short-infesting mussels; a distinction not typically made in conservation practices. Lower growth and reduced osmotic potential in infested hosts are commonly observed and correlated to infestation load. These effects are typically also associated with increases in metabolic rate and behaviour indicative of stress. Host fish seem to compensate for this through a combination of rapid wound healing in the parasitized areas and higher ventilation rates. The findings are heavily biased towards Margaritifera margaritifera, a unique mussel not well suited for cross-species generalizations. Furthermore, the small body of molecular and genetic studies should be expanded as many conclusions are drawn from studies on the ultimate effects of glochidiosis rather than proximate studies on the underlying mechanisms.

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  • 37.
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lunds universitet.
    Höjesjö, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of mussel and host fish density on reproduction potential of a threatened unionoid mussel: Prioritization of conservation locations in management trade-offs2019In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 259-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management decisions in conservation of threatened species require trading off social needs against biodiversity values, including the prioritization of conservation locations, i.e. where conservation efforts should take place. To improve conservation decisions for the thick-shelled river mussel, Unio crassus, a highly threatened temporary parasite on fish, we performed a field study on how mussel and host fish density (European bullhead, Cottus gobio, and common minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus) affect reproduction potential of the mussel at different sites along a river. We assumed that the proportions of gravid mussels would be higher at high mussel density, and result in enhanced glochidia (mussel larvae) encapsulation rates on fish. We also expected the highest ‘glochidia density’—a proxy for the potential number of recruits per stream area, assessed by multiplying glochidia encapsulation rates on fish by fish density, to occur at high mussel density sites. Such river sites, producing many offspring and conveying important conservation values, may thus be prioritized. However, contrary to our assumptions, higher glochidia density and higher proportions of gravid mussels occurred at lower density mussel sites. We also found that P. phoxinus had higher glochidia encapsulation rates than C. gobio, possibly related to species-specific behavioural and life-history traits. Even so, glochidia density was similar for both fish species, reflecting comparable ecological functions in hosts. The results of this study suggest that mussel and host fish densities should be considered along with glochidia density in conservation prioritization and management trade-offs.

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  • 38.
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Höjesjö, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Local adaptation studies and conservation: Parasite–host interactions between the endangered freshwater mussel Unio crassus and its host fish2017In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 27, p. 1261-1269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1.Parasite–host interactions can involve strong reciprocal selection pressure, and may lead to locally adapted specializations. The highly threatened unionoid mussels are temporary parasites on fish, but local adaptation has not yet been investigated for many species. 2.Patterns of local adaptation of one of Europe's most threatened unionoids, the thick‐shelled river mussel (Unio crassus) were investigated. Eurasian minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus) from two rivers (separate drainage areas) were cross‐infested in the laboratory with sympatric and allopatric mussel larvae, while bullheads (Cottus gobio), inhabiting only one of the rivers, were infested with sympatric or allopatric mussel larvae. Larval encystment, juvenile mussel excystment and survival were measured. 3.For one river, but not the other, juvenile excystment from P. phoxinus was highest when infested with sympatric mussels. The opposite pattern was found for C. gobio in this river, where juvenile excystment and post‐parasitic juvenile survival from allopatric C. gobio were highest. The results thus cannot confirm local adaptation of U. crassus to P. phoxinus in the study rivers, as excystment was not consistently higher in all sympatric mussel–host combinations, whereas there were potential maladaptive signs of U. crassus in relation to C. gobio. There was no loss of encysted larvae 3 days after infestation until juvenile excystment. Most juveniles were excysted between 17 and 29 days after infestation, and the numbers of excysted juveniles increased with fish size. 4.The results have implications for parasite–host ecology and conservation management with regard to unionoid propagation and re‐introduction. This includes the need to (1) test suitability and adaptation patterns between U. crassus and multiple host fish species, (2) evaluate the suitability of certain unionoids and host fish strains after more than 3 days, and (3) determine whether large fish produce more juvenile mussels than smaller fish

  • 39.
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Department of Biology – Aquatic Ecology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Höjesjö, Johan
    Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Manuscript: Local adaptation studies and conservation: parasite-host interactions between freshwater mussels and fishManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Evaluating temperature- and host-dependent reproduction in the parasitic freshwater mussel Unio crassus2018In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 810, no 1, p. 283-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to temperature regimes and host presence may enhance fitness in parasites. In an experimental study, we evaluated the timing of glochidia release by Unio crassus subjected to three spring water temperature regimes in the presence and absence of the host fish Cottus gobio. The timing of glochidia release was delayed at (i) constantly low temperatures (<10°C), in contrast to earlier and pronounced releases at (ii) natural temperature increases that level off at intermediate temperatures (10–15°C), and (iii) higher-than-normal temperatures (10–20°C). Mussels from treatment (i) that had not released glochidia during the experiment did so soon after being moved to the temperature in (ii), indicating a temperature threshold for glochidia release. Neither host fish presence nor the combined effect of temperature and host fish presence significantly affected the timing of glochidia release. The treatment with natural spring water temperatures indicated possible fitness benefits for U. crassus through combined effects of high intensities of glochidia releases and high survival of released glochidia. The furthered understanding of climate change effects on mussel and host phenology in seasonal environments, potentially inducing temporal mismatches of glochidia release to host availability, is key to mussel conservation

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  • 41.
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Department of Biology – Aquatic Ecology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Manuscript: Spring temperature-dependent reproduction in the parasitic freshwater mussel Unio crassusManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Wengström, Niklas
    Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Swedish Anglers Association, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Department of Biology – Aquatic Ecology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Eldenäs, Pia
    Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics – Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Höjesjö, Johan
    Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ivan
    County Administrative Board of Skåne, Sweden.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Host-Fish Composition And Glochidia Encapsulation For The Endangered Thick-Shelled River Mussel Unio CrassusManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 43. Schneider, Lea
    et al.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergengren, Jakob
    Olsson, Ivan
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Host-fish mapping and re-introduction of Unio crassus in Swedish streams.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Shafer, Aaron B. A.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Alves, Paulo C.
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias, CIBIO InBIO, P-4485661 Oporto, Portugal..
    Bergstrom, Linnea
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bruford, Michael W.
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Biosci, Cardiff CF10 3AX, S Glam, Wales..
    Brannstrom, Ioana
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Colling, Guy
    Musee Natl Hist Nat Luxembourg, L-2160 Luxembourg, Luxembourg..
    Dalen, Love
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    De Meester, Luc
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, B-3000 Louvain, Belgium..
    Ekblom, Robert
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fawcett, Katie D.
    Univ Groningen, Behav Ecol & Selforg, NL-9712 Groningen, Netherlands..
    Fior, Simone
    ETH, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad
    Univ Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada..
    Hill, Jason A.
    Univ Stockholm, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hoezel, A. Rus
    Univ Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Hoglund, Jacob
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jensen, Evelyn L.
    Univ British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada..
    Krause, Johannes
    Univ Tubingen, D-72070 Tubingen, Germany..
    Kristensen, Torsten N.
    Aalborg Univ, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark..
    Kruetzen, Michael
    Univ Zurich, Anthropol Inst & Museum, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    McKay, John K.
    Colorado State Univ, Ft Collins, CO 80523 USA..
    Norman, Anita J.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Ogden, Rob
    Royal Zool Soc Scotland, WildGenes Lab, Edinburgh EH12 6TS, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Ouborg, N. Joop
    Radboud Univ Nijmegan, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Popovic, Danijela
    Univ Warsaw, Ctr New Technol, PL-00681 Warsaw, Poland..
    Primmer, Craig R.
    Univ Turku, Turku 20014, Finland..
    Reed, Floyd A.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Roumet, Marie
    ETH, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Salmona, Jordi
    Inst Gulbenkian Ciencias, Populat & Conservat Genet Grp, P-2780156 Oeiras, Portugal..
    Schenekar, Tamara
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Schwartz, Michael K.
    USDA, Forest Serv, Rocky Mt Res Stn, Ft Collins, CO USA..
    Segelbacher, Gernot
    Univ Freiburg, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany..
    Senn, Helen
    Royal Zool Soc Scotland, WildGenes Lab, Edinburgh EH12 6TS, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Thaulow, Jens
    Norwegian Inst Water Res, N-0349 Oslo, Norway..
    Valtonen, Mia
    Univ Eastern Finland, Joensuu 80101, Finland..
    Veale, Andrew
    Univ British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada..
    Vergeer, Philippine
    Wageningen Univ, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Vijay, Nagarjun
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Vila, Caries
    Conservat & Evolutionary Genet Grp, Estac Biol Donana, Almonte 41092, Spain..
    Weissensteiner, Matthias
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wennerstrom, Lovisa
    Univ Stockholm, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Univ Stockholm, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zielinski, Piotr
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Genomics and the challenging translation into conservation practice2015In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 78-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global loss of biodiversity continues at an alarming rate. Genomic approaches have been suggested as a promising tool for conservation practice as scaling up to genome-wide data can improve traditional conservation genetic inferences and provide qualitatively novel insights. However, the generation of genomic data and subsequent analyses and interpretations remain challenging and largely confined to academic research in ecology and evolution. This generates a gap between basic research and applicable solutions for conservation managers faced with multifaceted problems. Before the real-world conservation potential of genomic research can be realized, we suggest that current infrastructures need to be modified, methods must mature, analytical pipelines need to be developed, and successful case studies must be disseminated to practitioners.

  • 45.
    Shafer, Aaron B. A.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Alves, Paulo C.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, P-4485661 Oporto, Portugal.;Fac Ciencias, P-4485661 Oporto, Portugal..
    Bergstrom, Linnea
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Colling, Guy
    Musee Natl Hist Nat Luxembourg, Populat Biol, L-2160 Luxembourg, Luxembourg..
    Dalen, Love
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Bioinformat & Genet, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    De Meester, Luc
    KU Leuven Univ Leuven, Aquat Ecol Evolut & Conservat, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium..
    Ekblom, Robert
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fior, Simone
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Integrat Biol, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad
    Univ Guelph, Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada..
    Hoezel, A. Rus
    Univ Durham, Biol & Biomed Sci, Durham DH1 3LE, England..
    Hoglund, Jacob
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jensen, Evelyn L.
    Univ British Columbia Okanagan, Biol, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada..
    Kruetzen, Michael
    Univ Zurich, Anthropol Inst & Museum, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Norman, Anita J.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Ouborg, N. Joop
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Expt Plant Ecol, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Primmer, Craig R.
    Univ Turku, Biol, Turku 20014, Finland..
    Reed, Floyd A.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Biol, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Roumet, Marie
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Integrat Biol, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Salmona, Jordi
    Inst Gulbenkian Ciencias, Populat & Conservat Genet Grp, P-2780156 Oeiras, Portugal..
    Schwartz, Michael K.
    USDA, Forest Serv, Rocky Mt Res Stn, Missoula, MT 59801 USA..
    Segelbacher, Gernot
    Univ Freiburg, Wildlife Ecol & Management, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany..
    Thaulow, Jens
    Norwegian Inst Water Res, Freshwater Biol, N-0349 Oslo, Norway..
    Valtonen, Mia
    Univ Eastern Finland, Biol, Joensuu 80101, Finland..
    Vergeer, Philippine
    Wageningen Univ, Nat Conservat & Plant Ecol, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Weissensteiner, Matthias
    Uppsala Univ, Ecol & Genet, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Wheat, Christopher W.
    Stockholm Univ, Zool, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vila, Carlese
    Estn Biol Donana, Conservat & Evolutionary Genet Grp, Seville 41092, Spain..
    Zielinski, Piotr
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Genomics in Conservation: Case Studies and Bridging the Gap between Data and Application Reply2016In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 83-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Sousa, Ronaldo
    et al.
    Univ Minho, Dept Biol, CBMA Ctr Mol & Environm Biol, Campus Gualtar, P-4710057 Braga, Portugal..
    Halabowski, Dariusz
    Univ Silesia Katowice, Fac Nat Sci, Inst Biol Biotechnol & Environm Protect, Katowice, Poland..
    Labecka, Anna M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland..
    Douda, Karel
    Czech Univ Life Sci Prague, Dept Zool & Fisheries, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Aksenova, Olga
    Russian Acad Sci, Ural Branch, N Laverov Fed Ctr Integrated Arctic Res, Arkhangelsk, Russia..
    Bespalaya, Yulia
    Russian Acad Sci, Ural Branch, N Laverov Fed Ctr Integrated Arctic Res, Arkhangelsk, Russia..
    Bolotov, Ivan
    Russian Acad Sci, Ural Branch, N Laverov Fed Ctr Integrated Arctic Res, Arkhangelsk, Russia..
    Geist, Juergen
    Tech Univ Munich, Aquat Syst Biol Unit, Freising Weihenstephan, Germany..
    Jones, Hugh A.
    NSW Dept Planning Ind & Environm, Environm Energy & Sci, Parramatta, NSW, Australia..
    Konopleva, Ekaterina
    Russian Acad Sci, Ural Branch, N Laverov Fed Ctr Integrated Arctic Res, Arkhangelsk, Russia..
    Klunzinger, Michael W.
    Griffith Univ, Australian Rivers Inst, Nathan, Qld, Australia.;Western Australian Museum, Dept Aquat Zool, Welshpool, WA, Australia..
    Lasso, Carlos A.
    Inst Invest Recursos Biol Alexander von Humboldt, Programa Ciencias Biodiversidad, Linea Gest Recursos Hidrobiol, Bogota, Colombia..
    Lewin, Iga
    Univ Silesia Katowice, Fac Nat Sci, Inst Biol Biotechnol & Environm Protect, Katowice, Poland..
    Liu, Xiongjun
    Nanchang Univ, Sch Life Sci, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Lopes-Lima, Manuel
    Univ Porto, CIBIO InBIO Res Ctr Biodivers & Genet Resources, Vairao, Portugal..
    Mageroy, Jon
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Oslo, Norway..
    Mlambo, Musa
    Albany Museum, Dept Freshwater Invertebrates, Makhanda, Grahamstow, South Africa.;Rhodes Univ, Dept Zool & Entomol, Grahamstown, South Africa..
    Nakamura, Keiko
    Soc Aragonesa Gest Agroambiental SARGA, Environm Serv Dept, Zaragoza, Spain.;Univ Valencia, Cavanilles Inst Biodivers & Evolutionary Biol, Valencia, Spain..
    Nakano, Mitsunori
    Minami Kyushu Univ, Dept Environm Hort, Miyazaki, Japan..
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Pfeiffer, John
    Smithsonian Inst, Natl Museum Nat Hist, Dept Invertebrate Zool, Washington, DC 20560 USA..
    Prie, Vincent
    Univ Antilles, Sorbonne Univ, Inst Systemat Evolut Biodiversite ISYEB, CNRS,Museum Natl Hist Nat,EPHE, Paris, France..
    Paschoal, Lucas R. P.
    Fac Tecnol Nilo Stefani FATEC, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Riccardi, Nicoletta
    CNR, IRSA Inst Water Res, Verbania, VB, Italy..
    Santos, Rogerio
    Univ Fed Mato Grosso, EcoBiv Ecol & Conservat Freshwater Mussel Grp, Cuiaba, Brazil..
    Shumka, Spase
    Agr Univ Tirana, Fac Biotechnol & Food, Tirana, Albania..
    Smith, Allan K.
    Pacific Northwest Native Freshwater Mussel Workgr, Hillsboro, OR USA..
    Son, Mikhail O.
    Natl Acad Sci Ukraine, Inst Marine Biol, Odessa, Ukraine..
    Teixeira, Amilcar
    Inst Politecn Braganca, Ctr Invest Montanha CIMO, Braganca, Portugal..
    Thielen, Frankie
    Fdn Hellef Nat, Nat & Emwelt, Heinerscheid, Luxembourg..
    Torres, Santiago
    UTN, UNPA, CONICET, Ctr Invest Transferencia,Unidad Acad San Julian, Santa Cruz, Argentina..
    Varandas, Simone
    Univ Tras Os Montes & Alto Douro, CITAB UTAD Ctr Res & Technol Agroenvironm & Biol, Forestry Dept, Vila Real, Portugal..
    Vikhrev, Ilya V.
    Russian Acad Sci, Ural Branch, N Laverov Fed Ctr Integrated Arctic Res, Arkhangelsk, Russia..
    Wu, Xiaoping
    Nanchang Univ, Sch Life Sci, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Peoples R China..
    Zieritz, Alexandra
    Univ Nottingham, 2Sch Geog, Nottingham, England..
    Nogueira, Joana G.
    Univ Porto, CIBIO InBIO Res Ctr Biodivers & Genet Resources, Vairao, Portugal..
    The role of anthropogenic habitats in freshwater mussel conservation2021In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 27, p. 2298-2314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic freshwater habitats may provide undervalued prospects for long-term conservation as part of species conservation planning. This fundamental, but overlooked, issue requires attention considering the pace that humans have been altering natural freshwater ecosystems and the accelerated levels of biodiversity decline in recent decades. We compiled 709 records of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) inhabiting a broad variety of anthropogenic habitat types (from small ponds to large reservoirs and canals) and reviewed their importance as refuges for this faunal group. Most records came from Europe and North America, with a clear dominance of canals and reservoirs. The dataset covered 228 species, including 34 threatened species on the IUCN Red List. We discuss the conservation importance and provide guidance on how these anthropogenic habitats could be managed to provide optimal conservation value to freshwater mussels. This review also shows that some of these habitats may function as ecological traps owing to conflicting management practices or because they act as a sink for some populations. Therefore, anthropogenic habitats should not be seen as a panacea to resolve conservation problems. More information is necessary to better understand the trade-offs between human use and the conservation of freshwater mussels (and other biota) within anthropogenic habitats, given the low number of quantitative studies and the strong biogeographic knowledge bias that persists.

  • 47.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Aldvén, David
    Vattenfall Research and Development, Älvkarleby Laboratory, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Vattenfall Research and Development, Älvkarleby Laboratory Älvkarleby Sweden; Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Umeå Sweden.
    Aziz, Khadija
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Blixt, Marco
    Fortum, Sweden.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lund Bjørnås, Kristine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Ivan
    Skåne Administrative County Board, Malmö, Sweden.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Department of Environmental and Life Sciences River Ecology and Management Research Group RivEM Karlstad University Karlstad Sweden.
    Stålhammar, Sanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Tielman, Johan
    Uniper/Sydkraft Hydropower, AB Laholm, Sweden.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Department of Environmental and Life Sciences River Ecology and Management Research Group RivEM Karlstad University Karlstad Sweden.
    Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Understanding river management through the ecosystem services lens2022In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 478-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Known as the “king of fishes”, the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, Salmonidae) is an iconic freshwater species whose contribution to human wellbeing has long been recognized, as have widespread declines in its abundance, partly due to river regulation. To understand how salmon conservation has been addressed within the ecosystem services (ES) framework, we synthesized the peer-reviewed literature on ES provided by salmon in regulated rivers. We developed a search string to capture allusions to provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural ES and assessed the results to identify knowledge gaps. The effects of hydropower on fisheries catches and on modelled populations were shown is several publications. Overall, few studies focused explicitly on ES from salmon and hydropower; this is surprising given the considerable body of literature on salmon in regulated rivers. Wild salmon as a food source and other provisioning services are less important today than historically. Because predators such as salmon are important for facilitating biodiversity by cycling nutrients and controlling food webs, there is a scope of work for future assessments of these regulating and supporting services. Few papers explicitly addressed cultural ES, despite the salmon’s longstanding iconic status; this is a knowledge gap for future ES assessments in relation to hydropower. The influence of ES assessments for policy makers is growing through the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the post-2020 biodiversity strategy. Explicitly addressing ES poses an opportunity for river managers to raise awareness of aquatic conservation efforts and well-informed decision-making for sustaining ES.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Alvdén, David
    Vattenfall Research and Development.
    Brouziotis, Antonis Apostolos
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Carlsson, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Karathanou, Eirini
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lund Bjørnås, Kristine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lundqvist, Gustav
    Vattenfall Research and Development.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Social behaviour of European grayling before and after flow peaks in restored and unrestored habitats2020In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 1646-1655-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost‐effective implementation of fish‐friendly hydropower flow operation and habitat restoration measures require an understanding of their effects on fitness‐related behaviours of stream fish. Here, we investigated how changes in flow and bottom structure influence the social behaviour of European grayling, using large experimental flumes (700 L s−1), with and without added boulders (i.e., restored and unrestored habitat). Grayling increased their distance to nearest neighbour at the start of flow ramping up and after a flow peak compared to stable base flow. At the start of ramping up the flow, grayling made less position changes (movements >1 m) than at stable base flow and after a flow peak. In the unrestored habitat, the proportion of time grayling spent actively swimming was lower before a flow peak than it was both at the start of ramping up the flow and after the peak, an effect not found in the restored habitat. In addition, we compared two static flows, and habitat restoration mediated their effect on distance to nearest neighbour. Grayling in the restored habitat were positioned closer to each other in the low (~10 cm s−1) than in the intermediate static flow (~40 cm s−1), whereas in the unrestored habitat, grayling showed the opposite pattern. Moreover, grayling reduced their number of position changes in the intermediate static flow, which was reflected by a reduction in active swimming. Stomach analysis after the trials revealed that foraging success was higher in variable than in the stable flow treatment. These results show that flow magnitude, flow changes and instream structure play important roles in the behaviour of stream fishes.

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  • 49.
    Watz, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Enefalk, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Fortum generation.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Schneider, Lea Dominique
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Jonsson, Bror
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Norsk institutt for naturforskning, Oslo.
    Ice cover alters the behavior and stress level of brown trout Salmo trutta2015In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 820-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface ice in rivers and lakes buffers the thermal environment and provides overhead cover, protecting aquatic animals from terrestrial predators. We tested if surface ice influenced the behavior (swimming activity, aggressive encounters, and number of food items eaten) and stress level (coloration of eyes and body) of stream-living brown trout Salmo trutta at temperatures of 3–4 °C in indoor experimental flumes. We hypothesized that an individual’s resting metabolic rate (RMR, as measured by resting ventilation rate) would affect winter behavior. Therefore, groups of 4 trout, consisting of individuals with high, low, or mixed (2 individuals each) RMR, were exposed to experimental conditions with or without ice cover. Ice cover reduced stress responses, as evaluated by body coloration. Also, trout in low RMR groups had a paler body color than those in both mixed and high RMR groups. Trout increased their swimming activity under ice cover, with the highest activity found in high RMR groups. Ice cover increased the number of aggressive encounters but did not influence the number of drifting food items taken by each group. In mixed RMR groups, however, single individuals were better able to monopolize food than in the other groups. As the presence of surface ice increases the activity level and reduces stress in stream-living trout, ice cover should influence their energy budgets and production. The results should be viewed in light of ongoing global warming that reduces the duration of ice cover, especially at high latitudes and altitudes.

  • 50.
    Wengström, Niklas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet. Swedish Anglers Assoc, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wahlqvist, Fredrik
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Näslund, Joacim
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Aldvén, David
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Závorka, Libor
    Göteborgs universitet. Univ Toulouse 3, CNRS, UMR EDB Toulouse 5174, Midi Pyrenees, France..
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Höjesjö, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Do individual activity patterns of brown trout (Salmo trutta) alter the exposure to parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) larvae?2016In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 122, no 9, p. 769-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that inter-individual differences in the activity of brown trout alter the exposure to parasitic freshwater pearl mussel glochidia was tested in a Swedish stream. Wild yearling brown trout (N=103) were caught, individually tagged for identification, and scored for open-field activity during standardized laboratory tests in June. Fifty gravid freshwater pearl mussels were relocated to the stream, where after the trout were released back into the stream. The fish were recaptured in October (N=35), checked for glochidia encystment (infested individuals: n=6), and re-scored for open-field activity traits. Swimming velocity during the test was higher in fish infected with glochidia, suggesting that high activity could increase their exposure to glochidia. Potentially, as metabolism and ventilation rate typically increase with activity, elevated activity may lead to an increased likelihood of glochidia passing over the gills. This novel finding suggests that glochidia infestation is non-random and that the behavior of the host fish can influence the likelihood of glochidia infestation.

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