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  • 1.
    Björkström, Monica
    Karlstad University, Division for Health and Caring Sciences.
    Den professionella sjuksköterskan: i relation till den akademiska sjuksköterskeutbildningen2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The Professional Nurse in Relation to Academic Nursing Education

    The increasing demands on the nurse’s competence in the society are reflected in laws and ordinances as well as in the transition of the nursing education to universities. The overall aim of this thesis was to illuminate, describe and understand nurses’ professional awareness in relation to academic nursing education.

    The longitudinal studies I and II of the thesis included novice nursing students (n= 164/163), senior students (n=123/124), and nurses three to five years after graduating (n=83/82). Study III of the thesis covered a nationally random selection of nurses graduated during four different years before and after the implementation of the academic education (n=289). Study IV focused on senior students (n=155). The data were collected by means of three questionnaires: open questions where the respondents were asked to describe their views of a good nurse and a bad nurse (I); a scale for assessing the professional self in relation to others (modified Nurse Self Description Form) (II); and finally, a questionnaire designed to asses the nurses’ (III) and the students’ (IV) attitudes to and awareness of research within nursing (as developed in study III). The data were analysed by means of content analysis (I) and parametric and non-parametric statistical methods (II, III, IV), and factor analysis (III).

    The result was that the characteristic of a good nurse ”to do good for others” emerged strongly and retained its dominant position throughout the education and beyond. ”To be competent and skilled” was also highly favoured and gained ground during and after the training. ”To have professional courage and pride” and ”to seek professional development” were considerably less prominent but increased slightly in importance over time (I). The professional self in relation to others in similar situations were generally rated as both strong among students and experienced nurses (II). Also in this respect there was an emphasis on the aspect of doing good for others. The professional self grew stronger over time in the areas of drive, objectivity, flexibility, ability to teach, ability to communicate and sociability, whereas the desire to contribute through research and knowledge mastery decreased over time (II). The process of developing into an experienced nurse, however, entailed increased awareness of the complexity of the nursing profession. The instruments for measuring attitudes to nursing research were validated through factor analysis, which generated seven factors termed ”research language,” ”need of research knowledge,” ”participation,” ”the profession,” ”meaningfulness,” ”study literature,” and ”developing–resources” (III). Nurses (III) as well as students (IV) expressed a positive attitude to nursing research and its application to the nursing profession. However, the nurses in particular stated that they seldom read scientific journals and seldom applied nursing research in their daily work.

    To sum up, the research in this thesis shows that students and nurses only to a moderate extent displayed the professional awareness that the academic nursing education aims for. The traditional image of a good nurse was the most clearly manifested form of awareness, whereas insufficient awareness was registered in areas related to own responsibility for research-based practice. The result indicates a need for further collaboration between the nursing education and the health care sector, as well as for academically highly qualified nurses as resource persons in nursing practice, to support quality development in nursing, and serve as role models for students.

  • 2.
    Björkström, Monica E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Health and Caring Sciences.
    Athlin, Elys E.
    Karlstad University, Division for Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Inger S.
    Karlstad University, Division for Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nurses' development of professional self - from being a nursing student in a baccalaureate programme to an experienced nurse2008In: Journal of clinical studies, ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 17, p. 1380-1391Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3. Björkström, Monica
    et al.
    Hamrin, KF
    Swedish nurses' attitudes towards research and development within nursing2001In: Journal of Advanced Nursing 34(5), 706-714, 2001Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Björkström, Monica
    et al.
    Johansson, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Athlin, EE
    Expectations on being a nurse and how it turned out2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Björkström, Monica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Johansson, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Athlin, Elsy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    An attempt to improve nurses' interest in and use of research in clinical practice by means of network support to facilitator nurses2014In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 58-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scientific knowledge is expected to be used in clinical practice to ensure that patients are given evidence-based nursing care. Therefore, in order to improve nurses’ research utilisation in clinical practice a network had been provided for nurses especially interested in nursing development in eleven wards. These nurses were expected to take on the role of key person (facilitator) for nursing development in clinical practice.Aim: The study was aimed at describing nurses’ interest in nursing research, how network support to ‘facilitator nurses’ could improve development in patient care based on evidence, and what hindering factors for such development could be.Methods: One and a half years after onset of the project a follow-up study was conducted with a questionnaire answered by 75 (64%) nurses, and group interviews with nine facilitators and eleven head nurses.Findings: The nurses’ interest in research utilisation was in general high and in eight wards development work had started. The facilitator nurses had mostly worked without involving their colleagues. Hindering factors for nursing development were related to time, EBP knowledge, involvement and the interest of head nurses and colleagues. Education, work place, previous participation in research projects, and participation in the network impacted positively on nurses’ attitudes to and interest in research.Conclusion and implication for clinical practice: Providing networks to ‘facilitator nurses’ in the ward could be useful for developing nursing care based on research findings. However, support from nurse leaders, involvement of the whole nursing staff, and training in research utilisation are important factors for success.

  • 6. Björkström, Monica
    et al.
    Johansson, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Athlin, Elsy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Hamrin, KF
    Swedish nursing students' attitudes to and awareness of research and development within nursing2003In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41 (4), 393-402, 2003Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Johansson, Inger
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Björkström, Monica
    Athlin, Elsy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Is the humanistic view of the nurse role still alive - in spite of an academic education?2006In: Journal of Advanced Nursing 54(4), 502-510, 2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Wangensteen, Sigrid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Johansson, Inger S.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Björkström, Monica E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses.2010In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Wangensteen, Sigrid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing. Gjovik Univ Coll, Gjovik, Norway.
    Johansson, Inger S.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing. Gjovik Univ Coll, Gjovik, Norway.
    Björkström, Monica E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Newly Graduated Nurses' Perception Of Competence And Possible Predictors: A Cross-Sectional Survey2012In: Journal of Professional Nursing, ISSN 8755-7223, E-ISSN 1532-8481, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 170-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe newly graduated nurses' own perception of competence and to identify possible predictors influencing their perceptions. The target population included nurses who graduated from nursing colleges in June 2006. Data collection was carried out from October 2006 until April 2007 using the Nurse Competence Scale (NCS), the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Research Utilization Questionnaire. The response rate was 33% (n = 620). Pearson's chi-square test, Student t test, and regression analyses were used for statistical calculations. The respondents assessed their overall competence level as "good" and assessed themselves most competent in providing ethical and individualized nursing care. They assessed themselves least competent in evaluating outcomes and further development of patient care. Their use of competence explained between 40% (helping) and 10% (managing) of the variance within the NCS competence categories. Critical thinking (CT) was the most prominent predictor for perception of competence in all competence categories and the overall competence, alone explaining between 20% (NCS total score) and 9% (managing) of the variance. The finding that CT was a significant predictor for perception of competence may indicate that developing nursing students' CT abilities is valuable to increase newly graduated nurses' perception of competence.

  • 10.
    Wangensteen, Sigrid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Johansson, Inger S.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Björkström, Monica E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Research utilisation and critical thinking among newly graduated nurses: Predictors for research use. A quantitative cross-sectional study2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 17/18, p. 2436-2447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:The aim was to describe research utilisation among newly graduated nurses and to explore critical thinking dispositions and other individual and contextual factors as possible predictors for research use.

    BACKGROUND:Nurses are expected to be research users, and variations in research utilisation are explained by individual and contextual factors. To our knowledge, critical thinking dispositions have not earlier been explored as predictors for research use.

    DESIGN:A cross-sectional design was chosen.

    METHODS:Data collection was carried out from October 2006 to April 2007 using the Research Utilization Questionnaire (RUQ) and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). The response rate was 33% (n =617). Pearson's chi-square test and regression analyses were used for statistical calculations.

    RESULTS:The respondents reported a positive attitude towards research, but only 24% (n = 148) were defined as research users. A significantly higher proportion of research users reported high critical thinking scores. Critical thinking explained 20% of the variance in attitude towards research and 11% of the variance in research use. Availability and support to implement research findings was the second strongest predictor for research use.

    CONCLUSIONS:Critical thinking, a significant predictor for attitude towards research and for the use of research, should be recognised and strengthened in nursing education and clinical practice. Contextual factors seem to be important for newly graduated nurses' use of research.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:Nurse leaders play an important role in nurturing newly graduated nurses' critical thinking and assisting them in transferring their positive attitude towards research into research use. Nurse educators play a significant role in supporting, challenging and supervising nursing students to be critical thinkers and strong believers in research utilisation.

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