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  • 1. Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Comparing mail-in, interview and tournament catch rates for a recreational salmonid fisheryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 2. Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Su, Zhenming
    Andersson, Magnus
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Estimating effort and catch of a recreational trolling fishery in one of Europe’s largest lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 3.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Changes in abundance of two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernuus along a productivity gradient: Relations to feeding strategies and competitive ability1991In: Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:536-545Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Changes in nutrient load and lake water chemistry in Lake Ringsjön, southern Sweden, from 1966 to 19961999In: Hydrobiologia 404:9-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Conservations of landlocked populations of Atlantic salmon and brown trout2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bergman, Eva
    Lunds universitet.
    Distributions and competitive abilities of perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus along environmental gradients1990Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Ecology of Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout - Habitat as a Template for Life Histories2012In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 360-360Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Effects of roach Rutilus rutilus on two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernuus: importance of species interactions for diet shifts1990In: Oikos 57:241-249Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Foraging abilities and niche breadths of two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernua, under different environmental conditions1988In: J Anim Ecol 57:443-453Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Influence of light and temperature on fish1984Report (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Lax och öring i Klarälven2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Migrationof Atlantic salmon – conservation of a landlocked population in Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations of migratory salmon and trout have worldwide shown a decline due to human activities. Over the years numerous measures have been undertaken to maintain these populations, and conservation of migratory salmonids requires understanding of their ecology at multiple scales, combined with assessing anthropogenic impacts. The regulated River Klarälven and Lake Vänern host endemic populations of landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). The historically high abundances of the salmonids in the River Klarälven in the early 1800s have decreased dramatically, reaching all-time lows after the completion of all nine Swedish hydroelectric power stations in the 1960s. After an extensive stocking program and transportation of wild and hatchery-raised spawners past eight hydroelectric plants, catches from commercial, maintenance and sport fishing have again increased. Recently, increases in the proportion of wild salmon returning to the River Klarälven have generated interests in establishment of wild salmon inhabiting the entire River Klarälven, including upstream of the Norwegian border. To obtain information needed to produce a management plan for the salmon, we conducted a number of studies of upstream-migrating spawners and downstream-migrating smolts. For upstream migration, we compared migration behaviour of wild and hatchery reared salmon and found that wild fish swam directly to the spawning grounds and presumably spawned, whereas few salmon of hatchery-origin arrived at the spawning grounds, and if they did so they swam considerably more before settling down at the spawning grounds. Studies of smolt showed that only 16% of the salmon passed all eight dams, and that losses in the dam-free lower 25 km of the river, before the salmon enter the lake, were higher for hatchery-raised smolts than for wild smolt. These differences between wild and hatchery-reared salmon underline the importance of increasing the number of wild salmon in the system and indicate that remedial measures are needed to improve passage success.

  • 13.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Ringsjön i Skåne, restaurering genom cyprinidreduktion - effekten av fiskreduktionen1997Report (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Salmon and trout in Lake Vänern - What can we do for the wild fish?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations of migratorysalmon and trout have worldwide shown a decline due to human activities. Overthe years numerous measures have been undertaken to maintain these populations,and conservation of migratory salmonids requiresunderstanding of their ecology at multiple scales, combined with assessinganthropogenic impacts. Theregulated River Klarälven and Lake Vänern host endemic populations oflandlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). The historically high abundances of the salmonids in theRiver Klarälven in the early 1800s have decreased dramatically, reachingall-time lows after the completion of all nine Swedish hydroelectric powerstations in the 1960s. After an extensive stocking program and transportationof spawners past eight hydroelectric plants catches from commercial,maintenance and sport fishing have again increased. Recently, increases in theproportion of wild salmon returning to the River Klarälven have generated interestsin establishment of wild salmon inhabiting the entire River Klarälven, includingupstream of the Norwegian border. How well are we equipped to meet these newdreams, taking into account our limited knowledge of the species different lifestages, coordination between different actors involved in the conservationprocesses, and our skills to communicate and understand everybody’s role inthis conservation process?

  • 15.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Smolt, föda och vandring - sjövandrande lax och öring2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Temperature-dependent differences in foraging ability of two percids, Perca fluviatilis and Gymnocephalus cernuus1987In: Env Biol Fish 19:45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Åtgärder i stora reglerade vattendrag2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Annadotter, H.
    Cronberg, G.
    Eriksson, M.
    Romare, P.
    Sjörestaurering genom cyprinidreduktion. Finjasjöns status under 1992 och 1993 samt effekter av mörtfiskreduktionen1994Report (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergstrand, E.
    Lack of a top-down effect on the zooplankton community after a cyprinid reduction1999In: Hydrobiologia 404:77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergstrand, G.
    Cronberg, G.
    Eriksson, M.
    Romare, P.
    Sjörestaurering genom cyprinidreduktion. Ringsjöns status under 19931994Report (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Lans, L
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Olsson, I
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Schmitz, M
    Vandrande fisk i Klarälven2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Cronberg, G.
    Eriksson, M.
    Hamrin, S.F.
    Linge, H.
    Romare, P.
    Ekosystemets struktur och infiltrationskapacitet i några infiltrationsdammar i Vombs vattenverk. Ekologiska undersökningar 19931994Report (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Competition between a planktivore, a benthivore, and a species with ontogenetic niche shifts1994In: Ecology 75:1233-1245Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gosselin, Marie-Pierre
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Forest-stream linkages: Effects of woody debris on brown trout (Salmo trutta)2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum, Uppsala universitet.
    Lax och öring i Klarälven - möjligheter för vild fisk och kvalité på odlad fisk: Slutrapport 2008-20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Data från 1800-talet visar att fångsterna av lax och öring i både älv och sjö varit mycket högre än idag. Storskaliga dämmen, kraftigt fiske i Dejeforsen, nio kraftverk i den svenska delen av Klarälvens huvudfåra, och användandet av älven för timmerflottning har bidragit till detta. Efter att utsättning av kompensationsodlad fisk startade ökade fångsten igen, även om den fortfarande är låg.

    Fältundersökningar av vild laxsmolt visade att 16 % av smolten klarade sig hela vägen förbi de åtta kraftverken mellan Edebäck och Forshaga. Under studien var vattenföringen, och därmed spillet, lågt, vilket troligen bidragit till de höga förlusterna. Normalt spills det inte under hela smoltvandringsperioden, vilket är olyckligt.

    Lax och öring uppfödda under normala odlingsförhållanden är oftast större och fetare än vild fisk. Vi födde upp lax med olika fodertyper och fodermängder. Mängden föda påverkade laxens tillväxt och smoltmognad, och lax som fått fettfattigt foder var mest ”naturlik”. Den klarade också vandringen bäst, 80 % tog sig till Vänern medan 55 % av laxen som fått normalt eller lite foder. Bara 20 % av tidigt könsmogna hanar tog sig till Vänern.

    Rapporten avslutas med implikationer och förslag till åtgärder och fortsatta studier.

  • 26.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lax och öring i Klarälven - möjligheter för vild fisk och kvalité på utsatt fisk: Rapport av aktiviteter och uppnådda resultat under 2009-20102010Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Norrgård, Johnny R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Lax och öring i Klarälven - möjligheter för vild fisk och kvalité på utsatt fisk: Rapport av aktiviteter och uppnådda resultat under 2010-20112011Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Lax och öring i Klarälven: möjligheter för vild fisk och kvalité på utsatt fisk2009Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Hamrin, SF
    Romare, P.
    The effects of cyprinid reduction on the fish community1999In: Hydrobiologia 404:65-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Hansson, L-A
    Andersson, G.
    Biomanipulation in a theoretical and historical perspective1999In: Hydrobiologia 404:53-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Hansson,, L-A
    Persson, A
    Strand, J
    Romare, P
    Enell, M
    Graneli, W
    Svensson, J
    Hamrin, SF
    Cronberg, G
    Andersson, G
    Bergstrand, E
    Synthesis of theoretical and empirical experiences from nutrient and cyprinid reductions in Lake Ringsjön1999In: Hydrobiologia 404:145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Länstyrelsen i Västra Göralands län.
    Hart, Paul
    University of Leicester.
    Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Lake Vänern: A proposal for a co-management system2014In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, ISSN 1463-4988, E-ISSN 1539-4077, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 365-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-management is of increasing interest for fisheries management. We explore possibilities for, and barriers to, developing a co-management system, using threatened populations of landlocked Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout as examples. Good management of natural resources requires not only knowledge about the resource but also suitable tools to collect information and make decisions. In large ecosystems this can be difficult because many actors are involved, and various societal borders and traditions become barriers. Vänern is the largest lake in the EU and it holds several distinct populations of large-bodied landlocked Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout. The lake is used for commercial, subsistence, and sport fishing as well as for other recreational activities, and in Klarälven, the largest river entering Vänern, sport fishing is popular. These salmonid populations were at critically low levels during the 1960s, but a stocking program since then has maintained the fishery, and at least one wild stock appears to be recovering since being protected in 1993. Ecosystem users all have different needs: in the lake, sport fishermen say that catches of hatchery fish have declined, and commercial fishermen have focused on other species. In the river, wild salmon may be recovering: sport fishing is popular and an ongoing project investigates the possibilities for salmon to be able to circumvent hydro-electrical plants and reach historical Norwegian spawning areas. Not only do we lack information about the salmonids’ different life stages, we also lack a suitable socio-political organization to find sustainable solutions to the different needs of diverse user groups. We argue that a co-management system that enfranchises user groups in the Vänern-Klarälven ecosystem will improve sustainable management of wild and hatchery fish.

  • 33.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Brandin, Elisabeth
    Laskerudsprojektet -helhetssyn på restaureringsarbete i skogslandskapet2005Report (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Raising brown trout (Salmo trutta) with less food - effects on smolt development and fin damage2013In: Aquaculture Research, ISSN 1355-557X, E-ISSN 1365-2109, Vol. 44, p. 1002-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Bergman, Eva
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Norrgård, Johnny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Landlocked migrating salmonids in large regulated systems2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Borg, Carola
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Subject- and experience-bound differences in teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development2014In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 526-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describe the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers’ understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable development. According to the Swedish curriculum all teachers in all subjects should integrate a holistic perspective of sustainable development including economic, ecological and social dimensions. This study shows that teachers differ in their understanding of the concept mostly according to their subject traditions. Social science teachers emphasize social dimensions, and science teachers’ ecological dimensions, respectively. Teachers are aware of the relevance of the three dimensions to various degrees, but do not generally have a holistic understanding. The greatest uncertainty in teachers’ understanding is related to the economic dimension. Science and social science teachers are critical of incorporating economic growth into the concept of sustainable development while language, vocational and esthetical-practical teachers are not. No experience-bound differences of the teachers’ understanding could be found, but recently qualified teachers consider their understanding of sustainable development to be poorer in comparison to more experienced teachers’ self-evaluation. The study highlights the need for further training in sustainable development since more than 70 % of the questioned teachers stated that they need such training.

  • 37.
    Borg, Carola
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Höglund, Hans-Olof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    The barriers encountered by teachers implementing education for sustainable development2012In: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, E-ISSN 1470-1138, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 185-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background : According to the Swedish curriculum teachers in all subjects have a responsibility to integrate a holistic perspective of sustainable development (SD) and teach according to an education for sustainable development (ESD) approach. However previous research has shown that teachers from different subjects perceive SD differently.

    Purpose : The study aimed at investigating if and how teachers’ subject area influences their ability to implement a holistic perspective of ESD; we investigated both the impact of teaching traditions and the barriers that teachers experienced.

    Sample : A stratified sample of 224 Swedish upper secondary schools participated. An online questionnaire was sent and answered by a total of 3229 teachers at these schools. In total, there were 669 science teachers, 373 social science teachers, 483 language teachers, 713 vocational and esthetical–practical teachers, and 739 teachers from other disciplines who participated in the survey.

    Design and methods : The questionnaire consisted of questions requiring Likert-scale responses and multiple-choice questions. The data from the questionnaire were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA. The significance level accepted was p < 0.05.

    Results : Teachers were influenced by their own subject traditions. Science teachers in our study were grounded in the fact-based tradition and lectures were the most common teaching method used. The teaching tradition of the social science teachers seemed to be most in line to an ESD approach. Many language teachers (41%) stated they did not include SD issues in their teaching at all. Among the barriers identified, the most common obstacles were that the teachers lacked inspiring examples of how to include SD in their teaching and that they lacked the necessary expertise about SD.

    Conclusion : This study highlights the need for the management within schools to create opportunities for teachers to work collaboratively when teaching ESD. It is also important to provide further training that is adjusted to the needs of different disciplines.

  • 38.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Schmitz, Monika
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Hultman, Jens
    Andersson, Jonas
    Smolt migration in the River Klarälven, the importance of food2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Calles, Olle
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Griffioen, Ben
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Winter, Erwin
    IMARES Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagelin, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fish Migration River Monitoring Plan2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish have problems passing the Afsluitdijk Dam that separates the Wadden Sea from Lake IJsselmeer. To re-establish the connectivity and thereby allow fish to pass there is an initiative to build a fishway, the Fish Migration River (FMR), at the Konwerderzand sluice complex. This report proposes a monitoring program to evaluate the functionality of the FMR, but also to monitor passage possibilities through the existing sluices. The goals of the monitoring plan are to estimate 1) The overall passage past the Afsluitdijk dam to and from Lake IJsselmeer, 2) The attraction efficiency, 3) The passage efficiency, and 4) The use of the FMR as habitat and for acclimatization for the transition into freshwater.

    We present an overview of previous and ongoing monitoring in the area to establish the current state of knowledge. The report also includes a presentation of available and suitable methods for a future monitoring program considering the broad spectra of target fish species, and their abundances. The proposed program includes a description of study design and available techniques and cost-estimates of the monitoring program.

    The proposed program will target ten species: European eel (aal), flounder (bot), three-spined stickleback (dreidoornige stekelbaars), twait shad (fint), North Sea houting (houting), river lamprey (rieverprik), smelt (spiering), Atlantic salmon (zalm), brown trout (forel) and sea lamprey (zeeprik). The monitoring program includes plans for how to capture, tag and track the study fish using the most suitable tagging techniques. Furthermore, the most optimal sites for installation of automatic data detection stations are identified.

    The total cost for the proposed project is 3.5 M€ and covers both investments in equipment and costs for personnel. However, if costs for investments in techniques such as RFId-stations and fish counters are excluded, the total cost is reduced to 1 M€ for a program running two years before and four years after the completion of the FMR. The program is considered sufficient to evaluate the FMR at Kornwerederzand from the most important perspectives: the overall passage efficiency and the use of the FMR as habitat.

    It should be noted that this report is the first step towards a full-scale monitoring program, giving insight into possible methods, study design and associated costs. The next important step will be to develop the program in more detail and to start the initial phase of the monitoring project. We predict that such activities will identify the need for, and the relevance of, a more extensive monitoring program to study the effects of the FMR on a population level and on a large geographical scale.

  • 40.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Effect of fine wood on juvenile brown trout behaviour in experimental stream channels2016In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 664-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-stream wood can increase shelter availability and prey abundance for stream-living fish such as brown trout, Salmo trutta, but the input of wood to streams has decreased in recent years due to harvesting of riparian vegetation. During the last decades, fine wood (FW) has been increasingly used for biofuel, and the input of FW to streams may therefore decrease. Although effects of in-stream FW have not been studied as extensively as those of large wood (LW), it is probably important as shelter for small-sized trout. In a laboratory stream experiment, we tested the behavioural response of young-of-the-year wild brown trout to three densities of FW, with trout tested alone and in groups of four. Video recordings were used to measure the proportion of time allocated to sheltering, cruising and foraging, as well as the number of aggressive interactions and prey attacks. Cruising activity increased with decreasing FW density and was higher in the four-fish groups than when fish were alone. Foraging decreased and time spent sheltering in FW increased with increasing FW density. Our study shows that juvenile trout activity is higher in higher fish densities and that trout response to FW is related to FW density and differs from the response to LW as reported by others. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 41.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Effects of fine wood addition on invertebrate drift in boreal forest streamsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine woody debris (FWD) is a key habitat component for stream-living organisms, but there have been few tests of its importance for macroinvertebrate drift in boreal forest streams. We experimentally investigated the effect of FWD addition on the drift fauna at seven sites in four boreal forest streams, from early June to mid-August 2011. This was done by anchoring bundles of FWD at each site and measuring drift upstream (within site control) and downstream of each bundle. We hypothesized that addition of FWD would increase drift density and biomass of stream invertebrates as well as drift taxon richness. Variation between sites was high, with site-specific minimum values of drift biomass of 0.2 - 4.1 mg wet mass/100 m3 and maximum values of 3.9 - 41.7 mg/100 m3. Despite this variation, there was a significant increase in total aquatic drift density and biomass 8 to 10 weeks after wood addition. Aquatic taxon richness in the drift also increased significantly after FWD addition. This study shows for the first time that FWD can increase drifting invertebrate density, biomass and taxon diversity in small boreal forest streams.

  • 42.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Effects of fine wood on macroinvertebrate drift in four boreal forest streams2016In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 765, no 1, p. 317-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies of stream wood have focused on pieces a parts per thousand yen0.1 m diameter. However, this approach may overlook an important feature of small streams, where wood < 0.1 m can constitute the majority of wood pieces. We examined the effect of fine wood (FW) on local drift of stream macroinvertebrates. The study was carried out at seven sites in four boreal forest streams, from early June to mid-August 2011. This was done by anchoring bundles of FW at each site and measuring drift upstream and downstream of each bundle. We hypothesized that FW would increase drift density, biomass and diversity of aquatic invertebrates. Ten weeks after FW addition, aquatic drift density was higher downstream than upstream of FW bundles, while drift biomass and drift diversity did not differ significantly downstream and upstream of FW.

  • 43.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Juvenile brown trout response to fine woody debris in experimental stream channelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in riparian vegetation due to forest harvesting may affect the input of fine woody debris, an important structural element, to streams. Woody debris has been shown to benefit trout populations. In-stream fine woody debris (FWD) has not been studied as extensively as large woody debris, but is probably important to smaller-sized trout. In a laboratory stream experiment we tested young-of-the-year wild brown trout, Salmo trutta, responses to three densities of fine woody debris (FWD). The trout were tested as singletons and four together. Swimming activity increased with increasing fish density and decreasing FWD density. Foraging decreased and time spent in FWD increased with increasing FWD density. Aggressiveness was lowest in intermediate FWD density. Our study shows that FWD impact on trout is related to fish rank, fish density and FWD density, and that juvenile trout response to fine WD is different from the response to large WD reported by others.

  • 44.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Winter sheltering by juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta): Effects of stream wood and an instream ecothermic predator2017In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal streams, juvenile salmonids spend substantial amounts of time sheltering in the streambed and in stream wood, presumably as a means of protection against the physical environment and from terrestrial endothermic predators. Relatively little is known about sheltering by salmonids in response to instream ectothermic predators.We tested the effects of burbot (Lota lota) on the winter sheltering behaviour of PIT-tagged 0+ brown trout (Salmo trutta) in daylight and darkness. Sheltering in the streambed by trout was studied in the presence and absence of fine wood bundles.We found that the use of streambed and fine wood was lower in darkness than in daylight. Availability of fine wood significantly decreased sheltering in the streambed, and this effect was more pronounced in daylight than in darkness. The presence of a burbot significantly decreased sheltering in the streambed, had no effect on use of fine wood and resulted in a higher number of exposed trout.Our results indicate that juvenile brown trout decrease streambed sheltering in response to a burrowing, ectothermic predator.

  • 45. Eros, Tibor
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Forest-Stream linkages: Effects of Terrestrial Invertebrate Input and Light on Diet and Growth of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in a Boreal Forest Stream2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsidies of energy and material from the riparian zone have large impacts on recipient stream habitats. Human-induced changes, such as deforestation, may profoundly affect these pathways. However, the strength of individual factors on stream ecosystems is poorly understood since the factors involved often interact in complex ways. We isolated two of these factors, manipulating the flux of terrestrial input and the intensity of light in a 2 x 2 factorial design, where we followed the growth and diet of two size-classes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the development of periphyton, grazer macroinvertebrates, terrestrial invertebrate inputs, and drift in twelve 20 m long enclosed stream reaches in a five-monthlong experiment in a boreal coniferous forest stream. We found that light intensity, which was artificially increased 2.5 times above ambient levels, had an effect on grazer density, but no detectable effect on chlorophyll a biomass. We also found a seasonal effect on the amount of drift and that the reduction of terrestrial prey input, accomplished by covering enclosures with transparent plastic, had a negative impact on the amount of terrestrial invertebrates in the drift. Further, trout growth was strongly seasonal and followed the same pattern as drift biomass, and the reduction of terrestrial prey input had a negative effect on trout growth. Diet analysis was consistent with growth differences, showing that trout in open enclosures consumed relatively more terrestrial prey in summer than trout living in covered enclosures. We also predicted ontogenetic differences in the diet and growth of old and young trout, where we expected old fish to be more affected by the terrestrial prey reduction, but we found little evidence of ontogenetic differences. Overall, our results showed that reduced terrestrial prey inputs, as would be expected from forest harvesting, shaped differences in the growth and diet of the top predator, brown trout.

  • 46.
    Erős, Tibor
    et al.
    Balaton Limnological Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Pär
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Greenberg, Larry A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Aquatic-terrestrial linkages: effects of terrestrial invertebrate input and light on a boreal stream communityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Gordon, T. A. C.
    et al.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Harding, H. R.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, U.K..
    Clever, F. K.
    School of Science and the Environment, John Dalton Building, Manchester Metropolitan University, U.K..
    Davidson, I. K.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Davison, W.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Montgomery, D. W.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Weatherhead, R. C.
    Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, U.K..
    Windsor, F. M.
    School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, U.K..
    Armstrong, J. D.
    Marine Scotland Science, Freshwater Fisheries Laboratory, U.K..
    Bardonnet, A.
    ECOBIOP, UMR 1224, INRA, Univ. Pau & Pays Adour, France.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Britton, J. R.
    Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, U.K..
    Cote, I. M.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    D'agostino, D.
    School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, U.K..
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Harborne, A. R.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, U.S.A..
    Kahilainen, K. K.
    Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, The Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Metcalfe, N. B.
    Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, MVLS, University of Glasgow, U.K..
    Mills, S. C.
    CRIOBE, EPHE PSL Research University, French Polynesia Laboratoire d'Excellence “CORAIL”, France.
    Milner, N. J.
    APEM Ltd, School of Biological Sciences, U.K..
    Mittermayer, F. H.
    Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Fishes, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Germany.
    Montorio, L.
    ESE, Ecology and Ecosystem Health, Agrocampus Ouest, France.
    Nedelec, S. L.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Prokkola, J. M.
    Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Rutterford, L. A.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Salvanes, A. G. V.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Simpson, S. D.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Vainikka, A.
    Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Pinnegar, J. K.
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, U.K..
    Santos, E. M.
    Biosciences, University of Exeter, U.K..
    Fishes in a changing world: learning from the past to promote sustainability of fish populations2018In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 804-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide. In this review, we identify the major threats faced by fish populations alongside recent advances that are helping to address these issues. There are very significant efforts worldwide directed towards ensuring a sustainable future for the world's fishes and fisheries and those who rely on them. Although considerable challenges remain, by drawing attention to successful mitigation of threats to fish and fisheries we hope to provide the encouragement and direction that will allow these challenges to be overcome in the future.

  • 48.
    Greenberg, Larry
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Infiltrationskapacitet i Vombs vattenverksdammar - Undersökning av klorofyll a, totalfosfor, grumlighet under ett år1995Report (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Greenberg, Larry
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Vattnet i skogen och skogen i vattnet - kantzonens betydelse för skogliga vattendrag2004In: Inte bara träd – hållbart mångbruk av skogslandskapet / [ed] Olsson, Nyberg, Bladh och Månsson, Stockholm: Carlssons förlag , 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Greenberg, Larry
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Eklöv, Anders
    Effects of Predation and Intraspecific Interactions on Habitat Use and Foraging by Brown Trout in Artificial Streams1997In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 16-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied habitat use, foraging rates and behavior of 10 cm and 12 cm long brown trout, Salmo trutta, at two densities, 1.5 and 3.0 fish. m−2, in artificial streams that contained either the amphipod, Gammarus pulex, alone or G. pulex together with the piscivore, northern pike, Esox lucius. Gammarus were stocked in and largely restricted to the pools at a density of 128 Gammurus. m−2. pool−1 Large trout (12 cm) used pools more and riffles less when small trout (10 cm) were present than when small trout were absent. Small trout consumed fewer Gammarus when together with large trout than when alone, but showed no difference in habitat use in the presence and abscnce of large trout. Habitat use and number of Gammarus consumed per trout were not affected by trout density for either size-class when alone. For both size-classes of trout, use of pools and foraging rates were higher in the absence than in the presence of pike, and pike primarily resided in the pools. The number of aggressive interactions by both size-classes of trout decreased when pike was present. Our results indicate that for habitats that differ in food resources and predation risk, size structure may affect habitat use and foraging by brown trout.

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