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  • 1.
    Bergman, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gillberg, Gunnar
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Att lämna yrket eller stanna kvar, organisationskultur och sexuella trakasserier, delat ledarskap samt arbetets estetik2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tre av detta nummers artiklar berör organisation på ett eller annat sätt.Det handlar om varför poliser väljer att frivilligt säga upp sig och lämnayrket; sexuella trakasserier och hur sådana hanteras i mansdomineradeorganisationer samt erfarenheter av delat ledarskap i skolväsendet. Den sistaartikeln utgörs av en essä om hur arbete har framställts i bildkonst, musik ochlitteratur. Detta nummer av Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv avslutas med att JanCh Karlsson recenserar boken Job Quality in an Era of Flexibility. Experiences ina European Context.

  • 2.
    Bergman, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gillberg, Gunnar
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Profession, anställningsformer, frivilligarbete och religion2018In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 24, no 1-2, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artiklarna i detta nummer av Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv behandlar olika områden. Den första handlar om hur gymnasielärare upplever att de förberetts för sitt yrke under lärarutbildningen. Den andra rör hemtjänstens förhållningssätt till äldre personer med alkoholproblem. Den tredje artikeln handlar om anställda i handeln, en bransch som kännetecknas av olika typer av anställningsformer. Nästa artikel belyser samverkan mellan räddningstjänsten och frivilliga insatser vid branden i Västmanland för några år sedan. Därefter följer en artikel om begränsningen av kvinnors rätt att manifestera sin religion i arbetslivet. Numret avslutas med tre recensioner. Eskil Wadensjö recenserar Tora Nords doktorsavhandling Arbete som rättighet eller skyldighet. Föreställningar om arbetsmarknadsfrånvaro i välfärdsstaten; Peter Håkansson recenserar Jack Lainpeltos doktorsavhandling Ämnade för restaurangarbete? - Om politisk styrning och lågutbildade ungdomars väg fram till arbetsmarknadens tröskel; Erik Sjödin recenserar Rasmus Hästbackas licentiatavhandling Europeiska företagsråd i svenska koncerner: En rättsvetenskaplig studie av EWC-regleringens betydelse för arbetstagarinflytande och styrning.

  • 3.
    Bergman, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gillberg, GunnarGöteborgs universitet.Ivarsson, LarsKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Tankar om arbete: 17 texter om arbete, arbetsliv och samhällsförändring2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bergman, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Avdelningen för arbetsvetenskap.
    Tillgänglighet för arbetsgivare, familj och kund: En utmaning för handeln som arbetsplats2010Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergman, Ann
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    A matter of costumer equity or a moment of personal satisfaction?: Interaction patterns in the retail sector2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Gillberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Digitalisering, lärande och utbildning.2018In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 24, no 3-4, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De två första artiklarna i detta nummer handlar om digitalisering och dess påverkan på arbetet och arbetssituationen i olika avseenden. Dessa följs av en artikel som behandlar lärande i arbetsorganisationer. Den fjärde artikeln belyser hur nyutexaminerade lärare i Sverige och Finland ser på den utbildning de har genomgått. Därefter följer en debattartikel – ”Snabbt förändrade arbetsmiljöer kräver forskning som bidrar till bred kunskap och metodik” – i vilken styrelsen för FALF fokuserat implikationer av dagens varierade arbetsmiljöer för verkningsfullt arbetsmiljöarbete. De argumenterar för mer arbetsplatsnära, intersektionella och mångvetenskapliga ansatser i arbetslivsforskningen – och att alltför förenklade beskrivningar i övergripande medeltal kan, liksom effektivitetshetsen i dagens samhälle, fördumma både arbetsmiljöarbetet och forskningen. Arbetsmiljö är ett mycket viktigt tema, och vi på redaktionen vill uppmärksamma det kommande numret som har just tema arbetsmiljö. Detta nummer avslutas med tre recensioner. Roland Kadefors recenserar Susan P Chens doctorsavhandling Knowledge management in the time of organisational change: Implications of a post-merger early retirement downsizing strategy in an aging knowledge based economy. A socio-technical system approach to a Norwegian case study; Jonas Axelsson recenserar boken Social struktur och mänskligt handlande: en introduktion till kritisk realistisk samhällsanalys (Gillberg, Persson, Seldén & Wennerström); Robin Färdig recenserar boken Beslut (Brunsson & Brunsson).

  • 7.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Att förena passion med försörjning: En diskussion om hobby och arbete i det senmoderna samhället2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vissa sätt att försörja sig på benämns i termer av drömyrke, såsom att vara idrottare, musiker, konstnär, författare, skådespelare etc. De här människorna är ofta passionerade över området och utövandet ifråga, och har alltsedan unga år drömt om att kunna leva på sitt stora intresse. Att livnära sig på sådant som andra får lov att ägna sig åt på sin fritid tycks vara förenad med en allmän uppfattning om att det är inte bara självförverkligande, utan också bekymmerslöst. Men är det så?

    I den här boken diskuteras förekomsten av att förena passion med försörjning, och den förhärligande bild som allmänheten tycks ha angående så kallade drömyrken, verkar inte helt överensstämmande med verkligheten.

    Arbetslivsforskningen har till stor del negligerat frågan om passion och förvånande finns det knappt några texter som fokuserar på fenomenet att försörja sig på sin hobby. I det senmoderna individualiserade samhället där individerna alltmer uppmanas att ”göra sin grej” blir det angeläget att undersöka de villkor och konsekvenser som följer av detta. Förhoppningsvis kan den här boken ge viss insikt i vad ett förenande av passion och försörjning innebär. Och förhoppningsvis ger den inspiration till ytterligare forskning på området.

  • 8.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Att förvandla hobby till försörjning2011In: Arbete: Passion och exploatering / [ed] Tuula Bergqvist, Gunnar Gillberg, Lars Ivarsson, Växjö: Linnéuniversitetet , 2011, p. 67-85Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Vad betyder kundfokus?: En studie av närhet, kompetens och teknik2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This is a dissertation about customer focus. Customer focus is a concept that can be understood in terms of giving the customer what the customer wants. It has been argued that the industrial society has transformed into a service society with the obvious consequence that services nowadays play a leading part, not at least in regard to customer focus. The customer of today is claimed to have lost interest in mass consumption and is much attracted to personalized and unique solutions, something that results in the fact that businesses must create or develop customer focus, i.e. listen to the customers wishes, needs, and demands. According to most researchers in this field, service excellence is the primary aspect one firm can use in order to successfully compete with other similar firms.



    According to Service Management, customer focus is much about developing a personal relationship between the service provider (employee) and the customer. In order to that, the service provider needs to adjust his or hers behaviour in accordance with the customer. This circumstance has a tendency to lead to a master-and-servant relation, in which the service provider must obey the various wishes, needs, and demands any customer may have.



    Most studies on customer focus have been undertaken in the context of low skill service work, but the results have often (implicitly) been generalized to comprise all service work in the whole service sector. As a consequence of this situation, my survey takes on high skill service work (banking and health care). The main purpose of the survey is to examine if the results and analyses, presented from service management apply when the services are not low skill.



    The results from this survey shows that Service Managements heavily emphasis of the personal relationship between employee and customer in which the service provider in some meaning need to undertake the role of a servant can be questioned. The results also show that there is a discrepancy between (bank customers and patients) opinion on an abstract comprehensive level and a specific level where various situations and errands are defined. Further, the dissertation shows that the various factors that can be included in the conception of customer focus, need to be examine more carefully. Some factors integrate in a way that makes it difficult to separate them, and one specific factor can in fact hold a variety of essences.

  • 10.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Bergman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Livs- och åldersperspektiv på arbetsförhållanden: Utvärdering av en arbetsmiljösatsning i projektform vid Karlstads universitet2008Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Bergqvist, TuulaKarlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.Gillberg, Gunnar
    Arbete: Passion och exploatering2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Anställdas upplevelse av interaktionen med kunder/mottagare i tjänstesektorn2008In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 43-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel görs dels en summering av forskning som uttalar sig om arbetsvillkor för anställda med hög grad av kundkontakt, dels påvisas utbredningen av dessa villkor i den svenska tjänstesektorn. Det visar sig att tjänstearbete präglas av rutinisering, krav på utseende samt styrning av känslor. Samtidigt är kundkontakter en källa till arbetstillfredsställelse och denna arbetstillfredsställelse är mer utbredd bland anställda som identifierar sig med verksamhetens kunder.

  • 13.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Are Customer Focus and Competence Raising Compatible?: A Study of Customers´ and Patient´s Conception of Different Qualification Strategies in Public and Private Service Organizations1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Att leverera hantverkstjänster – en studie av näringsidkares upplevelser av affärsrelationen2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2009 inkom det omkring 10 000 klagomål rörande hantverkare och hantverkstjänster till landets konsumentvägledningar. Detta är en ökning med tio procent jämfört med året innan. Vanligtvis handlar klagomålen om att hantverkstjänsten blivit dyrare än överenskommet eller att arbetet inte har utförts på det sätt konsumenten räknat med.

    Anledningen till det ökade klagomålet på hantverkstjänster kan enligt Helena Olofsson, boendeexpert på Konsumentverket, möjligtvis hänvisas till införandet av ROT-avdraget (Renovering, Ombyggnad, Tillbyggnad) som i korthet innebär attprivatkunder som anlitar hantverkare kan få en skattereduktion på 50 procentav arbetskostnaden. Denna förklaring bygger på ett antagande om att ROTavdragetmedför att fler personer väljer att anlita hantverkare nu närkostnaderna blir väsentligt lägre. Det förefaller logiskt att ett ökat anlitande också medför ett ökande av kunders missnöje och därmed klagomål.

    Den ökande andelen klagomål har föranlett en rad delstudier kring hur kunderoch hantverkare upplever affärsrelationen. Två av dessa är kvantitativt orienterade och vänder sig till privatkunder respektive hantverkare, i syfte att kartlägga utbredningen av kundmissnöje. Föreliggande rapport fokuserarnäringsidkares upplevelser av relationen.

  • 15.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer-Employee Rapport in Service Relationships It takes two to tango2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Kundrelationer i hantverksbranschen: Hantverkares respektive konsumenters upplevelser och erfarenheter2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kundrelationer har intresserat forskare och praktiker under tämligen lång tid. Ofta har man intagit ett kundperspektiv och försökt klargöra vad kunder värdesätter för att sedan kunna utveckla eller bibehålla så kallat kundfokus i syfte att nå företagsmässig framgång. Vad som anses vara ett framgångsrecept inom i synnerhet företagsekonomisk tjänsteforskning är att bemöta kunderna på ett unikt sätt, gärna kompletterat med förträfflig service. Vid sidan av studierna som intresserar sig för kunders önskemål och krav finns det undersökningar som fokuserar arbetssituationen hos anställdas, dvs de som förväntas uppfylla kundernas önskemål. Oavsett om det är kunder eller anställda som fokuseras placeras de mellanmänskliga relationerna – dvs själva mötet – oftast i fokus.

    Föreliggande rapport består av två separata kvalitativa studier inom området för hantverkstjänster: en med inriktning på leverantörsidan (dvs hantverkare), en med inriktning på mottagarsidan (dvs konsumenter). Genom att intervjua både hantverkare och konsumenter ges en nyanserad bild av kundrelationen.

    Båda dessa studier har utförts på uppdrag av Konsumentverket.

  • 17.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Non-work related activities at work - a theoretical framework2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Personal activities on company time to make everyday life work2012In: Segregationens seghet och dess föränderliga former: en vänbok till Lena Gonäs / [ed] Ann Bergman, Henrietta Huzell, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012, p. 127-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Personal business on company time2012In: 30th International Labour Process Conference, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Personal internet usage at work: A source of recovery2011In: Journal of workplace rights, ISSN 1938-4998, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 63-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite enormous productivity increases during recent decades, it has been claimed that workers’ engagement in non-work-related activities severely damages companies’ productivity development. Currently, personal Internet usage seems to be the most upsetting of these activities. There is a widespread notion among management-friendly researchers, employers, and the media that all non-work-related activities are deviant and should be defeated at all costs. This conceptual article gives an overview of the organisational behaviour literature dealing with non-work-related activities at work. The prohibitive approach is both inconsistent and in practice unenforceable. This is especially true since an increasing proportion of today’s private Internet usage at work is carried out by employees using their private smartphones, a fact that has not been considered in previous research. This article contrasts theories and ideas that private Internet usage at work is deviant with theoretical overviews arguing that non-work-related activities are an expression of normal action and behaviour, which can be explained with the help of both work-life balance theory and theories on resistance. An additional concept is recovery, which has not previously been used in the debate on Internet usage. Today’s workplaces are populated by engaged employees who work at a fast pace and need recovery, well-deserved micro-pauses, and breaks from demanding work. Furthermore, some Internet surfing is actually a consequence of organisations’ inability to come up with decent work tasks to fill the whole day. The aim of this article is to point out the recovery functions of personal Internet usage in today’s working life, primarily in terms of employees’ well-being and dignity. This article contributes to the debate by proposing eight situations in which the employee should be allowed to “cyberloaf” without being disciplined. The article also suggests empirical investigations that may be carried out with regard to the views and effects of personal Internet use at work in four different settings, that is, where employees’ private Internet usage is officially forbidden, seemingly forbidden, allowed, or encouraged.

  • 21.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Privata angelägenheter på jobbet2012In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 9-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsgivarna har alltid haft ett stort intresse av att anställda utför det arbete de har betalt för att göra. För närvarande kretsar debatten om anställdas engagemang i privata angelägenheter såsom internetanvändning. I artikeln granskas den existerande forskningens förklaringar samtidigt som vi efterlyser forskning som bättre beaktar de positiva effekterna av fenomenet. Det krävs systematiska studier av både upplevda och faktiska effekter för att nyansera den tidvis hätska debatten.

  • 22.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Service Work and Employee Experience of the Service Encounter2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the very nature of service work, a vast majority of research has focused on interpersonal aspects. There are mainly two perspectives; the first takes departure from the customers’ point of view and focus on customer satisfaction and business success.The second, rather critical, perspective highlights the employees’ experiences of the service interaction. Our purpose is to combine, summarize, and test – often the oreticaland sometimes normative – proposals and statements from both these perspectives.

    The empirical data is derived from (a) a questionnaire to a random sample of 2000 Swedish employees with daily customer/client contact in their work, and (b) in-depth interviews with 21 employees, working as shop assistants, receptionists, travel agents etc.

    The study covers areas such as routinization; superiority and subordination; customer identification; rapport; aesthetic labour; the use of humour, charm and flirt; and the dealing with troublesome or rude customers. Our research shows how service encounters are a source of well-being, satisfaction, and commercial success, as well as a source of control and stress. The employees have to suppress their own feelings; they lie to customers, and are often mistreated. As many as half of the employees state that they regularly have to deal with troublesome or rude customers. This situation is even worse for women.

  • 23.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    To manage work and life outside work: A typology of private activities on company time2012In: Makt, myter och motstridigheter. Utmaningar i dagens arbetsliv. Karlstads universitet, 11-13 juni, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Två uppsättningar regler: Chefers syn på egna och andras privata angelägenheter på arbetstid2015In: Tankar om arbete: 17 texter om arbete, arbetsliv och samhällsförändring / [ed] Ann Bergman, Gunnar Gillberg, Lars Ivarsson, Stockholm: Premiss förlag, 2015, p. 298-319Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    MacKenzie, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Management’s moral relativity regarding personal activities on company time2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When people are at work they are expected to work and not spend time on other things. But people do not engage exclusively in work; they also engage in a variety of non-work related activities, which Eddy et al. (2010) choose to term ‘personal activities on company time’ or PACT. What personal activities people engage in is determined by what they consider urgent in one way or another, and what is possible to do at the specific workplace (Ivarsson & Larsson, forthcoming). So far, most studies on this subject have focused on subordinated personnel (Lim 2002) but mid- and top-level managers also engage in PACT (Schou Andreassen et al. 2014; Ivarsson & Larsson 2015). However, management attitudes to PACT vary significantly between their own activities and the behaviour of their subordinates. Based on in-depth interviews with 20 high-level managers from different sectors and industries in Sweden, the paper explores the differences in attitude and presentation of PACT.

    We explore the incidence and rationale presented for respective actions of workers and managers,    which betrays an underlying moralising theme around work ethics that echoes back through the historic concerns of the Labour Process debate. Since the days of Taylor (1911), management have moralized about the personality and the attitude among workers – their inherited laziness and their never-ending tendency to ‘soldier’ – which has led to a perceived need to keep on monitoring and controlling employees by various means. Employees who, in one way or another, withholds working capacity – for example by engagement in some non-work related activity – are believed to cause financial loss for the organization (Self & Self 2014) and are also believed to influence overall work ethic in a negative way (Kamp & Brooks 1991).

     

    From the data, managers engage quite extensively in personal activities on official work time. Even though employees and managers may have similar reasons for engagement in personal activities, the managers believe that there is a big difference between the two.  The managers’ general perception is that work time should be devoted only to work. They do not approve when an employee engage in any other activity than work; to engage is PACT is presented as “stealing” time, and indicative of a flawed work ethic. Nevertheless, when managers themselves engage quite extensively in personal activities on official work time, this is presented as a benefit of an inherently good work ethic, or “borrowing” time based on a capacity for compensatory calculation. Even in cases where a narrow band of legitimate PACT activities for workers were tolerated, this compared to managements’ lack of need to justify their engagement in a near limitless range of non-work activities. There has been a lot of focus on blurring of work and non-work roles for managers and the need for boundary management (Rothbard et al, 2005). The managers in this study presented the inversion of this logic with the assumption of a lack of competing needs for non-managerial workers and any blurring of the boundary being regarded as “soldiering”.

  • 26.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Larsson, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Pettersson, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Konsumenters upplevelser av telekombranschen2011In: Fördjupad analys av marknaden för mobiltelefoni,bredband och sampaketerade telekomtjänster, Karlstad: Konsumentverket , 2011, , p. 62p. 159-221Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Larsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ivarsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Bergman, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Working Life Science.
    Interactive Bureaucracism: Service Encounters in the Retail Sector2010Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 27 of 27
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