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  • 1.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Beghello, L
    Magnetic printing for packaging industry: methods and feasibility2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Larsson, Per-Lennart
    Östlund, Sören
    Hallbäck, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Karathanasis, Michael
    On material characterization of paper coating materials by microindentation testing2005In: JCT: Journal of Coatings Technology, ISSN 0361-8773, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 463-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microindentation as a method for determining important material properties of paper coating materials is studied experimentally and numerically. The bulk of the investigation is concentrated upon the short-lived elastic part of a spherical indentation test, but determination of the failure stress of the coating is also discussed. The results indicate that microindentation can be a powerful tool for material characterization of these materials, but only if careful efforts are made to account for the influence from plasticity as well as from boundary effects

  • 3.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Larsson, PL
    KTH Stockholm.
    Östlund, S
    Experimental investigation of damage at folding of coated papers2002In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 34-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a better understanding of the folding properties of coated papers pertinent to the mechanical behaviour, a microscopic investigation was performed. The influence on the damage levels in the coating from such features as delamination, humidity and paper thickness have been studied

  • 4.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Larsson, PL
    Östlund, S
    Numerical investigation of folding of coated papers2005In: Composite StructuresArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Folding of coated paper is examined numerically using the finite element method. Particular emphasis is put on the behaviour of field variables relevant for cracking of the coating layers. In the numerical analysis, the basepaper is modelled as an anisotropic elasticplastic material (both elastic and plastic anisotropy is accounted for) while the constitutive behaviour of the coating layers are approximated by classical (Mises) elastoplasticity. The numerical results suggest, among other things, that particular forms of plastic anisotropy can substantially reduce the maximum strain levels in the coating. It is also shown that delamination buckling, in the present circumstances, will have a very small influence on the strain levels in the coating layer subjected to high tensile loading

  • 5.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Larsson, PL
    Östlund, S
    On dynamic effects at folding of coated papers2005In: Composite StructuresArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Larsson, PL
    KTH Stockholm.
    Östlund, S
    On the effect of high anisotropy at folding of coated papers2007In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 330-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A finite element procedure, developed in order to account for the effect of high anisotropy at folding of coated papers, is presented. The anisotropic behaviour (with very low stiffness in the thickness direction) is modelled using stiff structural elements (trusses and beams). The numerical results indicate that high elastic anisotropy leads to lower strain levels at folding than reported in previous analyses where this effect was not accounted for. High plastic anisotropy, on the other hand, will contradict this result

  • 7.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Larsson, PL
    Östlund, S
    Eklund, J
    Folding of printed papers: experiments and numerical analysis2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Folding of digital prints has been investigated experimentally in order to determine the influence from different features on the residual strength of the folded paper. In particular, the effect of toner-layer, paper-fibre orientation and pre-creasing is investigated and the experimental results are supplemented with numerical ones based on the finite element method. The results indicate that creasing, and to a less extend also fibre orientation, is the most important factor influencing the residual tensile strength after folding

  • 8.
    Barbier, Christophe
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Rättö, Peter
    Hornatowska, Joanna
    Coating models for an analysis of cracking behavior between folded paper and creased board2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creasing coated carton board or folding coated magazine paper, result in large strains in the surface layer of the paper product and might result in surface cracks, which decrease the quality of the products. A better understanding of the mechanical properties of coated layers increases the knowledge needed to reduce crack formation in coated fiberbased materials.The crack area on a coated board was measured after creasing and folding and the crack area on a coated copy paper was measured after folding. A clay pigment and a Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC) pigment were used. The binder was either an S/B latex or an S/B latex combined with starch.

  • 9.
    Boudreau, Jonna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Laboratory creping equipment2014In: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, ISSN 0169-4243, E-ISSN 1568-5616, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 561-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue production is largely dependent on the creping process as creping influences the paper properties and thus the quality of the end product and the runnability of the tissue machine. The process is very complex and includes numerous variables affecting the adhesion, and ultimately the creping of the tissue paper. To perform experiments on a full scale machine, or even a pilot machine, is very costly, therefore a laboratory scale creping device is demanded, able to replicate conditions encountered on a tissue machine. In this paper new laboratory testing equipment is developed, whereby the adhesion between paper and metal surfaces (when scraping off the paper with configurations similar to the industrial process) can be studied. A new method to adhere paper to metal, used in the new laboratory creping equipment, is also developed. To evaluate the equipment, different creping angles were tested. The scraping tests show a trend in decreasing creping force for an increasing creping angle.

  • 10.
    Boudreau, Jonna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Mossberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Experiments to Find On-line Measurements of the Structure of the Tissue Paper SurfaceArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of tissue paper has great influence on the quality of the resulting paper produced. One method of measuring the crepe wavelength on-line is sought in order to improve process control as well as to promote greater precision and uniform quality of the end product. In this study, a probe was used to read the surface of the paper whilst the paper travelled at a low speed. Light from a light emitting diode was emitted at a specific angle and collected at the corresponding reflecting angle, from the paper surface.

     

    Focusing the lenses at 45º angle produced results matching closest to the expected wavelength, and such measurements were made on a numerous commercial papers to validate the method. The collected signal contains a lot of information from the surface of the paper and from reflected signals inside the paper. The signal was processed using a mathematical approach to extract the most common wavelengths for each paper. The measured wavelength was found to closely match measurements made with commercial off-line equipment. This new method has a good initial potential to work on-line, however further investigation regarding the effects of high speeds upon the sampling still has to be carried out. 

  • 11.
    Hallbäck, Nils
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Korin, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    KTH.
    Finite Element Analysis of Hot Melt Adhesive Joints in Carton Board2014In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 701-712Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Korin, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Hallbäck, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Nygårds, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Solid Mechanics.
    Finite Element Analysis of Hot Melt Adhesive Joints in Carton BoardManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Kullander, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Evaluation of furnishes for tissue manufacturing; additivesArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additives are widely used in the tissue manufacturing process to facilitate the operation of the tissue machine and to improve tissue paper properties like wet strength, softness and water absorbency. Chemical retention and drainage programs are created to enhance the runnability of the tissue machine. A raise in dryness in the wet end of the tissue machine can lead to huge savings during the manufacturing process.

    In this work, the effect of 4 different additives on vacuum dewatering, wet pressing and paper properties was evaluated. Conditions representative for tissue machines regarding vacuum levels and dwell times were chosen. Paper properties relevant for tissue, like wet strength and absorption were measured on non-creped papers. Water retention and thermoporometry were used to determine the pore structure of the fibres.

    The solids content after vacuum dewatering and wet pressing is shown to be unaffected by addition of any of the four additives used in this study. The dryness after wet pressing is however increased by addition of a PAE-resin to the stock which probably is due to crosslinking in the fibre wall. Thermoporometry shows that the PAE-resin reduces the volume of both micro- and macropores which will leave less water deposited in the fibre wall. Tensile index is increased with the PAE-resin and further increased by addition of a flocculant and a micropolymer to the stock. Wet strength is increased while absorption capacity is decreased with the PAE-resin. No further effect on the two properties can be seen with additional chemicals in the furnish.

  • 14.
    Kullander, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Evaluation of furnishes for tissue manufacturing; suction box dewatering and paper testing2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water removal on a tissue machine becomes progressively more difficult and expensive in each successive zone. A good way to reduce cost can therefore be to improve the dewatering prior to evaporative drying. This can be done by selecting proper raw materials and optimizing the treatment of the fibres in the furnish.

    In this work, four pulps beaten to different levels were studied in vacuum dewatering trials. Mixing of the pulps, common in tissue manufacturing, was also performed. To simulate the suction boxes on a tissue machine, bench-scale laboratory equipment was used. Conditions typically used on a tissue machine regarding dwell times and vacuum levels were chosen. Paper properties relevant for tissue, like wet strength and absorption were measured on non-creped papers. To obtain information about the fibre properties, fibre characterization and microscope studies were also conducted.

    Vacuum dewatering in tissue manufacturing is shown to be affected by the choice of pulp which can be explained by structural differences in the networks caused by variations in fibre properties. Beating has a strong negative impact on the solids contents reached, which is believed to be an effect of both internal and external fibrillation. These results, together with additional data from mixing and paper testing, give a better understanding of how the furnish should be prepared to reduce energy use in the process and still fulfil consumer requirements on properties.

  • 15.
    Kullander, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Evaluation of furnishes for tissue manufacturing: wet pressing2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 947-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wet pressing is the last operation on the tissue machine in which water can be removed prior to the expensive evaporative drying of the web. An increase in dryness at this stage can lead to major savings during the manufacturing process. A higher solids content can be achieved by suitable selection of raw materials and by optimizing the treatment of the fibres in the furnish. In this work, wet pressing was evaluated with four pulps beaten to different levels in a PFI mill. Wet pressing was done in a dynamic press simulator and conditions representative of tissue machines with regard to nip pressures and dwell times were chosen. Water retention and thermoporometry were used to determine the pore structure of the fibres. Thickness measurements were made to determine the permanent deformation of the sheets after the pressure pulse.

    Wet pressing in tissue manufacturing is shown to be affected by the choice of pulp, which can be explained by differences in pore structure of the fibres and consequently differences in ability to retain water. More water available before pressing leads to more water that can be removed. Beating has a negative impact on the solids contents reached after pressing, which is believed to be an effect of both internal and external fibrillation. These effects of beating seem mainly to affect the dryness after vacuum dewatering, which is also reflected after pressing. Beating delaminates macropores in the fibre wall but has a minor effect on micropores. Both water between the fibres and water in macropores are removed during pressing. These results give knowledge of how the furnish should be prepared in order to reduce energy consumption in the process.

  • 16. Lindskog, P
    et al.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Jelagin, D
    Larsson, P.L.
    Optimization as a tool for characterization of advanced constitutive models describing powder compaction2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability of optimization procedures used in combination with advanced constitutive models, describing dry pressing powder compaction, is investigated by aid of standard finite ele- ment and optimization commercial packages. It is found that, at fairly general conditions, this can be expected to be a very advantageous approach at material characterization

  • 17. Rättö, P.
    et al.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Rigdahl, M.
    An investigation of the friction properties of coated paper2000In: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research JournalArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Rättö, Peter
    et al.
    Hornatowska, Joanna
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Influence of the distribution of the shape and size distribution of pigment particles on cracking in coating layers during creasing2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 714-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crack area on a coated board was measured after creasing and folding and the crack area on a coated copy paper was measured after folding. A clay pigment and two Ground Calcium Carbonate (GCC) pigments were used. The GCC pigments differed in their particle size distribution. The binder was either an S/B latex or an S/B latex combined with starch. The type of pigment seemed to have the greatest influence on the crack area in creased and folded board. Clay showed a larger crack area than the GCC with a broad particle size distribution. The GCC with a narrow particle size distribution showed a considerably larger crack area than both the clay pigment and the GCC with a broad particle size distribution. The coatings containing starch generally showed a larger crack area than the coatings that only contained the S/B latex. After the folding of the copy paper, the crack area showed a slightly different pattern. Here, it seemed that the binder was of greater importance than the type of pigment, with the coatings containing only latex showing a considerably lower crack area than the coatings containing starch. The coatings that were based on the clay pigment showed similar values as the coatings based on the GCC pigment with the broad particle size distribution. The coatings based on the GCC with the narrow particle size distribution showed displayed considerably higher crack areas than the coatings based on the other two pigments. The cracking tendency of the coatings, based on the GCC with the narrow particle size distributions was probably due to a greater demand for latex, i.e. smaller particles in the GCC with broad particle size distribution would probably fill in the voids and the GCC with the broad particle size distribution will therefore demand less binder. It was further suggested that the different loadings on the coating layer during the creasing and folding of the board, compared to the folding of copy paper, explain the different results obtained with the two base-substrates. 

  • 19.
    Sjöstrand, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Barbier, Christophe
    R&D Gruvön, BillerudKorsnäs AB.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Influence on sheet dewatering by structural differences in forming fabrics2016In: Paper Conference and Trade Show (PaperCon 2016); Vol. 2: Proceedings of a meeting held 15-18 May 2016, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA., Peachtree Corners, Georgia: TAPPI Press, 2016, p. 767-776Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forming fabrics for paper manufacturing are designed with great care to enhance both process and products and are accountable for a lot of the performance of paper machines in the forming section, both with regards to energy and quality aspects. Different approaches to the design of the weave pattern and the choice of yarn materials and diameters have given the market different fabric structures. Fabric parameters that have been shown to cause differences in dewatering are caliper, void volume and permeability. To understand how the structure of the forming fabrics affects sheet dewatering selected fabrics have been tested experimentally, with dewatering equipment that simulates vacuum dewatering.

    Dryness of the paper sheet was determined after dewatering and the air volume sucked through sheet and fabric was calculated. The fabrics that were chosen had similar values for all the known parameters previously shown to affect dewatering but had different structures that are defined by the open area (%) in the paper side and the wear side. Tests were performed with three fabric structures and 80 g/m2 softwood sheets. The sheets were made of both unbeaten and highly beaten pulp, and two vacuum levels were used during trials.

    The results show that the fabric structure influences the sheet dewatering rate even if the caliper, void volume and permeability are the same. The air volume sucked through the structure of sheet and wire during the dewatering increased linearly with dwell time indicating that a constant air volume was reached. No significant differences were observed between the different fabrics in terms of the air volume at steady state. The conclusions are that the structure of forming fabrics affects the dewatering rate at certain conditions even with constant air volume and outgoing dryness. This is believed to be connected to (i) the fibers’ penetration of the fabric’s surface during the dewatering process or to (ii) the different resistances to in-plane and thickness- direction flow of the fabrics or to a combination of (i) and (ii). Studies of surface topography are used to explain the phenomenon and numerical simulations will be made in a later study to further evaluate this. 

  • 20.
    Sjöstrand, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Rewetting after high vacuum suction boxes in a pilot paper machine2015In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 667-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased energy efficiency is a major concern for all companies today. Not only does the cost efficiency follow energy efficiency but also environmental and sustainability aspects motivate more energy efficient production lines. A study has been made on a pilot paper machine with the purpose to show the magnitude and time of rewetting after high vacuum suction box dewatering. The grammages used in this study were 20 and 100 g/m2 to cover both tissue and printing paper grades. Machine speed was varied from 400 to 1600 m/min and the maximum pressure drop in the suction box was 32 kPa. The pulp used was unbeaten, chemical, fully bleached softwood from Sweden. Rewetting is observed when the dewatering in the suction box is sufficiently high. No rewetting takes place when the dewatering in the suction box is limited due to insufficient pressure drop and dwell time. The time for the rewetting is in the range of 10-50 ms and in this study the maximum rewetting observed is 180 g/m2, or 6.1% decrease in dryness. The mechanisms behind the phenomenon are believed to be capillary forces caused by sufficiently low sheet moisture and expansion of the network. This study shows that rewetting is so fast that it would be difficult to prevent it without changing major machine parameters.

  • 21.
    Sjöstrand, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Barbier, Christophe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Modeling of forming fabric structure influence on vacuum box dewatering2017In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, no 8, p. 477-Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 21 of 21
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