Endre søk
Begrens søket
1 - 41 of 41
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Almered Olsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet, Trondheim, Norge.
    Bladh, GabrielKarlstads universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.Månsson, BengtKarlstads universitet, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, fysik och matematik.Nyberg, LarsKarlstads universitet, Institutionen för natur och miljö.
    Inte bara träd: hållbart mångbruk av skogslandskapet2004Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skogslandskapen - hur skall vi värdera dem? Ska de betraktas som rekreationsområden och kulturlandskap eller som arena för konflikter och dragkamp om olika resurser? Är skogsregionerna närande eller tärande? Vilka viktiga samband finns mellan skandinaviska och tropiska landskap?Detta är några av de teman som behandlas i denna spänannde bok om de många dimensionerna och resurserna som ryms i skogslandskapen. Boken ger nya och stimulerande aspekter på framtidsmöjligheterna för en hållbar utveckling för boreala skogslandskap. Den tar också upp det nödvändiga mångbruket av skogens resurser liksom den förändrade synen på människans roll i skogen. Och inte minst behandlas den ekologiska paradoxen att störningar behövs för att bevara skogens ekologiska mångfald.Boken är författad av samhällsvetare, miljöteknologer och ekologer inom den tvärvetenskapliga forskargruppen MiljöFocus vid Karlstads universitet.

  • 2. Eriksson, Karl-Erik
    et al.
    Lindgren, Kristian
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Structure, Context, Complexity, Organization: Physical Aspects of Information and Value1987Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our universe, as a closed system, obeys the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., its entropy, its disorder, increases. Still, in the midst of this we are wit- nessing an opposite process, in which order is emerging. The picture we have is that the universe has evolved from a totally unstructured state of matter and radiation to a highly structured state. On the surface of our Earth, some of this structure takes highly sophisticated forms in living organisms and their complex interaction and in the social as well as material organization of human societies. What makes all this possible, thermodynamically, is, of course, the fact that over the universe as a whole the entropy increase is large enough to compensate for local creation of order. The aim of this book is to sketch a perspective and to present a set of concepts, which can be useful in order to describe and understand processes in which structure emerges. The word describe gives a hint that information is an important concept. Information is a general concept, which can be applied not only to the description of a system but also to the described system as well. We shall use the concept as it was introduced by Shannon in information theory. Then one may ask for the origin of structure (measured in terms of information) in the universe; one may ask how it is being transformed and how creative and destructive processesstructure formation and entropy productionare related to each other. Many ideas and concepts have been developed which make information a very flexible and versatile theoretical tool. In this book we deal with concepts and methods belonging to the lower levels in a hierarchy of information theory concepts. These concepts take into account some necessary aspects of life, including human life, but they are far from sufficient to capture the full concept of life. The ideas used in this book have been collected from many fields, but we have no ambition to review the fields from where we have picked our material, and our collection of references is not systematic. We have mixed old material with new material, elementary discussions with more advanced, in order to make the book as a whole more self-contained. Since the book has not been written for a well-defined category of readers, we hope that in this way it will be more useful. Our aim has been to sketch a perspective on the great process of structure formation going on all the time around us, and to convey some of the most basic theoretical ideas which are useful for work in this perspective.

  • 3. Eriksson, K.-E.
    et al.
    Islam, S.
    Karlsson, S.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Optimal Development of an Economy with a Bounded Inflow of one Essential Resource Input1984Inngår i: Resources and Energy, 6, 235-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4. Eriksson, K.-E.
    et al.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Exergi (Exergy)1991Inngår i: Nationalencyklopedien, Vol. 6,Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5. Eriksson, K.-E.
    et al.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Termodynamik1992Inngår i: Miljö från A till Ö, Höganäs: Bra Böckers Förlag , 1992Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Granström, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Thermic degradation of hardwood during drying as a function of processing parameters2008Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Granström, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Volatile organic compounds emitted from hardwood drying as a function of processing parameters2008Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1735-1472, E-ISSN 1735-2630, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 141-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the drying of wood, volatile organic compounds are emitted. These emissions contribute, in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight, to the formation of ground level ozone and other harmful photo-oxidants. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from the drying of birch sawdust in a spouted bed were analyzed with a flame ionization detector by flame ionization detector and with a gas chromatograph-mass pectrometer GC MS. A D-optimal model of the volatile organic compounds emissions showed that the emissions increased exponentially with decreasing sawdust moisture content and that the final sawdust moisture content was influencinge emissions about twice as much as the inlet drying medium temperature and the month of logging. At inlet temperatures of 140-170 °C, the emissions increased steeply when the moisture content of the sawdust reached 10 %, whereas an inlet temperature of 200 °C caused a surge of thermal degradation products at 15 % moisture content. The results of this study should help to reduce the emissions of volatile hydrocarbons during the drying of hardwood sawdust and wood chips

  • 8. Hameroff, S.R.
    et al.
    Rasmussen, S.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Molecular Automata in Microtubules: Basic Computational Logic of the Living State?1988Inngår i: C. Langton (ed.), Artificial Life, sid. 521-553, Addison-Wesley , 1988Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9. Horsch, Helga
    et al.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Konzept der ökologisch-ökonomische Bewertung von erneuerbaren Ressourcen ' dargestellt am Beispiel des Grundwasserschutzes im Torgauer Raum1998Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10. Kåberger, Tomas
    et al.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Entropy and economic processes ' physics perspectives2001Inngår i: Ecological Economics, Vol 36, sid 165-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a contribution to the discussion on the relation between thermodynamics and economic theory. With respect to thermodynamic constraints on the economy, there are two diametrically opposite positions in this discussion. One claims that the constraints are insignificant (of no immediate practical importance for modelling) and in the intermediate run, do not limit economic activity and, therefore, need not be incorporated in the economic theory. The other holds that thermodynamics tells us that there are practical limits to materials recycling, which already puts bounds on the economy and, therefore, must be included in the economic models. Using the

    thermodynamic concept of entropy, we show here that there are fundamental problems with both positions. Even in the long run, entropy production associated with material dissipation need not be a limiting factor for economic development. Abundant energy resources from solar radiation may be used to recover dissipated elements. With simple, quantitative analysis we show that the rate of entropy production caused by human economic activities is very small compared to the continuous natural entropy production in the atmosphere and on the Earths surface. Further, the societal entropy production is well within the range of natural variation. It is possible to replace part of the natural entropy production with societal entropy production by making use of solar energy. Society consumes resources otherwise available for coming generations. However, future generations need not have less resources available to them than the present generation. Human industrial activities could be transformed into a sustainable system where the more abundant elements are industrially used and recycled, using solar energy as the driving resource. An economic theory, fit to guide industrial society in that development, must not disregard thermodynamics

    nor must it overstate the consequences of the laws of thermodynamics

  • 11. Lindgren, K.
    et al.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Entropy Production in a Chaotic Chemical System1986Inngår i: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 41a, 1111-1118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The average rate of entropy production in a homogeneous chemical system is investigated in oscillating periodic and chaotic modes as well as in coexisting stationary states. The simulations are based on an abstract model of a chemical reaction system with three freely varying concentrations. Five concentrations are assumed to be kept constant by suitable flows across the boundary. A fixed concentration is used as a control parameter. Second order mass action kinetics with reverse reaction is used. An unexpected result is that periodic modes in some windows in the chaotic interval have higher average rate of entropy production than the surrounding chaotic modes. A chaotic mode coexists with a stable stationary state with smaller entropy production. A unique (unstable) stationary state produces more entropy than the corresponding oscillating mode

  • 12.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    A review of Industrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development1996Inngår i: Ecological Economics, 17Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, fysik och matematik.
    Att nyttja det skogen ger2004Inngår i: Inte bara träd: hållbart mångbruk av skogslandskapet / [ed] Gunilla Almered Olsson, Gabriel Bladh, Bengt Månsson & Lars Nyberg, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2004, s. 113-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Energy Efficiency and Environmental Loads of Drying Systems2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the key issues in the area of combined environmental and energy optimization of integrated industrial process systems are discussed, with emphasis on systems that include drying processes. This involves minimization of both energy resource losses and harmful emissions. The risks for environmental sub-optimization in wood drying systems are analyzed on the basis of concrete examples from wood fuel pellet production systems. In particular, the role of terpene emissions is discussed. Important concepts for energy efficiency optimization are discussed. In particular, fundamental problems hindering the use of the exergy concept for systems integration and optimization are described and the possibilities for resolving them are analyzed. The well-known reference state problem is shown to be part of a larger, more intractable problem. In this context, the roles of thermodynamic non-equilibrium and rate constraints are elaborated. It is argued that in order to reach broad applicability of the exergy concept it is necessary to develop a modified concept, which takes into account not only the usual constraints emanating from the three laws of thermodynamics but also other physical as well as technical constraints

  • 15.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Entropy Production in Oscillating Chemical Systems1985Inngår i: Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 40a, 877-885Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The entropy production in oscillating homogeneous chemical systems is investigated by analyzing the difference between the average entropy production rate in a stable periodic oscillatory mode and in the corresponding unstable stationary state. A general analytical expression for this difference in the neighborhood of a Hopf bifurcation is derived. The entropy production in two typical models of chemical systems with unstable stationary states and stable periodic oscillations is investigated, using fixed concentrations as conrol parameters. The models exemplify both positive and negative entropy production rate differences. One of the investigated models has four free concentrations, the other three. The rate expressions are given by second order mass action kinetics with reverese reactions taken into account. The flows of reactants and products are controlled so that only the free concentrations vary, and the entropy of mixing associated with these flows is discussed

  • 16.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Fundamental Problems with Energy Theories of Value1992Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Jorden1992Inngår i: Miljö från A till Ö, Höganäs: Bra Böckers Förlag , 1992Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Jordens Resurser1992Inngår i: Miljö från A till Ö, Höganäs: Bra Böckers Förlag , 1992Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Miljö för bärkraftighet- perspektiv på naturresurser, deras begränsningar och deras roll i samhället1993Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Människans belastning av den tidigare till synes oändligt generösa naturen har blivit för stor. Dagens industriella samhällen är inte långsiktigt förenliga med sin naturresursbas. Nuvarande naturresursanvändning kan inte fortgå ens tills dagens spädbarn uppnår pensionsålder. Därför måste mänskligheten slå in på en väg som leder till bärkraftighet (sustainability). Detta innebär att de långsiktiga relationerna mellan natur och samhälle inte störs och att livsbetingelserna på jorden inte allvarligt förstörs eller rubbas. Samhället måste utvecklas inom de ramar som naturen ger.



    Bärkraftighetsidéerna utgör ett genomgående tema i boken. Tyngdpunkten ligger vid det bärkraftiga samhällets naturresursbas. Ett centralt mål är att presentera viktiga delar av den existerande kunskapen om de naturgivna begränsningarna och möjligheterna och hur man kan hantera olika slag av resurs- och miljöproblematik.



    Sverige och svenska förhållanden betonas med en tidshorisont mellan femtio och hundra år in i framtiden.



    Miljö för bärkraftighet är avsedd att vara lärobok vid universitet och tekniska högkolor men kan läsas av alla som har intresse av att vi får ett miljömässigt fungerande samhälle.

  • 20.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Moves on the Path Towards Sustainable Urban Mobility1997Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to present some ideas on how a sustainable urban transportation system might be realised, aiming at a realisation without major loss of transportation capacity and personal mobility in comparison with the present car-based system. Along the road, it also looks at what characterises such a system.

    In a sustainability perspective, it is not enough to consider only the tech-nical and physical aspects of a transportation systemsustainability has also social, economic, etc. dimensions. Thus, the paper compares the performance of different transportation systems in terms of some of the economic and social aspects. Here, a key point is that comparisons between different urban transport system must differentiate between different social groups. For example, the group of car users will have some particular disadvantages when they have to switch to another mode of transport for part of their mobility. Other groups may achieve large improvements in their personal mobility.

    The presentation pays particular attention to the use of a personal rapid transit system. The key features and technical characteristics of such a system will be presented. An outline is given of an implementation study being performed for the city of Leipzig, Germany, as a back-casting scenario futures study.

    Sustainability is closely associated with the issues of efficiency and sufficiency of natural resource use. Some essential aspects of this use can be described in terms of energy and material use. Therefore, some results of comparative studies of the energy and material balances of different urban transit systems are presented. These studies show that a personal rapid transit system can perform very well in this respect and thus is a strong alternative for sustainable cities.

  • 21.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Multidisciplinary Modelling in Environmental Science'Concepts & Examples1995Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Naturwissenschaftliche Perspektiven der Ressourcennutzung1995Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Optimal Development with Flow-Based Production1986Inngår i: Resources and Energy, 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Recycling of matter: A response1994Inngår i: Ecological Economics 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Some Lacunae in Thermodynamics1995Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 26.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Stakeholder Approaches to Intertemporal Valuation1999Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Statistical Mechanics of Solar Energy Conversion1999Inngår i: S. Sieniutycz and A. De Vos (eds): Thermodynamics of Energy Conversion and Transport, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 1999Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter deals with the general class of processes in which solar energy is absorbed and in which the absorbed energy is converted in multistage processes until it eventually is in a storable form. Several such processes are discussed, as well as the difficulties of modelling the processes in the framework of statistical mechanics. The description pays special attention to loss mechanisms, including the temporal aspects. Possibilities and limits for optimisation, arising both from absolute limits and from irreducible losses, are also discussed.

    Furthermore, the connection between statistical mechanics and information theory is analysed in the context of solar energy conversion. In this context, the usefulness of the exergy concept as an efficiency measure in the analysis of solar energy conversion processes is discussed. The results for the exergy of general incoherent photon exergy as well as for a more general kind of radiation field are reviewed.

    The conversion of black-body radiation, in the form of free photons within a certain volume, is used as a benchmark case. Several problems with this widely used model are described.

    It is clear that the actual achievable exergetic efficiency is in some cases considerably less than for the ideal benchmark case and also that the difference is not quantifiable with the existing models

  • 28.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Teaching Basic Thermodynamics for Energy Efficiency: A Digest of the Theoretical Basis of the Exergy Concept1993Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exergy is a general measure of the maximal work yield of a system, applicable to general processes involving interactions, either internally or with other systems, as well as constraints. Exergy is a key thermodynamical concept in many methods for the improvement of energy efficiency in technical as well as societal systems; it is, e.g., the basis for the idea of second law efficiency. It therefore plays a significant rôle in the transformation to the energy efficient society based on renewable energy sources. Although exergy is a fundamental quantity in the theory of conversions of matter and energy, it is often inadequately treated in thermodynamics text-books. This paper describes some of those key features of exergy as a thermodynamic concept that are rarely included in courses on thermodynamics, with examples of derivations of exergy formulas in general as well as in some special cases. It also describes the rôle of exergy in a physical world view, in particular the origin of exergy.

    Many thermodynamic processes in nature involve not only simple conversion of energy and materials but also formation or breakdown of structure. Some kinds of structure formation or breakdown can be conveniently described in information theory terms. Information theory, dealing with information as a quantitative concept, was from the beginning close to physical theory, with entropy as a common concept. Information theory is closely tied to statistical mechanics, the microscopic theory of thermodynamics. To elucidate and demarcate the general scope of the exergy concept, I describe how the essentially physical quantities work and exergy can be tied to information-theoretical quantities.

  • 29.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Thermodynamics and Economics1990Inngår i: S. Sieniutycz & P.Salamon, eds., Finite-Time Thermodynamics and Thermoeconomics, Advances in Thermodynamics volume 4, Bristol: Taylor & Francis , 1990Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Towards a Theoretical Basis for Applied Ecological Economics1994Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the planning/public policy instruments sustainability indicators, standards and criteria, which aim at evaluating whether, in which sense and to what extent the evolution of societal and natural systems leads towards sustainability.

    Traditionally, environmental quality indicators are conceived as numerical values of the state or the development of specific biotic or abiotic levels or flows, often expressed in biological, physical or chemical terms. The ecological bioindicators represent a well-known example. However, environmental quality can also be viewed in a perspective encompassing social science aspects as well as the natural science ones. This has led to the idea of sustainability criteria, which are concepts embracing social and natural aspects of sustainability.

    The basic idea of sustainability criteria is to make the implicit assumptions underlying indicators and standards explicit and thereby amenable to scientific analysis. They should be used in combination with indicators and standards. The formulation of the criteria directs the choice and definition of the indicators. The criteria have to be based on scarcity concepts and associated natural limits to sustainable development. The properties and implications of some such limits are discussed.

    The paper embraces both the theoretical basis and opportunities and obstacles for the application of sustainability criteria

  • 31.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Unresolved issues for the use of an energy numeraire in LCA2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The methodological framework of LCA has a number of well-known problems and limitations. This has generated a lot of scientific efforts to eliminate or alleviate these. This paper can be seen as one contribution to these efforts, with a particular focus on energy issues in LCA. It has been concluded that a future comprehensive methodological framework for LCA must include a number of principles for comparison and aggregation of different energy forms or of their environmental impacts. In economics, the central concept of value is encapsulated in the term numeraire. This signifies the function of money as a common, universal currency, a measure of value or a unit of account. A numeraire can be used both for comparison and aggregation. A basic requisite for a numeraire is generality. It is here discussed whether it is possible to define an energy numeraire for use in LCA methods, in particular when the LCA is to be used for specific kinds of optimisation. I conclude that the exergy concept needs quite a lot of further theoretical development before it can be included in LCA methodology. Attempts to do so at the present stage would be premature and lead to disappointment and confusion

  • 32.
    Månsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Andresen, B.
    The Optimal Temperature Profile for an Ammonia Reactor1986Inngår i: I&EC Process Design and Development 24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Månsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Grossmann, W.-D.
    Beyond Sustainability Indicators1994Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally recognized that the operationalization of sustainability is still very much in its infancy; the strategies to be employed need much further development. There is now a major effort to develop instruments for environmental policies that lead towards the goal of a sustainable society. As a result, there exists a tool kit that contains a fair number of at least somewhat useful devices. Within this tool kit, this paper looks at the planning/public policy tools indicators, standards and strategic criteria; these are being developed to be used to evaluate whether, in which sense and to what extent particular societal developments lead towards that goal.

    These tools should be seen in relation to one of the critical issues of sustainability policy, the development of monitoring systems that reflect environmental resources (Unemo 1992). In several cases, they are devised as an attempt to solve problems that the conventional framework of environmental economics cannot give a satisfactory treatment.

    Apart from a brief presentation of these tools, the paper also contains a discussion on the application of sustainability criteria. The main emphasis is on the different rôles of indicators and criteria, arising from the inherent limitations of environmental and other indicators.

  • 34.
    Månsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Lindgren, K.
    Thermodynamics, Information and Structure1990Inngår i: S. Sieniutycz & P. Salamon, eds., Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics and Extremum Principles, Advances in Thermodynamics volume 3, Bristol: Taylor & Francis , 1990Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Månsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    McGlade, J.M.
    Ecology, Thermodynamics and H.T. Odum's Conjectures1993Inngår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 93, nr 4, s. 582-596Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The central rôle of energy in all life processes has led to the development of numerous hypotheses, conjectures and theories on the relationships between thermodynamics and ecological processes. In this paper we examine the theoretical and empirical support for these developments, and in particular for the widely published set of thermodynamic conjectures developed by H.T. Odum, in which the maximum power principle is put forward as a generic feature of evolution in ecosystems. Although widely used, we argue that many of the ecological studies that have adopted the ideas encapsulated in Odums work, have done so without being aware of some of the fundamental problems underlying this approach. We discuss alternative ways in which a general available-work concept could be constructed for use as a numeraire in an energy-centered ecological theory or paradigm. In so doing, we examine what is meant by material accessibility and energy stocks and flows with respect to traditional food web and food chain theories, and relate these to results from the evolutionary dynamics of ecosystems. We conclude that the various forms and uses of energy bound up in essential ecosystem processes present a formidable obstacle to obtaining an operational definition of a general, aggregated available-work concept, a prerequisite for the systems approach of Odum and others. We also show that the prototypical derivations of the maximum power principle, and its interpretation, are contradicted on many scales both by empirical data and models, thereby invalidating the maximum power principle as a general principle of ecological evolution. The conclusions point to the fundamental problem of trying to describe ecosystems in a framework which has a one-dimensional currency.

  • 36.
    Månsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Rehnström, Carina
    Classification of energy-related problems for LCA methodologya case study based approach2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current LCA literature, energy issues are very cursorily treated, if at all. Papers in the area tend to be restricted in scope to specific product categories or specific industries and do not primarily aim at formulating a theoretical foundation for energy in LCA methodology. This paper can be regarded as a contribution to the development of such a foundation. We show how the energy-related problems can be classified into twelve types. Some of these are well-known and adequate solutions exist, some needs further work. Note that we do not claim that it is always necessary to include an energy perspective in LCA, but we do claim that there are certain kinds of contexts or circumstances that make it essential. For the latter cases, a well-defined and scientifically well-founded methodology should be developed. We show here that such a development has to overcome a number of difficult obstacles.

    In LCA methods, energy has hitherto been treated so that i) some kinds of energy-related environmental effects have been left out of the analysis; ii) the LCA indices give the wrong signals with regard to energy savings or efficiency improvement potentials. Obviously, the problems caused by such procedures are most severe for energy-intensive industries and in particular for the energy sector.

    We discuss two major kinds of dangers with not using a theoretically well-founded energy concept and methodology in an LCA. First, an element of arbitrariness is introduced, so that, e.g., the final value of an LCA index may be manipulated. Second, and for process and product development more severe, the LCA can lead to sub-optimal changes in the products and production processes

  • 37. Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Almered Olsson, Gunilla
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Bladh, Gabriel
    Skogslandskap för hållbar utveckling2004Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38. R. Drepper, Friedhelm
    et al.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Intertemporal Valuation in an Unpredictable Environment1993Inngår i: Ecological Economics, Vol. 7, No 1, sid 43-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The inherent unpredictability of ecological systems is a vital feature for the development of theories at the interface between economics and ecology. Such unpredictability is caused by instabilities which are intrinsic parts of ecosystem function, succession and evolution. The complexity of the ecological dynamics undermines the simple probabilistic treatment of the uncertainty based on the equilibrium paradigm, common in traditional environmental economics. We investigate an important alternative, by representing the dynamics of the biogeophysical system as an infinite sequence of instabilities. This leads to a stochastic process exhibiting an exponentially growing variance.

    Our analysis is carried out in a macroeconomic setting in a situation where the value system, here formalized in terms of risk-averse social welfare functions, contains at least two distinct aspects: consumption rate and the state of the environment. The central variables for intertemporal valuation, i.e., the time-dependent expected values of the two welfare function components, are calculated using the probability distribution describing the environmental dynamics.

    One result is that if the unpredictability of the environmental dynamics is taken into account, then the social discount rate for environmental existence values may well be negative.

  • 39. Rehnström, Carina
    et al.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Energy Spells Trouble for Life Cycle Assessment2004Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For most products and production processes, several quite different forms of energy are involved in different stages in the life cycle. In a recently performed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) case study, twelve types of energy-related problems for LCA methodology were encountered. We discuss possibilities for resolving these problems and some of the fundamental thermodynamic roots of some of the problems. In this, we also analyse the limitations for the use of the exergy concept in LCA. We also discuss some of the principal difficulties associated with different forms of energy when making use of the results of an LCI or an LCIA in a process development project. We conclude that a large methodology development effort is necessary and that it needs a scientific basis embracing both LCA theory and thermodynamics

  • 40.
    Rehnström, Carina
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, fysik och matematik.
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, fysik och matematik.
    Energy Spells Trouble for Life Cycle Assessment2004Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41. Ring, Irene
    et al.
    Klauer, Bernd
    Wätzold, Frank
    Månsson, Bengt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Regional Sustainability: Applied Ecological Economics Bridging the Gap Between Natural and Social Sciences1999Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents interdisciplinary approaches towards achieving regional sustainability. The relevance of interdisciplinary research and its consequences for economic research into the environment are elaborated, and new approaches are developed to integrate knowledge from ecological and social sciences into economic research. Regional sustainability includes the development of theoretical concepts as well as applied regional case studies relating to nature conservation and agricultural policies, coastal management and air pollution problems. Centered around the themes of decision-making processes, modelling as support for policy analysis and the evaluation of policies, it successfully addresses problems facing researchers and policy-makers in the context of regional sustainable development. The book pays special attention to human behaviour and stakeholders in decision-making processes, and contributes to the transition from ecological economics to socio-ecological economics

1 - 41 of 41
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf