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  • 1. Almgren, M
    et al.
    Alsins, J
    Mukhtar, E
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Diffusion-Controlled Fluorescence Quenching in Micelles1989In: Reactions in Compartmentalized Liquids; Knoche W and Shomacker R (eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg (1989), 61-68, 1989Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2. Almgren, M.
    et al.
    Alsins, J.
    Mukhtar, E.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fluorescence Quenching Dynamics in Rodlike Micelles1988In: J. Phys. Chem., 1988, 92, 4479-4483Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Almgren, M.
    et al.
    Alsins, J.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fluorescence Decay Studies of Structures and Dynamics in Ionic Micellar Solutions1988In: Ordering and Organization in Ionic Solutions, World Scientific Publishing Co Ltd, Singapore, 1988, 225-232, 1988Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4. Almgren, M
    et al.
    Alsins, J
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Mukhtar, E
    The micellar sphere-to-rod transition in CTAC-NaClO3. A fluorescence quenching study1988In: Progr. Colloid Polym. Sci., 1988, 76, 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Almgren, M.
    et al.
    Hansson, P.
    Mukhtar, E.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Aggregation of Alkyltrimethylammonium Surfactants in Aqueous Poly(styrenesulfonate) Solutions1992In: Langmuir, 1992, 8, 2405-2412Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Almgren, M.
    et al.
    Löfroth, J-E
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fluorescence Decay Kinetics in Monodisperse Confinements with Exchange of Probes and Quenchers1986In: J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90, 4431-4437Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Almgren, M.
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Lindblad, C.
    Li, P.
    Stilbs, P.
    Bahadur, P.
    Aggregation of Poly(ethyelene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Copolymers in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate in Aqueous Solution1991In: J. Phys. Chem., 1991, 95, 5677-5684Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Almgren, M
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Swarup, S
    Löfroth, J-E
    Structure and Transport in the Microemulsion Phase of the System Triton X-100-Toluene-Water1986In: Langmuir, 1986, 2, 432-438Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Rysz, Jakub
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Characterisation of vertical phase separation in polymer: fullerene blend films for photovoltaics by dSIMS and NEXAFS2011In: E-MRS 2011 Spring Meeting: Bilateral Energy Conference, Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons, 2011, p. 62-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphological control and characterization of blend films is key in the development of viable polymer solar cells. Spontaneous formation of vertical compositional gradients during solution processing has been shown for polyfluorene:PCBM blends and rationalized with thermodynamic and kinetic models of nucleation and spinodal decomposition.[1, 2] The extent of vertical stratification is affected by polymer side-chain modification aimed at controlling polymer:fullerene miscibility.[3] Here we present high-resolution film morphology results for several polymer:fullerene systems as obtained from near-edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) in partial and in total electron yield modes. Blend films were found to be polymer- enriched at the surface. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (dSIMS) and NEXAFS give compositional information at different depths, resulting in a more complete picture of the film morphology.

     

  • 10.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Rysz, Jakub
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Polymer solar cells: Visualizing vertical phase separation in solution-processed films of polymer fullerene blends2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium Technologies for Polymer Electronics - TPE 12 / [ed] Hans-Klaus Roth, Klaus Heinemann, Ilmenau, Germany: Universitätsverlag Ilmenau , 2012, p. 125-128Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hörmann, Ulrich
    Institute of Physics, Augsburg University.
    Opitz, Andreas
    Institute of Physics, Augsburg University.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Surface Organization in Thin-Films of Conjugated Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Molecular orientation and composition at the surface of APFO3:PCBM blend films2012In: Hybrid and Organics Photovoltaics Conference: Uppsala, Sweden, 2012 / [ed] Anders Hagfeldt, SEFIN, Castelló (Spain), 2012, p. 278-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Lindgren, Lars
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rysz, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Tuning the Vertical Phase Separation in Polyfluorene:Fullerene Blend Films by Polymer Functionalization2011In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 2295-2302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving control over the nanomorphology of blend films of the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM, with light-absorbing conjugated polymers is an important challenge in the development of efficient solution-processed photovoltaics. Here, three new polyfluorene copolymers are presented, tailored for enhanced miscibility with the fullerene through the introduction of polymer segments with modified side chains, which enhance the polymer’s polar character. The composition of the spincoated polymer:PCBM films is analyzed with dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (dSIMS). The dSIMS depth profiles demonstrate compositional variations perpendicular to the surface plane, as a result of vertical phase separation, directed by the substrate. These variations propagate to a higher degree through the film for the polymers with a larger fraction of modified side chains. The surface composition of the films is studied by Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). Quantitative analysis of the NEXAFS spectra through a linear combination fit with the spectra of the pure components yields the surface composition. The resulting blend ratios reveal polymer-enrichment of the film surface for all three blends, which also becomes stronger as the polar character of the polymer increases. Comparison of the NEXAFS spectra collected with two different sampling depths shows that the vertical composition gradient builds up already in the first nanometers underneath the surface of the films. The results obtained with this new series of polymers shed light on the onset of formation of lamellar structures in thin polymer:PCBM films prepared from highly volatile solvents

  • 14.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Lindgren, Lars
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Hörmann, Ulrich
    Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg.
    Brütting, Wolfgang
    Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Opitz, Andreas
    Institute of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Polyfluorene copolymers with functionalized side chains: Opto-electronic properties and solar cell performance2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Morphology of Thin-Films of Polyfluorene: Fullerene Blends2008In: 1st Portuguese Young Chemists Meeting, PYCheM: Abstracts, 2008, p. 36-36Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16. Bhaskar Dutt, G.
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Schryver, FC
    Are Aqueous Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles in the Presence of Added Salt Polydisperse? A Time-Resolved Fluorescence Quenching Study with Global Analysis1997In: Langmuir, 1997, 13, 1957-1963Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Briscoe, Wuge H.
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England.
    Speranza, Francesca
    University of Bristol, England.
    Li, Peixun
    University of Oxford, England.
    Konovalov, Oleg
    ESRF, France.
    Bouchenoire, Laurence
    University of Liverpool, England.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Klein, Jacob
    Weizmann institute of science, Israel.
    Jacobs, Robert M.J.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Thomas, Robert K.
    University of Oxford, England.
    Synchtrotron XRR study of soft nanofilms at the mica-water interface2012In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 8, no 18, p. 5055-5068Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Brown, W
    et al.
    Rymdén, R
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Almgren, M
    Svensk, G
    Static and Dynamic Properties of Nonionic Amphiphile Micelles: Triton X-100 in Aqueous Solution1989In: J. Phys. Chem., 1989, 93, 2512-2519Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Heidkamp, Hannah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Fluorescence microscopy – the most versatile tool for in situ investigation of colloids?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Latex Diffusion at High Volume Fractions Studied by Fluorescence Microscopy2006In: J. Colloid Interface Sci. 298(1), 162-171 (2006)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Latex Diffusion at High Volume Fractions Studied by Fluorescence Microscopy2006In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 298, no 1, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Polymer film formation studied with fluorescence microscopy2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One problem with water-based film-forming systems is the high heat of evaporation, yielding long drying times. Short drying times are commonly important, and solvents with high vapour pressures must be used. This fluorescence microscopy method has successfully been used for studies of low and high volume latex fractions, even for particles with a diameter as small as 100 nm. It is possible to perform statistical analyses from single particles traces, yielding information on interactions with other compounds, as well as changes in the environment of the particle. For fast-drying systems, film formation often occurs under non-equilibrium conditions. The microstructure, frequently due to uncompleted phase separation, is decisive for the film properties. Such microstructures have been found in polymer thin films for optoelectronic devices. Of special interest is the recognition of arrested states and so-called Levy walk diffusion at elevated concentrations, the concentration gradient being a consequence of the drying process

  • 23.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Interactions between Charged Latex Colloids and Starch Polyelectrolytes Studied by Fluorescence Microscopy with Image Analysis2005In: Nordic Pulp Pap. Res. J., 2005, 20, 192-199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Interactions between Charged Latex Colloids and Starch Polyelectrolytes Studied with Fluorescence  Microscopy with Image Analysis2005In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 192-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactions between carboxylated polystyrene latex probe particles and ionically substituted starches have been investi-gated by fluorescence microscopy with image analysis. The degree of substitution of the starches was varied, as was also thepolyelectrolyte molecular weight and the probe size. 

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fredriksson, Lars
    Normal and anomalous diffusion2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Brownian motion is perhaps best described as the never-ceasing phenomenon responsible for

    self-diffusion occurring although there is no temperature or concentration gradients. The

    distribution of the steps P(r) is vital in order to see the underlying mechanism of diffusion.

    Normal diffusion is characterised by having Gaussian distributions of the step lengths.

    Diffusion can be classified as either normal or anomalous depending on how the mean square

    displacement is related to time:



    If a = 1, diffusion is classified as normal diffusion. With a > 1 , there is superdiffusion. When

    a < 1 , subdiffusion takes place. In order to replace normal diffusion by anomalous diffusion,

    pathologies must be present. Most anomalous diffusion takes the shape of subdiffusion

    [1, 2].

    Video-based fluorescence microscopy is the basis for all experimental work and has

    successfully been used earlier [3-5]. For each concentration the trajectories of 60 probes were

    determined using the built-in Particle Analysis function in Aquacosmos 2.6. The 6000 data

    points collected were used to extract both the coefficient G and the exponenta .

    Relatively few studies have been devoted to tell normal diffusion from anomalous diffusion in

    real chemical systems. In this study the probe is a fluorescent labeled latex particle, the matrix

    was changed in different ways. Unlabelled latex particles, DoTAB (a cationic surfactant),

    cationic starch of different molecular weight were all used to alter the sample.

    The conclusion is that it is safe to assume a = 1 in all cases except for very high

    concentrations of starch, where diffusion is hindered by the viscous matrix, which gives rise

    to subdiffusion. Moreover, all distributions are Gaussian except for the highest concentrations

    of starch and latex. In these latter cases, distributions appear as truncated normal distributions

    [6,7].

    References

    [1] Klafter J., Blumen A., Zumofen g. Shlesinger M.f., Physica A., 1990, 168, 637-645

    [2] Ott A., Bouchaud J.P., Langevin D., Urbach W., Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990, 65, 2201-2204

    [3] Carlsson G., Warszynski P., van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2003, 267, 500-508

    [4] Carlsson G., van Stam J., Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J., 2005, 20, 192-199

    [5] Carlsson G., Järnström L., van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2006, 298, 162-171

    [6] Fredriksson L., Bsc thesis, Karlstad university, 2010

    [7] Fredriksson L., Msc thesis, Karlstad university, 2010

  • 26.
    Cirillo, Emilio N.M.
    et al.
    Sapienza Universit`a di Roma, Italy.
    Colangeli, Matteo
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Muntean, Stela Andrea
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A lattice model approach to the morphology formation from ternary mixtures during the evaporation of one component2019In: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 228, no 1, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stimulated by experimental evidence in the field of solution-born thin films, we study the morphology formation in a three state lattice system subjected to the evaporation of one component. The practical problem that we address is the understanding of the parameters that govern morphology formation from a ternary mixture upon evaporation, as is the case in the fabrication of thin films from solution for organic photovoltaics. We use, as a tool, a generalized version of the Potts and Blume-Capel models in 2D, with the Monte Carlo Kawasaki-Metropolis algorithm, to simulate the phase behaviour of a ternary mixture upon evaporation of one of its components. The components with spin 1, −1 and 0 in the Blume-Capel dynamics correspond to the electron-acceptor, electron-donor and solvent molecules, respectively, in a ternary mixture used in the preparation of the active layer films in an organic solar cell. Furthermore, we introduce parameters that account for the relative composition of the mixture, temperature, and interaction between the species in the system. We identify the parameter regions that are prone to facilitate the phase separation. Furthermore, we study qualitatively the types of formed configurations. We show that even a relatively simple model, as the present one, can generate key morphological features, similar to those observed in experiments, which proves the method valuable for the study of complex systems.

  • 27. Cochin, D
    et al.
    De Schryver, FC
    Laschewsky, A
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Polysoaps in Aqueous Solutions: Intermolecular versus Intramolecular Hydrophobic Aggregation and Long-Time Stability Studies by Fluorescence Spectroscopy2001In: Langmuir, 2001, 17, 2579-2584Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Creutz, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Antoun, S
    De Schryver, FC
    Jérôme, R
    Exchange of Polymer Molecules Between Block Copolymer Micelles Studied by Emission Spectroscopy. A Method for the Quantification of Unimer Exchange Rates1997In: Macromolecules, 1997, 30, 4078-4083Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Creutz, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Schryver, FC
    Jérôme, R
    Dynamics of Poly((dimethylamino)alkyl methacrylate-block-sodium methacrylate) Micelles. Influence of Hydrophobicity and Molecular Architecture on the Exchange Rate of Copolymer Molecules1998In: Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 681-689Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. De Feyter, S
    et al.
    Larsson, M
    Schuurmans, N
    Verkuijl, B
    Zorniants, G
    Gesquière, A
    Abdel-Mottaleb, MM
    van Esch, J
    Feringa, BL
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Schryver, FC
    Supramolecular Control of Two-Dimensional Phase Behavior2003In: Chem. Eur. J., 2003, 9, 1198-1206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. De Feyter, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Boens, N
    De Schryver, FC
    On the use of dynamic fluorescence measurements to determine equilibrium and kinetic constants. The inclusion of pyrene in .beta.-cyclodextrin cavities1996In: Chem. Phys. Lett., 1996, 249, 46-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. De Feyter, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Imans, F
    Viaene, L
    De Schryver, FC
    Evans, CH
    Observation of .alpha.-terthiophene excited dimer fluorescence in aqueous solutions of .gamma.-cyclodextrin1997In: Chem. Phys. Lett., 1997, 277, 44-50Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. De Schryver, FC
    et al.
    Boens, N
    Van der Auweraer, M
    Viaene, L
    Reekmans, S
    Hermans, B
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Gehlen, M
    Berghmans, H
    Berghmans, M
    Ameloot, M
    Excited-state probing of associative and covalent macromolecules1995In: Pure & Appl. Chem., 1995, 67, 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. De Schryver, FC
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Gehlen, MH
    Van der Auweraer, M
    Boens, N
    Reekmans, S
    Negri, RM
    Wittouck, N
    Bernik, D
    Ameloot, M
    Faes, H
    Noukakis, D
    Luminescence spectroscopy and microdomains1994In: MICROCHEMISTRY: Spectroscopy and Chemistry in Small Domains; Masuhara H., De Schryver F.C., Kitamura N., Tamai N. (eds), Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, Tokyo (1994), 415-430, 1994Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35. Evans, C
    et al.
    Partyka, M
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Naphthalene Complexation by .beta.-Cyclodextrin: Influence of Added Short Chain Branched and Linear Alcohols2000In: J. Incl. Phenom. Mol. Recog., 2000, 38, 381-396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Evans, CH
    et al.
    De Feyter, S
    Viaene, L
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Schryver, FC
    Bimolecular Processes of .alpha.-Terthiophene in a .beta.-Cyclodextrin Environment: An Exploratory Study1996In: J. Phys. Chem., 1996, 100, 2129-2135Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Gehlen, MH
    et al.
    De Schryver, FC
    Bhaskar Dutt, G
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Boens, N
    Van der Auweraer, M
    Intermicellar Mobility of Probe and Quencher in Reverse Micelles Studied by Fluorescence Quenching1995In: J. Phys. Chem., 1995, 99, 14407-14413Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Gensch, T
    et al.
    Hofkens, J
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Faes, H
    Creutz, S
    Tsuda, K
    Jérôme, R
    Masuhara, H
    De Schryver, FC
    Transmission and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy combined with a laser trap: Investigation of optically trapped block copolymer micelles1998In: J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998, 102, 8440-8451Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Heidkamp, Hannah
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Polymer film formation studied with fluorescence microscopy and AFM2010In: Molecular Processes at Solid Surfaces: 10th Annual Surface and Colloid Symposium, 2010, p. 49-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin polymer films are used in many applications such as paint, paper coatings and electronic devices. For these applications, it is important to have knowledge about the film formation process, since it affect the film morphology and the morphology is important for the applications.One method for studying film formation in situ is fluorescence microscopy. By labeling a target molecule or particle with a fluorophore, the targets movements can be traced as the solvent evaporates [1-3]. If information gained from studies of particle movements during film formation and wet state behavior are combined, information about the film formation process can be obtained. Examination of the final film surfaces with regular light microscopy and AFM gives additional information about the film formation.These methods have been used for studying the formation of negatively charged latex films. It was shown that the films are greatly affected by adding positively charged surfactants [4-5]. Since latex is a water-based system it has relatively long drying times. Systems based on high-vapor pressure organic solvents have much shorter drying times and the film formation occurs under non-equilibrium conditions. This results in incomplete phase separation, which in turn gives microstructures in the film. These microstructures are of great interest since they affect the properties of the film and its function [6-7]. Our aim is to develop the methods used for latex studies in order to be able to apply them to study film formation of polymer blends used for photovoltaic applications. The goal is to get more knowledge about the film forming process and a deeper understanding about the mechanisms behind the formation of microstructures.[1] Carlsson G., Warszynski P., van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2003, 267, 500-508[2] Carlsson G., van Stam J., Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J., 2005, 20, 192-199[3] Carlsson G., Järnström L., van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2006, 298, 162-171[4] Heidkamp H., Master thesis, Karlstad University 2009.[5] Paakkonen, J., Master thesis, Karlstad University 2010.[6] Björström C.M., Magnusson K.O., Moons E., Synth. Metals, 2005, 152, 109-112[7] Moons E., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 2002, 14, 12235-12260

  • 40.
    Heidkamp, Hannah
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Latex particle behavior studied in the wet state with fluorescence microscopy2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Dispersions of latex are often used as model systems due to the well known properties of the latex particles. They can be made with a monodisperse distribution, different extent of cross linking and different surface charges. The behavior of latex particles in the wet state is important for both film formation and understanding what happens in the system when different additives are introduced. Latex is used in many different blends and one common additive is surfactants, both for stabilization during manufacturing and for adjusting the system features in different applications. A suitable method for studying latex dispersions in wet state is fluorescence microscopy. By adding latex particles with similar size and charge, marked with a fluorophore, particle movements can be followed even if the particle radius is below microscope resolution limit. This can be used for studying particle behavior in dispersions with different additives, in order to see how the additives affect the latex particles.



    By measuring the latex particles displacement, diffusion coefficients can be determined. This has been successfully used for both high and low latex volume fractions [1-3]. Since surfactants are a common additive, the focus in our studies lies on interactions between surfactants and negatively charged latex. When DoTAB (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide), a cationic surfactant, is added to the latex dispersion, an interesting behavior can be seen. Both diffusion coefficients and conductivity measurements show that at a certain concentration, when DoTAB has neutralized the latex particles, aggregates are formed. When the DoTAB concentration is raised even more, the aggregates dissolve. Light scattering measurements give the same indications.



    Combined with other studies, such as film formation, the particle behavior gives important information about what happens in the system when different concentration of both latex and additives are used.



    [1] Carlsson G., Warszynski P. and van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2003, 267, 500-508 [2] Carlsson G., Järnström L. and van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2006, 298, 162-171

    [3] Carlsson G. and van Stam J., Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J., 2005, 20, 192-199

  • 41.
    Heidkamp, Hannah
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Rogowski, Rafal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Morphology of polymer blends in films made by dip-coating2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin spincoated polymer films are used in various applications and there has been anincreasing demand to understand and get precise control over the film formation process. One of the most exciting applications is organic solar cells which have an active layer made of a polymer based blend. The film morphology has a strong effect on the efficiency of solar cells and therefore it is crucial to understand the film formation process in order to tailor thedesired morphology [1].

    In this study we are combining and comparing results from three different deposition processes: drop-casting, sphere-on-flat arrangement and dip-coating. We are using dip-coating to produce thin films of polymer blends with different morphologies under controlled conditions. The main goal is to gain a deeper insight into the processes that occur while solvent evaporates and to understand why certain structures are formed.

    Drop-casting allows for little control of the structure formation. In the sphere-on-flat arrangement a droplet of a solution is constrained between a half-sphere and the substrate, which provides more controllable conditions for the deposition process. For more precise control, dip-coating can be used, where a substrate is withdrawn from a solution at a constant speed.

    In this study we have used the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) dissolved in toluene. These components are the model system for studies on organic solar cells [1]. The dip-coated films show a wide variety of morphologies depending on the coating speed. This dependence can be rationalized by the different mechanisms occurring at low and high speeds: At low speeds, evaporation is dominant, [2] resulting in well ordered patterns. At high speeds, viscous forces become dominant, [2] yielding optically homogeneous films.

    [1] G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, Adv. Mat. 21, 1323-1338 (2009)

    [2] R. Z. Rogowski and A. A. Darhuber, Langmuir 26, 11485-93 (2010)

  • 42.
    Heidkamp, Hannah
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Rogowski, Rafal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Morphology of P3HT and PCBM blends in thin films obtained with different deposition methods2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns and structures, formed when a semiconducting polymer blend in solution is subject to controlled evaporation, have been of great interest due to their influence on the performance of organic devices. By controlling the processes of pattern formation, function properties of organic semiconductor structures can be tailored, allowing for facile manufacturing of the active layers in organic devices, e.g. solar cells.

    By analyzing the morphologies of polymer blends resulting from different deposition methods, a deeper insight into the pattern formation process can be acquired. In this study, we have analyzed the morphology of blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) formed upon solvent evaporation. We used the following deposition methods: dip-coating, droplet evaporation within a constrained geometry and drop-casting. Dip-coated films revealed various types of morphology depending on the coating speed. At low coating speeds, where evaporation is the dominant factor, well-ordered patterns were obtained. When increasing the coating speed, viscous forces become dominant over evaporation yielding optically homogenous films [2]. Morphologically similar structures to those observed at low coating speeds, were also obtained with spatially constrained droplets. The blend morphologies were analyzed with polarized, fluorescence and atomic force microscopy [1].

    References:

    [1] C. M. Björström Svanström, J. Rysz, A. Bernasik, A. Budkowski, F. Zhang, O. Inganäs, M. R. Andersson, K. O. Magnusson, J. J. Benson-Smith, J. Nelson, and E. Moons, Adv. Mat. 21, 4398-4403 (2009)

    [2] R. Z. Rogowski and A. A. Darhuber, Langmuir 26, 11485-93 (2010)

  • 43.
    Heidkamp, Hannah
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Rogowski, Rafal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Morphology of PCBM and P3HT blends in films made by dip-coating on homogeneous and chemically patterned surfaces,2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Hermans, Bart
    et al.
    Belgien.
    De Schryver, Frans C.
    Belgien.
    van Stam, Jan
    Belgien.
    Boens, Noel
    Belgien.
    Jérôme, Robert
    Belgien.
    Teyssié, Philippe
    Belgien.
    Trossaert, Geert
    Belgien.
    Goethals, Erik
    Belgien.
    Schacht, Etienne
    Belgien.
    Global Compartmental Analysis of the Fluorescence Decay Surface of the Halato Telechelic Polymer (N,N-dimethyl-N-[3-(1-pyrenyl)propyl]ammonio)-trifluoromethane-sulfonate-End-Capped Poly(tetrahydrofuran)1995In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 28, p. 3380-3386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Hermans, E
    et al.
    De Schryver, FC
    Bhaskar Dutt, G
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Feyter, S
    Boens, N
    Miller, RD
    Global compartmental analysis of the fluorescence decay surface of intramolecular chain mediated and through space excited-state complex formation of a silane linked donor-acceptor system1996In: New J. Chem., 1996, 20, 829-838Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Hillerström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andersson, Martin
    YKI, Institute of Surface Chemistry, Stockholm.
    Jan, Skov Pedersen
    University of Aarhus.
    Altskär, Annika
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Göteborg.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK, The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Göteborg.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Kronberg, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Transparency and Wettability of PVD/PDMS-IPN Synthesized in Different Organic Solvents2009In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 1828-1839Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Hillerström, Anna
    et al.
    Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Martin
    Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Solvent strategies for loading and release in mesoporous silica2014In: Colloid and Interface Science Communications, ISSN 2215-0382, Vol. 3, p. 5-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model molecule, ibuprofen, was loaded in the pores of mesoporous silica by adsorption from nonpolar solvents (liquid carbon dioxide and cyclohexane) and from a polar solvent (methanol). It was sufficient with a very low concentration of ibuprofen in the nonpolar solvents to achieve maximum loading of ibuprofen in the mesoporous particles. When using liquid carbon dioxide, the pores of the mesoporous silica particles were filled completely with ibuprofen at a lower ibuprofen concentration than similar experiments performed with cyclohexane. When methanol was used, the maximum amount of loaded ibuprofen was never achieved. Furthermore, x-ray scattering showed that all ibuprofen loaded into the mesoporous particles were in an amorphous state. Ibuprofen was released from the mesoporous particles to water within a couple of minutes, regardless of solvent used for loading. It was found that the release of ibuprofen from mesoporous silica was much faster than that of crystalline ibuprofen.

  • 48.
    Hillerström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andersson, Martin
    YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm.
    Ibuprofen Loading into Mesostructured Silica using Liquid Carbon Dioxide as a Solvent2009In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 662-667Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Hillerström, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Andersson, Martin
    YKI, Institute for Surface Chemsitry, Stockholm.
    Strategies for obtaining High Enrichment of ibuprofen in Mesoporous Silica, the Effect of Solvent Type, and Release KineticsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Holmes, Natalie P.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013). University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Marks, Melissa
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Cave, James M.
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Feron, Krishna
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Barr, Matthew G.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Fahy, Adam
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Sharma, Anirudh
    Flinders University, Australia; University of Bordeaux, France.
    Pan, Xun
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Kilcoyne, David A. L.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States.
    Zhou, Xiaojing
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Lewis, David A.
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Flinders University, Australia.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Walker, Alison B.
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Belcher, Warwick J.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Dastoor, Paul C.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Engineering Two-Phase and Three-Phase Microstructures from Water-Based Dispersions of Nanoparticles for Eco-Friendly Polymer Solar Cell Applications2018In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 30, no 18, p. 6521-6531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoparticle organic photovoltaics, a subfield of organic photovoltaics (OPV), has attracted increasing interest in recent years due to the eco-friendly fabrication of solar modules afforded by colloidal ink technology. Importantly, using this approach it is now possible to engineer the microstructure of the light absorbing/charge generating layer of organic photovoltaics; decoupling film morphology from film deposition. In this study, single-component nanoparticles of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) were synthesized and used to generate a two-phase microstructure with control over domain size prior to film deposition. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and electron microscopy were used to characterize the thin film morphology. Uniquely, the measured microstructure was a direct input for a nanoscopic kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model allowing us to assess exciton transport properties that are experimentally inaccessible in these single-component particles. Photoluminescence, UV-vis spectroscopy measurements, and KMC results of the nanoparticle thin films enabled the calculation of an experimental exciton dissociation efficiency (ηED) of 37% for the two-phase microstructure. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the materials was characterized with dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermal annealing led to an increase in ηED to 64% due to an increase in donor-acceptor interfaces in the thin film from both sintering of neighboring opposite-type particles in addition to the generation of a third mixed phase from diffusion of PC61BM into amorphous P3HT domains. As such, this study demonstrates the higher level of control over donor-acceptor film morphology enabled by customizing nanoparticulate colloidal inks, where the optimal three-phase film morphology for an OPV photoactive layer can be designed and engineered.

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