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  • 1. Andersson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Björkehed, J.
    Wiberg, A.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Ta till vara kritiken2006In: Värmlands Folkblad (06-09-08)Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2. Bergman, A.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Anonyma Hösäckar lever i skuggan av det oidentifierade. Psykologiska aspekter på fysisk inaktivitet2005In: Svensk idrottsforskning, 14 (1), 26-34Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3. Bergman, A.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hay sacks Anonymous: Living in the shadow of the unidentified. Psychological aspects of physical inactivity from a phenomenological perspective2005In: The Qualitative Report, 10, 795-816Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bergman, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T
    Constancy of personality traits and efficiency of a training program in improving coping strategies2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Billinger, Stefan
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Symbolic behavior in regular classrooms: a specification of symbolic and non-symbolic behavior2011In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 2, article id 122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students' capabilities to use symbolic information in classroom setting could be expected to influence their possibilities to be active and participating. The development of strategies for teachers to compensate for reduced capability need specific operational definition of symbolic behavior. Fifty-three students, aged 11-13 years old, 29 boys and 24 girls, from three classes in the same Swedish compulsory regular school participated in the current study. After a short training sequence 25 students (47%) were defined as showing symbolic behavior (symbolic), and 28 students (53%) were not (non-symbolic), based on their follow-up test performances. Symbolic and non-symbolic differed significantly on post-test performances (p < 0.05). Surprisingly, non-symbolic behavior deteriorated their performance, while symbolic enhanced their performance (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the operational definition used in the present study may be useful in further studies relating the capability to show symbolic behavior and students' activity and participation in classroom settings.

  • 6.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Affective personality in relation to general personality, self-reported stress, coping and optimism2004In: Individual Differences Research, 2, 26-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Sundequist, U.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) on stress related muscle pain: What makes the difference in therapy, attention-placebo or the relaxation response?2005In: Pain Research and Management, 10, 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Sundequist, U.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, L.
    Nordenström, K.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Eliciting the relaxation response with the help of flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) in patients with stress-related ailments2006In: Internation journal of Stress Manage. 2006;13:154-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Military capacity and Civil adjustment: Assessments of the "re-usable" peacekeeping soldier for development of a selection system2012In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 171-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether “re-usable” soldiers, that is, those who performed well during operations (Military capacity), and were able to readjust post-deployment (Civil adjustment), could be identified pre-deployment. Participants were 364 UN peacekeeping soldiers. Three hypotheses were posed: (a) the selection system for conscripts cannot identify soldiers with low Military capacity, (b) the selection system for conscripts cannot identify soldiers with poor Civil adjustment after deployment, and (c) the two aspects of “re-usability” (Military Capacity and Civil Adjustment) would be intertwined. Results showed that the selection system for conscripts was unable to identify soldiers’ Military Capacity and Civil Adjustment. Results also showed that these two aspects were unrelated, and did not interact. Indications on possible consequences, and improvements were discussed.

  • 10. Edebol, H.
    et al.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Case studies on chronic whiplash associated disorders and their treatment using flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation technique)2008In: Qualitative Health Research, 18, 480-488Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    NU health care.
    Holmberg, Ebba
    NU health care.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Arne
    NU health care.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    In search for objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using the Quantified Behaviour Test Plus2011In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 443-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical assessment tools for adult ADHD such as rating scales, interviews and behavior observations are often based on subjective judgments which enhance the risk of overlooking or misinterpreting symptoms. In search for objective measures of adult ADHD, the present study investigated levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus, QbTest-Plus, in adult patients (N = 19) awaiting clinical assessment for ADHD. QbTest-Plus report objective measures of ADHD core symptoms using an infrared motion tracking system and a continuous performance test. The measures were collected and evaluated previous to clinical assessment and compared regarding the diagnosis of ADHD. Sensitivity for detecting ADHD with QbTest-Plus was 83 % and specificity was 57 %. The results, possibly affected by confounding factors, suggest further examination of calibrated and objective measure for the QbTest-Plus with regard to ADHD in adults.

     

  • 12.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Department of Psychiatry, NU-health care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Evidence Research and Development Center Göteborg Sweden.
    Measuring Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder using the Quantified Behaviour Test Plus2013In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, occurs in about 5 % of the adult population and includes cardinal symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity that may be difficult to identify with clinical routine methods. Continuous performance tests are objective measures of inattention and impulsivity that, combined with objective measures of motor activity, facilitate identification of ADHD among adults. The aim of the present study was to examine sensitivity, specificity and a composite measure of ADHD using objective measures of the ADHD-cardinal symptoms in adult participants with ADHD and non-ADHD normative participants.

    Cardinal symptoms were measured in 55 participants having ADHD, 202 non-ADHD normative participants, as well as 84 ADHD normative participants using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus, QbTest-Plus. This test measures inattention and impulsivity with a continuous performance test and hyperactivity with a motion tracking system.

    A predictive variable for detection of ADHD called Prediction of ADHD, PADHD, yielded 86 % sensitivity and 83 % specificity. A composite measure of ADHD cardinal symptoms was developed with a Weighed Core Symptoms scale, WCS, that indicates the total amount of ADHD symptoms on a numeric scale from 0 to 100.

    The total amount of ADHD symptoms was measured on a scale and predicted with the categorical variable in a majority of the cases in the present study. Further studies are needed in order to confirm the results with regard to additional clinical and normative samples. Careful consideration of potential gender and diagnostic subtype differences are noteworthy aspects for future examinations of the new instruments.

  • 13.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    The NU-Health Care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Objective measures of behavior manifestations in adult ADHD and differentiation from participants with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline personality disorder, participants with disconfirmed ADHD as well as Normative participants2012In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 8, p. 134-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present study evaluated two psychometric instruments derived from the objective measurement of adult ADHD using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instruments were examined in ADHD versus a clinical group with overlapping symptoms including borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder, and another clinical group with participants assessed for but disconfirmed a diagnosis of ADHD as well as adult normative participants.

    Methods: The Quantified Behavior Test Plus includes Continuous Performance Testing and a Motion Tracking System with parameters related to attention and activity operationalized as the cardinal symptoms of ADHD and then summarized into a Weighed Core Symptoms scale with ten cut-points ranging from 0 to 100. A categorical predictor variable called Prediction of ADHD was used to examine the levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus with regard to ADHD.

    Results: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale separated ADHD and normative participants from each other as well as from the two clinical reference groups. The scale reported highest levels of core symptoms in the ADHD group and the lowest level of core symptoms in the normative group. Analyses with Prediction of ADHD yielded 85 % specificity for the normative group, 87 % sensitivity for the ADHD group, 36 % sensitivity for the bipolar II and borderline group and 41 % sensitivity for the group with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD.

    Conclusions: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale facilitated objective assessment of adult ADHD insofar that the ADHD group presented more core symptoms than the other two clinical groups and the normative group. Sensitivity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus was lower in complex clinical groups with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline disorder and in patients with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. The psychometric instruments may be further evaluated with regard to well-documented and effective treatment programs for ADHD core symptoms.

  • 14.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Enhanced independence and quality of life through treatment with flotation-Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique of a patient with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Aspergers Syndrome: a case report2009In: Cases Journal, ISSN 1757-1626, Vol. 2, no 6979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The objective of this qualitative case report was to describe experiences of flotation-Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique from the perspective of a woman with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Aspergers syndrome and experiences of depression and distress.

    Case presentationThe respondent is a 36-year-old woman from Sweden, assessed and diagnosed by a neuropsychological multi-professional team in 2006. The 19-session flotation series prolonged during almost one year.

    Conclusion

    The positive development of arousal control, activity regulation, sensory integration and interpretation, cognitive functioning and emotional maturity created experiences of personal independence and quality of life. Flotation-restrictive environmental stimulation technique was experienced as a meaningful treatment. Additional studies of treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid disorders in adults using the flotation-restrictive environmental stimulation technique are strongly encouraged.

  • 15.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Nyberg, C.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Threats and aggression directed to soccer referees: An empirical phenomenological psychological study2004In: The Qualitative Report, 9, 652-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A descriptive qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews involving seven provincial Soccer Association referees was carried out in order to find out how referees experience threats and aggression directed to soccer referees. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method (EPP-method) was used. The analysis resulted in thirty categories which were summarized in six themes. The main themes described the perceived causes of threat, reactions to threat, how the referees´ manage stressful situations, and their motives to referee.

  • 16. Gerdner, A.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Pedersen, P.
    Personality factors and drug of choice in female addicts with psychiatric comorbidity2002In: Substance Use & Misuse, 37, 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Gustafson, R
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of alcohol on persistent effort and deductive thinking during the preparation phase of the creative process1994In: Journal of Creative Behavior, 28, 124-132Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Gustafson, R.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of creative and non-creative work on the tendency to drink alcohol during the restitution phase of the creative process1995In: Journal of Creative Behavior, 29, 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Gustafson, R.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The psychometric properties of the Persistent Effort Test (PET) measuring the personality trait of persistence1996In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, 83, 979-986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A test measuring the behavioral aspects of the personality trait of persistence,

    The Persistent Effort Test, was constructed and psychometric properties assessed. The

    original version consisted of twelve items, each one a nonsense block of six letters. The

    task of 9 men and 9 women was to construct as many correct Swedish words as possible

    from letter combinations. The total time spent on this task and the number of correct

    words constituted the dependent variables. A Persistence Effort Quotient was calculated.

    The reliability, calculated on the quotient for the 12-item version was acceptable

    (Cronbach alpha = 0.86) and an item analysis indicated that the test could be shortened

    by six items with increased reliability (Cronbach alpha = 0.87). A validity analysis also

    using the quotient performed with a second sample of subjects using classmatesÕ ratings

    on two separate rating scales of specific aspects of persistence, yielded acceptable

    levels of validity (Pearson r = 0.69 for the first scale and 0.71 for the second scale). This

    indicates that the shortened 6-item version is a reliable and valid test of persistence even

    though it is necessary with more studies in order to further address the issues of predictive

    validity and norms for different groups of people

  • 20. Harvey, P. D.
    et al.
    Helldin, L.
    Olsson, A-K.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Patterson, T. L.
    Functional Capacity and Functional Disability in Schizophrenia: A Cross-National Study in New York and Sweden2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Functional disability is a central feature of schizophrenia and has been reported to occur across different countries and systems of care. Recent advances in the assessment of disability have separeted the measuremet of functional capacity: the ability to perform skills required for everyday functioning from the measurement of real-world functional outcomes. This presentation reports on a cross-national study of the correlation between functional capacity measured with the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment, Brief version (UPSA-B), casemanager ratings of patient everyday functioning with the Specific Levels Of Functioning (SLOF), and occurrence of real-world functional milestones, including independent living, employment, and marital status. Patients with schizophrenia who lived in an urban American setting and a generally rural region in Sweden were compared on their functional capacity performance and real-world outcomes. Metods:Samples of schizophrenia patients in Sweden (n=146) and New York (n=244) performed the UPSA-B and a neuropsychological assessment and were rated by their case managers. Information from archival records and case managers was used to determine the occurence of the different real world outcomes, including living independently and having ever experienced a stable romantic relationship.Results: Performance on the UPSA-B was essentially identical in the two patient samples, with a total raw score in the New York sample 13.8 and the score in the Swedish sample 13.8. Scores on the case manager ratings of everyday activities were also strikingly similar (New York:49; Sweden:49). Further, the correlation between UPSA-B scores and ratings of everyday activities were quite similar, New York: r=.36 Sweden: r=.27 as were the correlations between NP performance and UPSA-B scores, New York: r=.58; Sweden: r=.55. Also, the proportion of cases who had never been married or had a close relationship was 59% in New York and 64% in Sweden. In notable contrast, 80% of the Swedish patients and 46% of the New York patients were living independently.Implications: Performance-based measures of functional capacity were very similar across samples of people with schizophrenia in very different living environments. These results are consistent with previous studies showing that performance-based measures of cognition are also quite similar across different countries in people with schizophrenia. While measures of functional ability and case manager estimates of patients' real-world outcomes were very similar in level of impairment and correlational structure, real-world residential outcomes were very different. These data suggest that cultural and social support systems can lead to very divergent outcomes in individuals who have evidence of the same levels of ability and potential.

  • 21. Harvey, P.D
    et al.
    Helldin, L
    Bowie, C.R
    Heaton, R.K
    Olsson, A-K
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Patterson, T.L
    Performance-based measurement of functional disability in schizophrenia: a cross-national study in the United States and Sweden2009In: American Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0002-953X, E-ISSN 1535-7228, no 166, p. 821-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Recent advances in the assessment of disability in schizophrenia have separated the measurement of functional capacity from real-world functional outcomes. The authors examined the similarity of performance-based assessments of everyday functioning, real-world disability, and achievement of milestones in people with schizophrenia in the United States and Sweden. METHOD: The UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief Version (UPSA-B) and a neuropsychological assessment were administered to schizophrenia patients living in rural areas in Sweden (N=146) and in the New York City area (N=244), and patients' functioning was rated by their case managers. Information from records and case managers was used to determine the frequency of living independently, working, and having ever experienced a stable romantic relationship. RESULTS: Performance on the UPSA-B was essentially identical in the two samples (New York, mean score=13.84; Sweden, mean score=13.30), as were scores on the case manager ratings of everyday activities (New York, mean=49.0; Sweden, mean=48.8). The correlations between UPSA-B score, neuropsychological test performance, and case manager ratings did not differ across the two samples. The proportion of patients who had never had a close relationship and the rate of vocational disability were also nearly identical. However, while 80% of the Swedish patients were living independently, only 46% of the New York patients were. CONCLUSIONS: While scores on performance-based measures of everyday living skills were similar in people with schizophrenia across cultures, real-world residential outcomes were very different. These data suggest that cultural and social support systems can lead to divergent real-world outcomes among individuals who show evidence of the same levels of ability and potential.

  • 22. Helldin, L
    et al.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Karilampi, U
    Olsson, A-K
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Increase of symptom remission in psychosis: Integrating science and service in the Swedish CLIPS study2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Clinical Long term Investigation of Psychosis in Sweden (CLIPS), is a naturalistic longitudinal study, in which about 300 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or delusional disorder are evaluated regularly. Besides being a guideline for treatment, the evaluations are also used for scientific research after informed consent, hence combining regular health service with science in a concrete way. As a likely consequence of the annual structured assessments, the percentage of patients in remission has raised from 35 % to about 50 % in the last three years. Several scientific articles have been published on several psychosis related topics within the frame of the CLIPS study, proving that science can be successfully integrated with clinical practise for better evidence based health care, including a higher percentage of patients in remission

  • 23. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Are there any cognitive differences between patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Could CGI serve as a predictor of remission?2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Kane, J.
    Karilampi, U.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Experience of quality of life and attitude to care and treatment in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Role of cross-sectional remission2008In: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practise, 12, 97-104Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Kane, J.
    Karilampi, U.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Remission and Cognitive Ability in a Cohort of Patients with Schizophrenia2006In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40, 738-745Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Kane, J.
    Karilampi, U.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Remission in Prognosis of Functional Outcome: A new dimension in the treatment of patients with schizo-psychotic disorder2007In: Schizophrenia Research, 93, 160-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Kane, J.
    Karilampi, U.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Remission in schizophrenia: Where should the bar be set?2007In: European Journal of Psychiatry, 000-000Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Helldin, L.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Remission: A therapeutic goal in the treatment of schizophrenia and the choice of antipsychotic treatment2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Helldin, Lars
    et al.
    NU Health Care, Department of Psychiatry.
    Kane, John
    The Zucker Hillside Hospital and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
    Karilampi, Ulla
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, Trevor
    Department of Health and Behavioural Science, Kalmar University.
    Experience of quality of life and attitude to care and treatment in patients with schizophrenia: Role of cross-sectional remission2008In: International journal of psychiatry in clinical practice (Print), ISSN 1365-1501, E-ISSN 1471-1788, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Helldin, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Kane, John M.
    The Zucker Hillside Hospital and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The importance of cross-sectional remission in schizophrenia for long-term outcome: A clinical prospective study2009In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Are there different attitudes to medication for patients with psychosis, considering their antipsychotic medication and cross sectional remission status?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the Clinical Long term Investigation of Psychosis in Sweden (CLIPS), 159 outpatients were investigated regarding their present antipsychotic treatment, symptom severity and their attitude to medication with the DAI-10. The attitude to medication was more positive in the group with less symptom severity, while there were no differences in attitudes between patients treated with clozapine, olanzapine or risperidone

  • 33.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    How is family burden correlated to the patients´ symptoms, function, quality of life and attitude to medication?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    How is family burden correlated to the patients' symptoms, function, quality of life and attitude to medication?2008In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 468-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research has concluded that symptom severity is an important factor for explaining family burden related to psychotic illness. Some studies also point out the impaired function of the ill person as a contributing factor to the burden. However, there are few investigations that also considerate the ill persons own view of his/her quality of life and attitude to medication. This study investigates how persons with psychosis symptom severity, functional disability, quality of life and attitude to medication, could be correlated to family burden.

  • 35.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Illness activity of medical history: what is most important for family burden in schizophrenia? The impact of remission2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Illness activity or medical history: what is most important for family burden in schizophrenia? The impact of remission2007In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 17, p. 498-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, L.
    Olsson, A-K.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Function in patients with psychosis measured by UPSA-B in relation to their cross sectional remission status2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how cross sectional remission and functional performance in psychotic outpatients are linked together. Even though there are some differences between the remission groups there are also substantial overlaps between the groups, proving that functional performance and symptom severity are two separate dimensions

  • 38.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Karilampi, Ulla
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Illness Related Components for the Family Burden of Relatives to Patients with Psychotic Illness2010In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 275-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that symptom severity often implies an increased family burden. Few other illness related variables have, however, been investigated in this context. This study investigates how family burden is affected by symptom, function, and cognition, as well as how the patient perceives his/her illness and quality of life. Method: A total of 99 relatives, to as many patients diagnosed with psychosis and with their illness at a stable level, participated in this study. The relatives estimated their perceived burden, the patients rated the distress caused by their illness as well as the quality of their lives, and the care staff rated the patients’ symptom and function as well as tested their cognitive abilities. Results: Increased family burden can be tied to the patients’ increased symptom severity, to their impaired functioning as well as to the patients’ higher self ratings regarding distress. The family burden is also connected to the patient’s reduced working memory and reduced executive functioning, but this connection is not totally clear and should be further investigated. Of the variables that the patients were rated on, it was the overall functional ability measured with GAF that had the single most impact on perceived family burden. Conclusions: To control illness related variables such as symptoms, impaired functioning, impaired working memory and executive functioning, as well as the patients’ own experiences of distress, is important in order to lessen the burden for the relatives. All aspects of family burden are, however, not explained by these factors, which is why further research within this realm is required.

  • 39.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Family burden and demographic correlates in a naturalistic Swedish test-retest setting following relatives to persons with psychotic disorders2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Psychometric Properties of the Burden Inventory for Relatives of Persons with Psychotic Disturbances2008In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 103, p. 58p. 323-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that close relatives are heavily burdened when a family member has schizophrenia. The current purpose was twofold, (1) to examine the psychometric properties for a test of the burden of family members, one used in Swedish clinical practice (the Care Burden Scale for Relatives) and (2) develop a shortened version with the same or better psychometric properties. Ninety-nine close relatives, 34 men and 65 women, of the same number of patients who had been diagnosed either with schizophrenia or with schizoaffective disorder, were studied. Participants completed the Care Burden Scale for Relatives and a visual analogue scale measuring perceived global burden on which the total burden was assessed. Patients of the close relatives were assessed on clinical tests often used in the psychiatric care, in an attempt to validate the external criteria, such as severity of symptoms and level of functioning. The resulting instrument, Burden Inventory for Relatives of persons with Psychotic disturbances, showed good psychometric properties which simplifies data collection from relatives of patients with psychotic disturbances. In this study, relatives of those patients not in remission evinced a significant greater family burden.

  • 41.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Relatives' and staff ratings of present illness activity from psychotic disorder and their relation to perceived family burden2011Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. NU Healthcare, Dept Psychiat, S-46185 Trollhattan, Sweden.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. NU Healthcare, Dept Psychiat, S-46185 Trollhattan, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Family burden and functional assessment in the Swedish CLIPS-study: Do staff and relatives agree on individuals with psychotic disorders' functional status?2012In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 581-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    In this study, the individuals with psychotic disorders' daily life function was investigated on six dimensions considering their relations to family burden. Functional ratings carried out by relatives and staff were also compared.

    METHODS:

    Totally 88 relatives, to as many individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, participated in this study. Relatives were to rate their own perceived burden and their ill relatives' physical functioning, personal care skills, interpersonal relationships, social acceptability, activities, and work skills. The outpatient staff, in all 24 case managers also rated the patients' functional level on the same assessment tool as did the relatives.

    RESULTS:

    Most dimensions of patients' everyday functioning were highly correlated to relatives' burden. The two functional dimensions "interpersonal relationships" and "activities" were best at classifying burden when rated by relatives. Also, comparing independent functional ratings by relatives and staff showed that despite great agreements on most dimensions, they differed significantly on "social acceptability" where relatives rated the function to be poorer and "activities" where relatives rated the function to be better.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Relatives, who perceive individuals with a psychotic disorder to be limited in their ability to interpersonal relationships and limited in their ability to activate in everyday life, are more likely to perceive a higher burden. Even though staff and relatives mainly agree on the patients' functional ability, they often differ in ratings regarding patients' social acceptability and ability to activate in everyday life. This should be worth considering in clinical practice as well as in future research.

  • 43.
    Ivarsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Borås hospital.
    Lindström, Leif
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University.
    Malm, Ulf
    Inst. for clinical neuropsychiatry, Sahlgrenska University, Gothenburg.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Consumer satisfaction, quality of life and distress with regard to social function and gender in severe mental illness2011In: Open Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 2161-7325, no 1, p. 88-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The relationships between subjectivesatisfaction, distress and quality of life for severelymental ill patients with different functional levels andgender was investigated in a multi-center cohort,using a balanced mix of subjective and clinician ratingsin an outcome-informed model for a clinicalmanagement based on shared decision making, "TheQuality Star". METHODS: Naturalistic data for 2552persons, mainly with schizophrenia diagnoses, in longtermtreatment and rehabilitation, were analyzed in across-sectional study. RESULTS: With increasingSocial Function, rated with the split-GAF Disability/Functioning scale, the better were patients' Satisfaction,subjective Quality of life and Perceived GlobalDistress. Women were more satisfied with thecare but also more distressed. CONCLUSION: Mainfindings were in line with other studies. However, thegender differences are in line with some, but not withother, studies. This poses questions how patient factors,instrument constructs, and treatment, especiallyshared decision making, influence subjective reports.

  • 44.
    Ivarsson, Bo
    et al.
    Psychiatric services, Borås Hospital.
    Lindström, Leif
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University.
    Malm, Ulf
    Institution for clinical neuropsychiatry, Sahlgrenska University, Gothenburg.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    The Self-Assessment Percieved Global Distress scale: Reliability and Construct Validity2011In: Psychology, ISSN 2152-7180, E-ISSN 2152-7199, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 283-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Ivarsson, Bo
    et al.
    Tungstrom, Stefan
    R&D Psychiat Serv, S-78327 Sater, Sweden..
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Malm, Ulf
    Gothenburg Univ, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Subjective Quality of Life, Distress, Satisfaction with Service Scales related to Observer GAF-Functional Ratings in Severe Mental Illness2012In: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, ISSN 1091-4358, E-ISSN 1099-176X, Vol. 15, p. S12-S12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Ivarsson, Bo
    et al.
    Psychiatric services, Borås Hospital.
    Ulf, Malm
    Institute for Clinical Neuropsychiatry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Lindström, Leif
    Department of Psychiatry, Uppsala University.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The self-assessment Global Quality of Life scale: Reliability and construct validity2010In: International journal of psychiatry in clinical practice (Print), ISSN 1365-1501, E-ISSN 1471-1788, Vol. 14, p. 287-297Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Janson, L.
    et al.
    Archer, T.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The achievement of timing at the highest competitive level: the necessity of a "driving" concept2005In: Athletic Insight, 7 (2). Retrieved August 6, 2005, from http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol7lss2/AchievementofTiming.htmlArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Janson, L.
    et al.
    Archer, T.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Timing in sports performance: psychophysiological analysis of technique in male and female athletes2003In: Athletic Insight, 5 (4). Retrieved December 15, 2003, from http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol5lss4/Timing.htmlArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Janson, L.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Tajmingens betydelse inom idrotten: Vad händer vid prestationstillfället?2002In: Svensk idrottsforskning, 11 (2), 42-46Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50. Janson, L.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Varför är de så bra? Om betydelsen av en drivande tanke och att aldrig ge upp. Intervjuer med svenska OS-guldmedaljörer2003In: Svensk idrottsforskning, 12 (4), 36-41Article in journal (Other academic)
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