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  • 1.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Acting as we were friends: the influence of contact employee self-disclosure on customer reciprocity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    I'll tell you something private and you'll buy from me: Effects of self-disclosure on reciprocity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Selling by Telling: Effects of Self-disclosure on ReciprocityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    The effect of frontline employees' personal self-disclosure on consumers' encounter experience2016In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 30, no May, 40-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how frontline employee self-disclosure influences consumers’ reciprocal behavior. To investigate the effects of frontline employee self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with a total sample of 475 participants. The results show that when frontline employees disclose personal information in one-time encounters, they are perceived as less competent and more superficial. The results also show that self-disclosure negatively affects reciprocal behavior, but that this is mediated through liking, competence, superficiality, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that it is not always beneficial for employees to use self-disclosure as a strategy for garnering a consumer's trust or satisfaction, which counters previous research that suggest that disclosure of personal information is a good way to positively influence consumers in the retail environment.

  • 5.
    Andersson K, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Let the music play or not: the influence of background music on consumer behavior.2012In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 19, no 6, 553-560 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns the effect that music has on consumer behavior in two different retail contexts during regular opening hours. Two studies were conducted in a field setting with consumers (N=550). Consumers were recruited to answer questions regarding behavioral measures, attitudes, and mood during days when background music was played. The conclusions from the two studies are that music affects consumer behavior, but also that the type of retail store and gender influences both the strength and direction of the effect

  • 6.
    Andersson, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    How friendship might create reciprocal effects in terms of purchases2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Background music as part of the servicescape: A study of the effect of music on the shopping experience2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andreassen, Tor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    To co-produce or not? The case of technology-enabled services2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Bergman, B.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Role of Quality Function Deployment in the Quality Movement1997In: the Third Annual International QFD Symposium, Vol. 1 (Eds, Gustafsson, A., Bergman, B. and Ekdahl, F.) IKP/Quality Technology and Management, LinköpingArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding Customer or Consumer wants and needs and converting these into products was early identified by Shewhart as a key issue for the manufacturing of products. A systematic technique supporting this process is Quality Function Deployment (QFD). In this paper we shall study the relations between QFD and the Quality Movement as initiated by Shewhart in the twenties, continued via the teachings of Deming and others and now widespread in industry and in society at large. We will also discuss in this paper the current use of QFD, especially the environments in which it has been used so far. Some comments concerning its future will also be given

  • 10. Blomqvist, O.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Ekdahl, F.
    Non-geometric Plackett-Burman Designs in Conjoint Analysis - A Way to Improve Predictions1998In: INFORMS, 1998Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their paper they use a non-geometric design to generate the concepts. Non-geometric designs represents a class of orthogonal designs that when the assumption of effect sparsity is valid, i.e. that only a few of the attributes actually influence the respondents' preferences, provide an opportunity to analyze interactions between attributes as well as the attributes themselves. In this article the use of non-geometric Plackett-Burman designs for conjoint analysis is advocated. Also, a procedure based on restricted all subsets regression for taking advantage of the special characteristics of the non-geometric designs is proposed and demonstrated using data from a conjoint study performed on cellular phone antennas in Sweden. Blomkvist, Ekdahl and Gustafsson also conducted a Monte Carlo simulation to further illustrate the properties of the proposed procedure and the use of non-geometric Plackett-Burman designs for conjoint analysis

  • 11.
    Bolton, Ruth N.
    et al.
    Arizona State Univ, WE Carey Sch Business, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet
    Univ Queensland, Sch Business, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Sirianni, Nancy J.
    Northeastern Univ, DAmoreMcKim Sch Business, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Tse, David K.
    Univ Hong Kong, Chinese Management Ctr, Sch Business, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Small details that make big differences: A radical approach to consumption experience as a firm's differentiating strategy2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 2, 253-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Service organizations and marketers have focussed too much of their energy on their core service's performance and too little emphasis on designing a customer journey that enhances the entire customer experience. There is nothing wrong with firms seeking continuous improvement in service quality and customer satisfaction. These efforts are needed for firms to be competitive in the marketplace. The problem occurs when performance levels and service offerings become too similar within an industry, so that price is the only competitive weapon that remains. The purpose of this paper is to argue that in order to break this deadlock, companies need to focus on the small details that make big differences to customers. Design/methodology/approach - The paper builds on interviews with executives in successful service organizations. It provides an analysis of differentiation strategies in diverse service organizations across consumption contexts, nations and cultures around the world. Findings - The paper develops three research propositions and argues for radical approaches to help service organizations truly understand customers and provide service experiences that engage and delight them. The paper argues that the new challenge for marketing is to help companies find and implement these small details to make a large impact on the overall customer experience. Originality/value - In order to truly understand the customer experience, the paper need a holistic view of all interactions customers have with a company. The paper need to understand the customer-firm interactions at all touch points, that is, during search, purchase, consumption and post-consumption. Customer experience involves the customers' cognitive, affective, emotional, social and sensory responses to the firm. The originality of this research lies in the focus on the small details that make a difference to customers during the service process rather than in the final outcome of the service performance.

  • 12.
    Brodie, Roderick J.
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Business, Dept Mkt, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Enhancing theory development in service research2016In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 27, no 1, 2-8 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore enhancing theory development in service research and provide an overview of the five essays on theorizing initiated by the International Network for Service Research workshop, held at Karlstad, Sweden in September 2014. Design/methodology/approach - A collaborative theorizing process which was initiated at the Karlstad, Sweden workshop. Findings - Six (five from the event and the introduction) original and provocative essays that explore different aspects of theorizing in service research. Originality/value - Exploring how a collaborative approach to research can be used.

  • 13. Brown, Stephen
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Benefits and Hurdles of Transforming Manufacturers into Solution Providers2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Brown, Stephen
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Successful transformation of manufacturing companies into service providers2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Davidsson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Degree of Service-orientation in the pulp and paper industry2009In: International Journal of Services Technology and Management, ISSN 1460-6720, Vol. 11, no 1, 24-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies in the process industries are seeing the advantages of services but are struggling with the changes these require as regards the offering and the organisation. This paper presents an empirical investigation within the pulp and paper industry based on a survey of Swedish manufacturing firms and a multiple case study of three case companies and their customers. To investigate whether the manufacturers active in this industry are product-oriented or are becoming more service-oriented, five themes important to the companies under study are presented and discussed: that is, finding the right mix of physical products and services, the concept of service, business models, technology-based services and organising service delivery.

  • 16.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Service Science with a Focus on Academia and Company Collaboration2007In: Service Sciences: Fundamentals, Challenges and Future Development, Berlin: Springer , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    The International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management (QUIS)2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 4, 430-432 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Nordic School of Quality Management1999Book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Triggers for Customer Switching: A case study at Volvo Car Corporation2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Triggers for Customer Switching Path Analysis - A case study at Volvo Car Corporation2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, AndersBrown, Stephen WJohnston, Robert
    : service excellence in management : interdisciplinary contributions : [proceedings of a conference held in Karlstad, Sweden, June 15-18, 2004]2004Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Challenges in New Service Development: and Value Creation Through Service2007In: Advances in Information Systems Development Bridging the Gap between Academia and Industry, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Challenges in New Service Development:: and Value Creation Through Service2006In: Advances in Information Systems Development Bridging the Gap between Academia and Industry / [ed] Nilsson, A., Gustas, R., Wojtkowski., W., Wojtkowski, G., Wryczna, S. and Zupancis, J, Boston, 2006, 23-34 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Challenges in New Service Development and Value Creation through Service2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Quality in New Service Development ' Critical Success Factors2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Quality in New Service Development: Critical Success Factors,2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Success Factors in New Service Development and Value Creation through Services2005In: Advances in Service Innovation / [ed] Dieter Spath and Klaus-Peter Fähnrich, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Matthing, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Introduction2006In: Involving Customers in New Service Development, Imperial College Press, 2006, 1-13 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Matthing, Jonas
    Involving Customers in New Service Development2006Book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Matthing, Jonas
    Involving Customers in New Service Development2006 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    New service development from the perspective of value co-creation in a service system2014In: Handbook on Research in Service Marketing / [ed] Roland T Rust, Ming-Hui Hung, Boston: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Integration in Service Innovation2010In: The handbook of Innovation and Services: A multi-disciplinary perspective / [ed] Faïz Gallouj & Faridah Djellal, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, 301-317 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Service Innovation and Customer Co-development2010In: The Handbook of Service Science: a research perspective / [ed] Maglio, Paul P.; Kieliszewski, Cheryl A.; Spohrer, James C. (Eds.), New York, USA: Springer , 2010, 561-578 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, AndersKarlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.Magnusson, Peter RKarlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.Matthing, JonasKarlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Involving Customers in New Service Development2006Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Comparing Switching Patterns in Competitive and Non-competitive Markets-Customer Preferences and Behavior in Five Service Industries2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    This article is about behavioral change in customer relationships. Changes in customer behavior are compared in five different service industries. The changes are manifested as switching behavior, which is at the same time the reference point for customer expressions on the paths that lead to switching. Switching barriers and the competitive industrial situations in the comparison between industries also revealed changes in behavior in an industrial monopoly in which switching to alternative external service providers was not an option. This kind of switching was articulated as internal switching. The behavioral change was therefore assessed in terms not only of frequency, but also of type of change. Switching was reflected as a configuration including the ability to cause behavioral change on different levels. The switching ability called configuration energy even caused a change in behavior at the highest level in a non-competitive industry in which there was a lack of switching alternatives. Total change was considered to be a result of the higher energy level driving the switching configuration than when the change was partial.

    Keywords: Customer switching, customer relationships, behavioral change, competitive and non-competitive service industries.

  • 36.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Customer Clubs in Telecommunications - A Relationship Marketing Perspective2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Improving the Prerequisites for Customer Satisfaction and Performance: A Study of Policy Deployment in a Global Truck Company2010In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, Vol. 2, no 2, 239-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Roos, Inger.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Service Portraits in Service Research: A Critical Review2005In: International Journal of Service Industry Management, ISSN 0956-4233, E-ISSN 0956-4223, Vol. 16, no 1, 107-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Service Portrays and Service Constructions ' A Critical Review Through the Lens of the Customer, International2005In: Journal of Service Industry Management (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service definitions and service characteristics have played a key role in establishing service research as an academic field. In this article we discuss service portraits. We believe that discussions regarding definitions of services and service characteristics are important when understanding value creation through services. Our aim is to contribute to the discussion about the future of service research by means of a literature overview and empirical results from a study among scholars who have shaped this area of research. This discussion is motivated by criticism from service scholars who question the foundations for the discourse. The critique focuses on how services have been defined and operationalized in generic service characteristics. By portraying service, we view service as a perspective on value creation. We put emphasis on the lens of the customer and the value that is co-created with customers

  • 40.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Effect of Triggers in Customer Relationships2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the research literature trigger is used in several different meanings and ways. The application in relationship marketing has traditionally been connected to critical incidents with implication for relationships between customers and service providers. The behavioural consequences of triggers have accordingly had a limited and narrow association with relationships. In this article we include triggers in a switching-intention model that gives not only the connection between trigger and critical incidents, but includes also the context to the behavioural consequences of triggers. The model reflects a dynamic switching path that describes on ongoing process of customer sensitiveness for switching. In other words, the trigger divides the customers due to their sensitivity for switching into customer groups indicating differing levels regarding the strength of their relationship with a certain service provider.IntroductionIn a longer time perspective as in the relationship view customers seem to fluctuate in their evaluation of their service providers. The fluctuation may be considered as changes in their perceptions of the service providers. The reasons for the changes differ regarding factors that are important for the relationship continuation. The changed perceptions again are likely to influence the stability of the relationships regardless of the seemingly existing maintenance of the relationship. Therefore, the real state of the relationship temperature regarding true stability and thus the reasons and motivation for the change becomes essential. Recent marketing literature suggests that a discrimination of switching customers from continuers deepens the understanding concerning the matter of fluctuating perceptions in customer relationships (Ganesh et al. 2000; Keaveney and Parhasarathy 2001). The authors of those articles imply further that the effect of customer relationships history on future customer perceptions of relationships is possible to discern by distinguishing the continuers from switchers. Nevertheless, the awareness of fluctuating perceptions during the distance between the initiation of and switching from relationships put pressure on the slow progress in marketing literature on the subject of deepening understanding of customer relationships. This article sets focus on triggers that influence customer relationships in order to fill the gap of lacking understanding of the deceptively and irregularly perception changes among customers. Improvement concerning the understanding of differing perception sensitivity among customers may be considered as a response to the request in recent literature regarding behavior changes and segments. Schultz (2002) indicates that customer segmentation has stagnated to reflect only physical properties, attitude or finite measures. In order to maintain behavioural data for segmentation an increased understanding of behavior changes is needed.Accordingly, those kinds of basic differences among customers have implications for their sensitivity for episodes that challenge their current relationships. In this article we propose a loyalty-predicting model with ultimate focus on switching intentions. The model includes sensitising factors labelled triggers. The role of the trigger is defined according to Roos (1999; 2002: Edvardsson et al. 2002), where the energy and direction of the trigger influence describes a switching path. The trigger effect described here is on top of and affects the relationships when customers have perceived or constantly perceive situational, influential or reactional factors that they in some way relate to the relationship with their service provider. Consequently, the source of the influencing factors does not have to be directly related to the relationship, also the context has established its noticeable and additional significance as trigger source and contributor (Edvardsson et al. 2002). In sum, the trigger effect on customer perceptions is in this study accordingly defined as factors with sensitising and directing influences on customers evaluations processes with behavioral consequences for the relationship (Roos 1999; 2002: Edvardsson et al. 2002).In this paper, we also report the results from an empirical study of a large Swedish telecommunication company, where a loyalty-predicting model has been tested. The results show differences among customers concerning the evaluation of service providers depending on whether customers are on switching paths or not. We find that the models built for customers that are on the switching path have a larger R2 indicating that the models fit better for them. The implication is that these customers are more critical towards the service provider and are better at evaluating the company compared to customers that does not have a trigger.The triggerThe literature describes triggers of varying nature. Generally the trigger concept is used in psychological literature indicating the causal factor of a change of the conditional state or in medical literature as the final reason for breaking down the defence against deceases (Eby et al. 1999; Karpa 2000; Supphellen and Nelson 2001). In the financial literature trigger is used, although rarely, as the articulation of explanations for prompt capital outflows and rapid deterioration of stable economies (Paasche 2001). In marketing literature trigger is most frequently given the role of alarm clocks (Gardial et al. 1996), where the function concentrates on energy to provide signals for further actions either in organisations (Schindehutte et el. 2000) or in perception processes (Roos and Strandvik 1997; Edvardsson and Strandvik 2000). Such view on triggers was edified by Olsen (1992) as triggers were characterized equal to critical steps in an episode of a customer relationship. The trigger was seen as the source of the critical incident with energy to influence the progress of the incident. However, literature does not usually use trigger significance in the way it is used in the present article where the trigger function is seen as a change of the relationship character caused by typical factors with long-lasting effect. The effect on the specific customer is a change to more conscious and sensitive approaches to all perceptions of the relationship (Edvardsson et al. 2002). Therefore, the triggered customers have distinct and different characters concerning their awareness of their service providers services and products compared to those customers who have not perceived a trigger. Based on the logic of satisfaction it has been suggested in the literature (Day 1976; Woodruff 1993; Gardial et al. 1996) that the triggering effect causing behavioural changes on the relationship has to be associated with critical incidents. It is therefore crucial to define the difference between critical incidents and criticality. Day said nearly 30 years ago: In general, something out of the ordinary must occur either prior to the purchase process, during the purchase process, or during the consumption phase to alert the consumer or call his attention to some aspect of the purchase situation (italics added: Day 1976). That definition represents the traditional view on critical incident with no outspoken implication for customer relationships.Gardial et al. (1996) again consider triggers as events with five different kinds of responses among customers. One response is categorised as Change in Behavior or Product use, another is Change in Evaluation followed by Re-evaluation, Change in Standards Level and Emotional Response. That categorization reflects the authors view on the consequences of the events. The static view on the consequences of the events makes their categories appear as detached elements of a relationship. When customers describe their actual switching behavior as a process (Roos ), for example, they include emotions and changes in perceptions as factors of their switching paths. The factors of the paths only describe the progress and the character of the switching paths, the paths characterize the customers and their sensitiveness for switching. In a switching perceptive we follow therefore the definition of criticality that pays attention to actual change of behavior with implication for the relationship (Roos 1999; Edvardsson and Strandvik 2000). Accordingly, when a change in behavior occurs the reason of the change is revealed and derived, not only from traditional critical incidents but also from other factors both in the typical relationship and in the context of it. The traditional association between critical incidents and the change in behavior becomes thus included in the trigger definition used for this article. In other words, the defintion of triggers is thereby extended from a precise location associated to some critical incident causing immediate change in perception, evaluation or behavior to a more long-standing effect that not always has direct influence on the relationship. In sum, in this article the trigger effect is defined and analysed as: Situational, Influential and Reactional triggers, which gives not only the distinctive relationship definition but also simultaneously prompts the segmenting function. The segmenting effect of the trigger The segmenting effect of triggers is embedded in the customer description of switching paths. Triggers are divided in: Situational, Influential and Reactional. The categorization is made due to a numerous qualitative studies and a method labelled SPAT. We are not going to present and deliberate SPAT any further in this study, because that particular tool for qualitative analysing of actual switching behavior has been previously published (Roos 1999; 2002; Edvardsson et al. 2002 a and b).Customer sensitiveness regarding their evaluation of service providers are divided into groups labelled: Situational Influential Reactional.The situational, influential and reactional characteristics identify the sensitiveness that labels the respective switching path. According to Roos (1999; 2002) and Edvardsson et al. (2002 a and b) situational customers perceive increased sensitiveness towards the service provider because of changes in their own lives or in something affecting their own lives. Such matters can be represented by demographic changes in the family, changes in job situations or the economic situation of the particular customer or the family. Situational customers have a comprehensive approach to price issues concerning the relationship. Influential customers again follow the price campaigns of the competitors without a deep elaboration of costs and benefits, specially concerning the efforts of new actors aiming in to the market. Influential customers follow the business including the competitors actions and have not a comprehensive approach to price issues. Reactional customers are those customers that traditionally were included in literature (Gardial et al. 1996) as having perceived critical incidents. Reactional customers have perceived a critical incident or perceive that the business of the service provider has deteriorated or is constantly deteriorating. Price increase that is perceived to be unfair in the meaning that they either becomes to high compared to others or are considered to much at one time may also place a reactional customer on the switching path. Mostly the increased sensitiveness of a reactional customer is, however, related in some respect to the personnel or the overall service. Reactional customers are less-price sensitive than the other two segments perceiving increased sensitiveness towards the service provider.Once customers have perceived the trigger they enter the switching path. When customers are on switching paths they are more sensitive to all concerns of the particular company. The consequence of that is that the sensitiveness is not increased only regarding the source of the trigger, but regarding the whole company. Customers become more aware and they seem to be better at evaluating the companys business that those customers that have not perceived any trigger. From that perspective we propose a model that enables the differences among customers regarding the relationship strength. Thus, when customers are more sensitive towards the company they simultaneously seem to be more aware of the switching option. The respective switching path again describes more in detail the character of each customer group and the level of their switching disposition. The modelThe model (Edvardsson et al. 2002) describes loyalty ? in terms of customers being or not being on switching paths. Additionally, the trigger effect, the reasons for being on switching paths, divides customers into segments based on the kind of trigger influencing the switching path. Customers commitment to their service providers sets furthermore apart the customer evaluation of the service providers as being either calculative or affective. The factors of the model are included embedding their typical functions for the dynamism of the process. The loyalty model depicts accordingly loyalty as on ongoing process. Figure 1 displays a model that is the result of a range of qualitative studies on actual switching behavior (Edvardsson et al. 2002a and b). The dynamic model is divided into four different stages: The triggers, The process, The return reasons and The outcome. The outcome of the model is switching intentions forming the possible end of a switching path. On the switching path the customers form their perceptions of the company. The factors included in the perception of the company were derived from longitudinal qualitative studies on actual switching behavior of telecommunications (Edvardsson et al. 2002b). More detailed, the perceptions form the focus of the customer expressions during their relationships and on their switching paths. Figure 1. The loyalty model.The Triggers were found to have a sensitising effect (Roos 1999) on customer perceptions throughout the relationships and are separately analysed from the angle of their particular trigger character. The dynamic switching intention model has accordingly not only the potential to describe a switching path but features also a segmenting capacity.In social psychology, involvement has been used in persuasion research as an important variable affecting attitude change (Park and Mittal 1985). Commitment to service providers occurs during certain circumstances of involvement, regardless of what kind of industry the service provider operates in. Although, some industries may be argued to have more committed customers due to the character of their products being durables or non-durables, customers themselves decide on whether they are committed to their service provider or not depending also on other and complementary factors. The reasons for commitment is in Figure 1 looked at as being either affective or calculative. In other words, the repeated behavior in the model is not only regarded as committed or not committed, it is additionally distinguished by argumentation. Being viewed as customer communication, either with other people or with themselves, customers change their behavior also by changing their attitudes towards the service provider. The categorization into affective and calculative cuts through all categories suggested by Park and Mittal (1985). Their categorization is based on how argumentation influences affect and behavior. In some cases, however, the change of behavior must not be an antecedent of attitudinal change, which is paid attention to in Figure 1.The methodThe resultsDiscussionReferences:Day 1976Eby, Lillian T., Deena M. Freeman, Michael C. Rush and Charles E. Lance (1999), Motivational Bases of Affective Organizational Commitment: A Partial Test of An Integrative Theoretical Model, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 463-483.Edvardsson, Bo and Tore Strandvik (2000), Is a Critical Incident Critical for a Customer Relationship?, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 82-91.Edvardsson, Bo, Anders Gustafsson and Inger Roos (2002a),Understanding the Trigger Effect on Customers Maturity Processes in Telecommunication, QUALITY IN SERVICES (QUIS 8), The Eighth International Research Symposium on Service Quality, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, June 11-14, 2002.Edvardsson, Bo, Anders Gustafsson and Inger Roos (2002b), Comparing Switching Patterns in Competitive and Non-competitive markets Customer Preferences and Behavior in Five Service Industries, 11th Annual AMA Frontiers in Services Conference Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 27-29, 2002.Ganesh, Jaishankar, Mark J., Arnold and Kristy E. Reynolds (2000), Understanding the Customer Base of Service Providers: An Examination of the Differences between Switchers and Stayers, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 65-87.Gardial, Sarah Fisher, Daniel J. Flint and Robert B. Woodruff (1996), Trigger Events: Exploring the Relationships between Critical Events and Consumers Evaluations, Standards, Emotions, Values and Behavior, Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, Vol. 9, pp. 35-51.Karpa, Kelly Dowhower (2000), The Assault on Allergies: From Diagnostics to Treatments, Drug Topics, pp. 12-17.Keaveney, Susan M. and Madhavan Parhasarathy (2001), Customer Switching Behavior in Online Services: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Selected Attitudinal, Behavioral, and Demographic Factors, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 374-390.Paasche, Bernhard (2001), Credit Constraints and International Financial Crisis, Journal of Monetary Economics, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 623-650.Roos, Inger (1999), Switching Processes in Customer Relationships, Journal of Service Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 68-85.Roos, Inger (2002), Methods of Investigating Critical Incidents: A Comparative Review, Journal of Service Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, February, pp. 193-204.Roos, Inger and Tore Strandvik (1997),Diagnosing the Termination of Customer Relationships, Three American Marketing Association Special Conferences, Relationship Marketing, Dublin, Ireland, 12-15 June 1997, pp. 617-631, 1997.Schindehutte, Minet, Michael H. Morris and Donald F. Kuratko (2000), Triggering Events, Corporate Entrepreneurship and the Marketing Function, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 18-30.Schultz, Don E. (2002), Behavior changes; do your segments?, The American Marketing Asssociation: Marketing News, July 22, p. 6, 2002.Supphellen, Magne and Michelle R. Nelson (2001), Developing, Exploring, and Validating a Typology of Private Philanthropic Decision, Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 573-603.Woodruff 1993

  • 41.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Understanding the Customers' Maturity Process - A Telecommunication Case2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the Customers Maturity Process

    A telecommunication case



    Bo Edvardsson

    Anders Gustafsson

    and

    Inger Roos



    Telecommunication represents the characteristic of a fierce-competitive, dynamic and rapid-growing industry. Through merger mania in a turbulent market telecommunication companies try to improve their control over as many customers as possible (Sumner-Smith and Sumner 1999; Borna 2000; Cobbett and Matthews 2000). These companies are trying to achieve the ultimate attribute of relationship marketing, i.e. long-term relationships with their customers (Grönroos 1989; 2000; Berry 1995; Colgate and Stewart 1998), the application in this industry, however, with disloyal, frequently switching customers seems challenging. Even more difficult is the situation for the companies in the wireless part of the industry with no barriers what so ever to prevent customers from switching. One of the major challenges for the telecom companies is to identify the specific factors appealing to customers willingness to switch between different operators. A longitudinal approach to analysing customers switching processes puts forward and distinguishes the most decisive factors in terms of disloyal behavior. The emerging pattern from that mapping indicates the focus of customer perceptions. That focus is in this study defined as maturity agents. The maturity agents again form the maturing market of a specific market, here telecommunications. Maturing market is hence viewed from the customers perspective in line with the relationship logic. The indicators of the maturing market are per definition instable over time and need therefore to be supported and updated by repeated mapping of customers switching behavior.

    This paper is based on two empirical studies recently carried out in a large Swedish telecommunication company. The first study was a combined complaint and switching behaviour study (Edvardsson and Roos 2001). Findings of the first study are in this paper compared to findings of the second study consisting of process mapping of the customers switching behavior in the same company. Based on this comparison, factors and combinations of factors were found to work as maturity agents in the customers processes. The purpose of the study is to build a model with the capability to establish and generalise maturity agents and their influence on switching intention. Empirical results of the quantitative study are presented.

    In sum, a maturity-agent model is presented and quantitatively measured results presented. The maturity-agent model is grounded in the two empirical studies made in the telecommunication company, here labelled The Company, the maturity agents are defined as the factors, which embed the potential to communicate the change of customer perceptions, including both The Company and the context. The maturity agents are likely to change over time accordingly. The identification of these maturity agents may facilitate and support the sharpness of marketing activities carried out in order to build and maintain long-term customer relationships.

    References:

    Berry, Leonard (1995), Relationship Marketing of Services - Growing Interest, Emerging Perspectives, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.23, No. 4 (Fall), 236-245.

    Edvardsson, Bo and Inger Roos (2000): Customer Complaints and Switching Behavior A Study of relationship dynamics in a telecommunication company. Journal of Relationship Marketing, forthcoming 2001.

    Borna, Claude, 2000. Combating Customer Churn. Telecommunications, Americas Ed. Vol. 34, No. 3, 83-85.

    Grönroos, Christian (1989a): Defining Marketing: A Market-Oriented Approach. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 23. No. 1, pp. 52-50.

    Grönroos, Christian (2000): Grönroos, Christian (2000), Relationship Marketing: The Nordic School Perspective. Jagdish N. Sheth and Atul Parvatiyar, eds, Handbook of Relationship Marketing, London, Sage Publications, 95-118.

    Sumner-Smith, David and Ian Sumner, 1999. The free-access revolution. Marketing, Vol. 4, March, 29-30.

    Cobbett, Ray and Mike Matthews, 2000. Its your call. Supply Management, Vol.5, No. 14, 34-35.

  • 42.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Sandén, Bodil
    Kvalitet i tjänsteutveckling resultat från en världsomspännande studie1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel har vi beskrivit den situation som offentlig tjänsteverksamhet befinner sig i med stora utmaningar och krav på förändring. Det handlar om att få ut mer av insatta resurser, att skapa mervärden genom en bättre totalkvalitet i relation till kostanden. För att hantera dessa förändringar har vi lyft fram tjänsteutveckling som det strategiskt viktigaste området. Området är nästan helt outvecklat inom offentlig sektor. Vi hävdar att offentliga verksamheter kan och skall jämföra sig med och lära av det som finns om tjänsteutveckling inom näringslivet och den akademiska forskningen. Vi har beskrivit tjänstelogiken och ett antal framgångsfaktorer i utvecklingen av nya tjänster. Vi har redo-visat resultat från en världsomspännande studie kring tjänsteutveckling med tyngdpunkt på telekombaserade tjänster

  • 43.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Sandén, Bodil
    Mapping Customer Behaviour: A key to sucessful new service development and innovation2002In: Innovation as Strategic Reflexivity / [ed] Sundbo, J and Fugelsang, L, Routhledge, London, pp 140-163 , 2002Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Sandén, Bodil
    Johnson, M. D.
    New Service Development and Innovation in the New Economy2000Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I boken tar vi upp en av de viktigaste frågorna för det moderna företaget: hur utvecklar och introducerar man nya och innovativa tjänster enligt den nya affärslogiken. Boken ger läsaren insikt i området tjänsteutveckling och syftar till att ge både en praktisk och teoretisk syn på utvecklingsprocessen, tillgängliga metoder och verktyg samt olika aspekter vad avser designen av tjänsten. De huvudsakliga utgångspunkterna i boken är värdeskapande, kundinvolvering och tjänstelogiken: 1) tjänster är vanligtvis mer eller mindre abstrakta och immateriella, 2) tjänster produceras, levereras, konsumeras och marknadsförs delvis samtidigt, 3) tjänster involverar oftast kunden i rollen som medproducent genom att kunden bidrar med information och utföra ett eller flera moment i processen och 4) tjänster är mer eller mindre heterogena. Boken är uppdelade på 10 kapitel. I det första kapitlet, Perspectives on New Service Development and Innovation, diskuteras bl a betydelsen av tjänsteutveckling samt trender och karakteristika i den nya ekonomin. I första delen av kapitel två, The Service Concept and the Service Logic, definieras centrala begrepp samt tjänsters unika kännetecken och logik. Andra delen utgör en kort översikt av forskningsområdet tjänsteutveckling. Tjänsteutvecklingsprocessen kopplar vi till organisationens affärsstrategi och kultur och utgör diskussionen i kapitel tre, Culture & Strategy. De efterföljande kapitlen, fyra till sju, representerar fyra övergripande faser i tjänsteutvecklingsprocessen: Service Idea Generation, The Service Strategy & Culture Gate, Service Design och Service Policy Deployment & Implementation. I kapitel åtta, Supporting Methods, ges en översikt av möjliga metoder som kan användas i olika faser av utvecklingsprocessen. I det slutliga kapitlet, Prerequisites for World Class New Service Development and Innovation, summeras våra slutsatser och ett antal förutsättningar för framgång dras upp.Samtliga kapitel innehåller en eller flera fallbeskrivningar hämtade från olika svenska och amerikanska förtag i branscher som t ex telekom, försäkring, flygbolag, nöjesparker, lastvagnar och kemikalier. Dessa syftar till att illustrera den mer praktiska aspekterna av arbetet med tjänsteutveckling. Målgruppen för boken är den reflekterande praktikern som dagligen arbetar med tjänsteutveckling och förbättringsfrågor. Vår ambition är också att ge studenter vid universitet och högskolor samt andra utbildningsinstanser en praktisk och teoretisk översikt av området tjänsteutveckling.

  • 45.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Role of Trust Drivers in Service Quality Management1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, B., Gustafsson, A. and Witell, L2008In: Customer Integration in Service Innovation, 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Services Marketing: History, Current trends and the Future2005In: Marketing: Broadening the Horizons / [ed] Stefan Lagrosen and Göran Svensson, Studentlitteratur , 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Varför lyssna och lära av kunder i utveckling av konkurrenskraftia tjänster?2008In: Marknadsföring - myter och möjligheter?, Liber , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Johnson, M. D.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Strandvik, T.
    The Effects of Satisfaction and Loyalty on Profits and Growth - Products versus Services1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper uses data from the Swedish Customer Satisfaction Index together with performance data from competing industries to study the difference in logic in terms of customer satisfaction and loyalty between services and products. We find that for product firms loyalty can have a negative effect on company performance, while for service firms the effect is positive. The implication is that service firms must earn their loyalty but product firms can lower their prices and thus retain their customers

  • 50.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Johnson, M. D.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Strandvik, T.
    The Effects of Satisfaction and Loyalty on Profits and Growth - Products versus Services2000In: Total Quality Management Journal 11(7), pp917-927Article in journal (Refereed)
12345 1 - 50 of 204
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