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  • 1.
    Inayat, Abrar
    et al.
    University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Ghenai, Chaouki
    University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalens University.
    Ammar, Muhammad
    Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia.
    Ayoub, Muhammad
    Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia.
    Hussin, M. N. B.
    Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia.
    Parametric Study for Production of Dimethyl Ether (DME) As a Fuel from Palm Wastes2017In: / [ed] Jinyue Yan, Fengchun Sun, SK Chou, Umberto Desideri, Hailong Li, Pietro Campana, Rui Xiong, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 105, p. 1242-1249Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimethyl Ether (DME) has been getting numerous attention as it's potential as the second generation bio-fuel. Traditionally DME is produced from the petroleum based stock which involves two steps of synthesis (methanol synthesis from the syngas and DME synthesis from methanol). DME synthesis via single step is one of the promising methods that has been developed. In Malaysia, due to the abundance of oil palm waste, it is a good candidate to be used as a feedstock for DME production. In this paper, single step process of DME synthesis was simulated and investigated using the Aspen HYSYS. Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) from palm wastes has been taken as the main feed stock for DME synthesis. Four parameters (temperature, pressure, steam/biomass ratio and oxygen/biomass ratio) have been studied on the H-2/CO ratio and DME yield. The results showed that optimum H-2/CO ratio of 1.0 has been obtained when having an oxygen to biomass ratio (O/B) of 0.37 and steam to biomass ratio (S/B) of 0.23. The increment in the steam to biomass ratio increased the production of DME while the increment in oxygen to biomass ratio will cause reduction in DME production. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 2.
    Naqvi, Salman Raza
    et al.
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Chem & Mat Engn, H-12, Islamabad 54000, Pakistan..
    Jamshaid, Sana
    Yeungnam Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Gyongsan 38541, South Korea..
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Malardalen Univ MDH, Sch Sustainable Dev Soc & Technol, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Farooq, Wasif
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Chem & Mat Engn, H-12, Islamabad 54000, Pakistan.;King Fahd Univ Petr & Minerals, Dept Chem Engn, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia..
    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Chem & Mat Engn, H-12, Islamabad 54000, Pakistan..
    Aman, Zaeem
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Chem & Mat Engn, H-12, Islamabad 54000, Pakistan..
    Zubair, Muhammad
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, US Pakistan Ctr Adv Studies Energy, H-12, Islamabad 54000, Pakistan..
    Ali, Majid
    Natl Univ Sci & Technol, US Pakistan Ctr Adv Studies Energy, H-12, Islamabad 54000, Pakistan..
    Shahbaz, Muhammad
    Univ Teknol PETRONAS, Dept Chem Engn, Biomass Proc Lab, Ctr Bio Fuel & Biochem Res CBBR, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia..
    Inayat, Abrar
    Univ Sharjah, Dept Sustainable & Renewable Energy Engn, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates..
    Afzal, Waheed
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Engn, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland..
    Potential of biomass for bioenergy in Pakistan based on present case and future perspectives2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 1247-1258Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future energy security and environmental issues are major driving forces for increased biomass utilization globally and especially in developing countries like Pakistan. For efficient utilization of indigenous biomass resources in the future energy mix, it is important to gain knowledge of current energy system in various sectors. Some of the technologies and initiatives are under development to achieve transition from non-renewable resources to renewable resources, and reducing fossil fuel dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. Recently, number of proposals has been presented for the development of sustainable biofuels production methods for promise for accelerating a shift away from an unsustainable approach to possible sustainable production practices or a sustainable social, economic and environment. This article presents an extensive literature review of the biomass-based renewable energy potential in Pakistan based on current energy scenario and future perspectives. It also highlights the availability of the indigenous and local biomass resources and potential biomass conversion technologies to convert such resources to bioenergy. The drivers for utilization of indigenous biomass resources in future energy mix and challenges regarding awareness among stakeholders and R & D to fill knowledge gaps are economically restraints. The article concludes with suggestions on future directions and policies for effective implementation of biomass based renewable energy production.

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