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  • 1. Nyroos, Lina
    et al.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Code-switched repair initiation: The case of Swedish eller in L2 English test interaction2017In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 120, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a long-standing interest in repair practices, much is yet to be learned about participants’ selections of components of the repair operation, and their systematic variation across contexts and languages (Hayashi, Raymond, & Sidnell, 2013b; Kitzinger, 2013, p. 241). The present paper targets the initiation of self-repair through examination of a particular discursive object, the Swedish conjunction eller (‘or’), located in repair-prefacing position in a corpus of 79 second language (L2) oral proficiency tests. In the corpus, eller is systematically produced in Swedish, while surrounding talk is produced in the target language, English. As such, the repair initiations are code-switched (e.g., Auer, 1998b). Building on the recent work on or-prefaced repair initiations in English (Lerner & Kitzinger, 2015), we examine the role of eller-initiated repair (EIR), i.e. repair prefaced by eller, in the context of paired L2 tests. We also contrast EIRs with or-prefaced repair initiations in the same dataset. Findings indicate that EIRs serve to display trouble awareness, which may relate to necessary revisions of both form and content of the talk in English. The ‘other-languageness’ (Gafaranga, 2000) of the momentary code-switch amplifies test-takers’ attention to what needs to be replaced or revised, and indicates to co-participants that self-repair is underway. The practice helps push forward turn transition and pre-empts conclusions about the speaker’s stance or linguistic competence, which may be particularly relevant in a language testing context.

  • 2.
    Sandlund, Erica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Testing L2 talk: A review of empirical studies on second language oral proficiency testing2016In: Language and Linguistics Compass, ISSN 1749-818X, E-ISSN 1749-818X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 14-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this review article, empirical studies published from 2004 through 2014 on second-language (L2) oralproficiency testing are analyzed, with a specific focus on discourse and social interaction in such tests.Taking three common test setups, oral proficiency interviews (OPIs), paired peer tests, and group peertests as an organizing principle for the studies examined, recent developments in L2 oral proficiencytesting research are situated, reviewed, and discussed, with a particular focus on tests conducted in face-to-face contexts. Findings from the review of selected journals, databases, monographs, and edited collec-tions indicate (1) a prevalence of studies of the OPI format, but a growing research base on paired andgroup tests, (2) an absence of oral test studies in discourse journals, and (3) an emphasis on assessment,validation, and rater perspectives, as opposed to detailed analyses of interaction in L2 tests.

  • 3.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Speaking about speaking: English teachers' practices and views regarding Part A of the English national test2015In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, no 3, p. 16-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Genomförande och bedömning av nationella prov i engelska: en pilotstudie2013In: KAPET, ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 24-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Nyroos, Lina
    The teacher as examiner of L2 oral tests: A challenge to standardization.2017In: Language Testing, ISSN 0265-5322, E-ISSN 1477-0946, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper looks at the issue of standardization in L2 oral testing. Whereas external examiners are frequently used globally, some countries opt for test-takers’ own teachers as examiners instead. In the present study, Sweden is used as a case in point, with a focus on the mandatory, high-stakes, summative, 9th-grade national test in English (speaking part). The national test has the typical characteristics of standardized tests and its main objective is to contribute to equity in assessment and grading on a national level. However, using teachers as examiners raises problems for standardization. The aim of this study is to examine teachers’/examiners’ practices and views regarding four aspects of the speaking test – test-taker grouping, recording practices, the actual test occasion, and examiner participation in students’ test interactions – and to discuss findings in relation to issues concerning the normativity and practical feasibility of standardization, taking the perspectives of test-takers, teachers/examiners, and test constructors into account. In order to answer research questions linked to these four aspects of L2 oral testing, self-report survey data from a random sample of teachers (N = 204) and teacher interviews (N = 11) were collected and quantitative data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Survey findings revealed that despite thorough instructions, teacher practices and views vary greatly across all aspects, which was further confirmed by interview data. Three background variables – teacher certification, work experience, gender – were investigated to see whether they could provide explanations. Whereas certification and gender did not contribute significantly to explaining the findings, work experience bore some relevance, but effect sizes were generally small. The study concludes that using teachers as examiners is a well-functioning procedure in terms of assessment for learning, but raises doubts regarding assessment of learning and standardization; a solution for test authorities could be to frame the test as non-standardized.

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