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  • 1.
    Hertz, Hans
    et al.
    KTH.
    von Hofsten, Olov
    KTH.
    Bertilson, Mikael
    KTH.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH.
    Reinspach, Julia Antonia
    KTH.
    Martz, Dale
    KTH.
    Selin, Mårten
    KTH.
    Christakou, Athanasia
    KTH.
    Jerlström-Hultqvist, J
    Uppsala University.
    Svärd, S
    Uppsala University.
    Laboratory cryo soft X-ray microscopy2012In: Journal of Structural Biology, ISSN 1047-8477, E-ISSN 1095-8657, Vol. 177, no 2, p. 267-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lens-based water-window X-ray microscopy allows two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) imaging of intact unstained cells in their near-native state with unprecedented contrast and resolution. Cryofixation is essential to avoid radiation damage to the sample. Present cryo X-ray microscopes rely on synchrotron radiation sources, thereby limiting the accessibility for a wider community of biologists. In the present paper we demonstrate water-window cryo X-ray microscopy with a laboratory-source-based arrangement. The microscope relies on a lambda = 2.48-nm liquid-jet high-brightness laser-plasma source, normal-incidence multilayer condenser optics, 30-nm zone-plate optics, and a cryo sample chamber. We demonstrate 2D imaging of test patterns, and intact unstained yeast, protozoan parasites and mammalian cells. Overview 3D information is obtained by stereo imaging while complete 3D microscopy is provided by full tomographic reconstruction. The laboratory microscope image quality approaches that of the synchrotron microscopes, but with longer exposure times. The experimental image quality is analyzed from a numerical wave-propagation model of the imaging system and a path to reach synchrotron-like exposure times in laboratory microscopy is outlined.

  • 2.
    Martz, Dale H.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Selin, Mårten
    KTH.
    von Hofsten, Olov
    KTH.
    Fogelqvist, Emelie
    KTH.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH.
    Legall, H.
    Max-Born-Institute, Germany .
    Blobel, G.
    Max-Born-Institute, Germany .
    Seim, C.
    nstitute of Optics and Atomic Physics—Analytical X-ray physics, Germany .
    Stiel, H.
    Max-Born-Institute, Germany .
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH.
    High average brightness water window source for short-exposure cryomicroscopy2012In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 37, no 21, p. 4425-4427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory water window cryomicroscopy has recently demonstrated similar image quality as synchrotron-based microscopy but still with much longer exposure times, prohibiting the spread to a wider scientific community. Here we demonstrate high-resolution laboratory water window imaging of cryofrozen cells with 10 s range exposure times. The major improvement is the operation of a lambda = 2.48 nm, 2 kHz liquid nitrogen jet laser plasma source with high spatial and temporal stability at high average brightness >1.5 x 10(12) ph/(s x sr x mu m(2) x line), i.e., close to that of early synchrotrons. Thus, this source enables not only biological x-ray microscopy in the home laboratory but potentially other applications previously only accessible at synchrotron facilities.

  • 3.
    Selin, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH.
    Fogelqvist, Emelie
    KTH.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH.
    Guttmann, Peter
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH.
    3D simulation of the image formation in soft x-ray microscopes2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 25, p. 30756-30768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In water-window soft x-ray microscopy the studied object is typically larger than the depth of focus and the sample illumination is often partially coherent. This blurs out-of-focus features and may introduce considerable fringing. Understanding the influence of these phenomena on the image formation is therefore important when interpreting experimental data. Here we present a wave-propagation model operating in 3D for simulating the image formation of thick objects in partially coherent soft x-ray microscopes. The model is compared with present simulation methods as well as with experiments. The results show that our model predicts the image formation of transmission soft x-ray microscopes more accurately than previous models.

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