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  • 1.
    Alaqra, Alaa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Pettersson, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Malleable Signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth Scenario2016In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss end user requirements that we elicited for the use of malleable signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth scenario. The concept of a malleable signature, which is a privacy enhancing cryptographic scheme that enables the redaction of personal information from signed documents while preserving the validity of the signature, might be counter- intuitive to end users as its functionality does not correspond to the one of a traditional signature scheme. A qualitative study via a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups has been conducted to understand stakeholders’ opinions and concerns in regards to the possible applications of malleable signatures in the eHealth area, where a medical record is first digitally signed by a doctor and later redacted by the patient in the cloud. Results from this study yielded user requirements such as the need for suitable metaphors and guidelines, usable templates, and clear redaction policies. 

  • 2.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Profiles: prototyping an online information segregation service2013In: Human-Computer Interaction: Users and Contexts of Use, volume 8006, Proceedings Part III, / [ed] Kurosu, M.,, Springer, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bellström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Pettersson, John Sören
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Thorén, Claes
    Uppsala University.
    Facebook Usage in a Local Government: A Content Analysis of Page Owner Posts and User Posts2016In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 10, no 4, 548-567 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Enghel, Florencia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Diferentes, desiguales y desconectados: la comunicación para el desarrollo como interrogante2013In: Comunicación y desarrollo en la agenda latinoamericana del siglo XXI.  : enghel / [ed] Castillo Rocha, Carmen; Murillo Licea Daniel y Quiroz Carranza Roxana, Mérida: Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Fast, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Metaphors of Free Labor: A Typology of Unpaid Work in the Media Sector2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, free labor has emerged as a key analytical tool for understanding new or semi-new forms of labor in the contemporary digital economy. This paper critiques and develops this concept, with specific reference to work in the media industries, by presenting a historically grounded typology of free labor that also highlights some of the analytical problems with the current use of the concept. Our typology presents eight metaphors of free labor based on historical instances of roles people have taken on when performing unpaid labor: those of The Slave, The Carer, The Apprentice, The Prospector, The Hobbyist, The Volunteer, The Agent and The Patsy. A key conclusion is that free labor is performed by different actors at either end of increasingly complex and temporally stretched out value chains. This should motivate, or so we argue, a more fine-grained scholarly use of the concept of free labor.

  • 6. Gilje Jaatun, Martin
    et al.
    Cruzes, Daniela S.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Accountability Through Transparency for Cloud Customers2016In: CLOUD COMPUTING AND SERVICES SCIENCE, CLOSER 2015, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016, 1, Vol. 581, 38-57 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public cloud providers process data on behalf of their customers in data centres that typically are physically remote from their users. This context creates a number of challenges related to data privacy and security, and may hinder the adoption of cloud technology. One of these challenges is how to maintain transparency of the processes and procedures while at the same time providing services that are secure and cost effective. This chapter presents results from an empirical study in which the cloud customers identified a number of transparency requirements to the adoption of cloud providers. We have compared our results with previous studies, and have found that in general, customers are in synchrony with research criteria for cloud service provider transparency, but there are also some extra pieces of information that customers are looking for. We further explain how A4Cloud tools contribute to addressing the customers’ requirements.

  • 7.
    Gustiené, Prima
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Best Practices for E-learning on On-campus and Distance Education: A case Study of Karlstad University2015In: Information and Software Technologies: 21st International Conference, ICIST 2015, Druskininkai, Lithuania, October 15-16, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] G.Dregvaite, R. Damasevicius, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, Vol. 538, 93-103 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    How are citizen journalists telling news? The Swedish case2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on citizen journalism has an Anglo-Saxon bias and frequently studies specific cases that focus on conflict, crisis events or war creating a selection bias of existing and, at least modestly, successful examples. In this study, situated in Sweden, we reverse the process and examine how actual communities are served by digital citizen community journalism in an everyday context. The study has a particular focus on how events are portrayed in terms of news topics dimensions, framing, presentation style, geographical focus and the authorship of news items. Preliminary findings indicate that the citizen journalists’ only present one perspective, rarely refers to policy plans or talks to the actors involved and provide individual and episodic news frames. Their focus is mostly on the local level and they have embraced the impersonal and unemotional presentation style from mainstream news. Half of the news items are being written by citizens while representatives from organisations or politicians author a quarter of them.   All in all, citizen journalism in general falls short from both traditional journalistic standards and many scholarly claims of being alternative.

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Digitalization and tabloidization: A longitudinal study of news topics in tabloid, quality and local newspaper websites in U.K. and Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although considerable efforts have been pursued in studying online news no studies so far have investigated how the actual news content is affected by digitalization in general, if at all, or compared different media traditions. Instead, changes in content are assumed or illustrated anecdotally rather than systematically assessed. This empirical study, covering Swedish and UK news sites with a tabloid, quality morning, and local/regional background between 2002-2012, shows that there is a tabloidization effect in general but that it is stronger in tabloids and in Sweden compared to the UK. Further, this tabloidization can be more precisely described as a lifestylization and de-politization process as it is in these areas where the biggest growth and decline are. In addition, the study reveals that it is the slower news that increases most suggesting that the immediate character of online news is mediated by production conditions.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Getting softer or harder?: A longitudinal study of news topics in tabloid, quality and local newspaper websites in U.K. and Sweden.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars have been studying online journalism for well over fifteen years theorizing how this new environment affects news. A reoccurring argument is that a combination of real time tracking of the audience behavior in conjunction with a lack of viable business models fosters a journalistic culture with increasing sensational and shallow news. In effect, leading to a lesser-informed citizenry and a weaker democracy. Although considerable efforts have been pursued in studying online news no studies so far have investigated how the actual news content is affected in general, if at all, or compared different media traditions. Instead, changes in content are assumed or illustrated anecdotally rather than systematically assessed. This study, covering Swedish and UK media from 2002-2012, shows that there is a tabloidization effect in general but that it varies across publishing contexts and reveals some unexpected results.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Nord, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Transparency and credibility: An experimental study2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency has been proposed to both change the way journalism is being produced and increase its credibility. However, little research has been conducted to assess the connection between transparency and credibility. This study utilizes an experimental setting (N=1320) to measure what impact transparency have on source and message credibility from the user perspective. The results reveals an almost absence of any transparency effect on both source and message credibility although some small significant effects could be observed primarily regarding internal hyperlinks, comments and contextual information. Although further research is desperately needed in this area the study suggest that transparency does not affect the credibility of journalism in the eyes of the contemporary audience and thus have limited appeal as a new norm in journalism.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Nord, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet.
    You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet.: An experimental study on how transparency affects source and message credibility2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency has been proposed to both change the way journalism is being produced and increase its credibility. However, little research has been conducted to assess the connection between transparency and credibility. This study utilizes an experimental setting with, in total, 1320 respondents to measure what impact transparency have on source and message credibility from the user perspective. The results reveal an almost absence of any transparency effect on both source and message credibility although some small significant effects could be observed primarily regarding internal hyperlinks, comments and contextual information. Although further research is needed in this area the study suggest that transparency does not affect the credibility of journalism in the eyes of the contemporary audience and thus have limited appeal as a new norm in journalism.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Hyperlinking practices in Swedish online news 2006-2012,2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although hyperlinks is essential both in the Internet architecture and pointing out pertinent material in an ocean of information abundance remarkably little research have been committed to this area. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted scrutinizing the long-term impact of communication technology on journalism and journalistic practices. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the research on one specific area of online journalism – the practice of hyperlinking. The study utilizes a longitudinal content analysis of hyperlinking practices in Swedish online news from 2006 to 2012 that allows for comparison if and to what extent publishing tradition and ownership shapes journalistic practice. Five hypotheses are posed and three research questions are asked, all relating to how the news sites make use of hyperlinks, and to what extent. The findings show an erratic pattern in the use of hyperlinks as well for internal as external, and between publishing traditions. The general conclusion is that hyperlinks are not an important aspect of online journalism practice.

  • 14.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Clerwall, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Örnebring, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Hyperlinking practices in Swedish online news 2007-20132014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperlinks are considered vital to both Internet and digital journalism. This study utilizes a longitudinal content analysis of hyperlinking practices in Swedish online news from 2007 to 2013 to see how hyperlinking evolves over time. It also compares if and to what extent publishing tradition shapes journalistic practice. The findings primarily shows that the over all impact of hyperlinks remain rather unchanged over time but that internal links, while still being most common, decrease in relative importance while external links increase. The general conclusion is that hyperlinks are not an important aspect of online journalism practice.

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Lindell, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ryan Bengtsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Möller, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Fast, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    OMNIBUS NEWS: Engagement or bussed?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the summer of 2013 the municipal public bus system, Karlstadbuss, installed television sets (BUSS-TV) on all city buses. These TV sets are airing user-generated content, and traffic information, weather forecasts as well as news from the hybrid commercial/public service broadcaster TV4. This paper addresses the phenomenon from the theoretical intersection of communication geography and journalism studies. This means understanding the city-buses, at once mobile and semi-public spaces, as decorated with a new “communicative texture” that is renegotiating the time-space nexus traditionally tied to news consumption. Furthermore, it potentially implies that a basic news diet become more or less dispersed amongst commuters across the city, and across previous class-demarcations that would engender divergent news diets. This constitutes a potential challenge to the notion of the fragmented news audience and related worries over the increased number of “news avoiders”. From previous research we know that news consumption, even accidental, is linked with political and civic engagement. In an era where media consumption is increasingly fragmented or even avoided, the buss-news reinstalls the almost inescapable news of the 1970’s albeit in a highly situated and limited context. Nevertheless, this new space of ‘news on the move’ is yet to be explored theoretically and empirically. Thus, we ask about the role of Karlstadbuss as a carrier of omnibus news in the media ecology. The paper uses data derived from representative surveys (Värmlands-SOM) conducted before (2010) and after (2014) the introduction of BUSS-TV to study the impact of travelling with the city-buses on political interest and civic engagement as well as general news interest and consumption.

  • 16.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace”: Activist Practices in an Era of Mediatized Surveillance2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the defining features of contemporary zeitgeist is that we live in an era of mediatization – a metaprocess, through (and by) which all everyday relations increasingly depend on networked media technologies and online communication channels.

    Due to rapid developments in digital electronics, all these Internet- or mobile-enabled platforms, and devices, are prone to the processes of quantification and datafication, and as such, surveillance is a principal dimension that lies at the core of mediatization.

    Through five peer-reviewed academic articles and the cover text, this dissertation provides a multi-faceted analysis of the complex relationships – built by Azerbaijan’s and Turkey’s state intelligence, security and law enforcement agencies with a number of local, and global, private information, entertainment and telecommunications companies. The articles are focused on different cases: the complete dispersion of commercial social media based oppositional activists in Azerbaijan, and the arrests of Anonymous led hacktivists in Turkey, both happening in 2011; and, the mass mobilization of millions of Turkish citizens during the Gezi Park protests of 2013. The current compilation puts forth in-depth accounts and scrutiny of how various social movements (in general), and individual activists (in particular), are affected by an amalgamation of public, political; and, private, economic, surveillance practices and seeks to illuminate the abusive extents of this transformation – vis-à-vis the changing media and communication environment – by way of using mediatization as an analytical tool.

    Overall, this dissertation contributes a nuanced understanding of the complex interplay between the increasingly mediatized natures of activism and surveillance in semi-authoritarian states. The conclusions have relevance and significance – in considering both similar country contexts and on a global scale – in the light of contemporary technological and political transformations.

  • 17.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Alternative Media, Video Activism and the Proliferation of Unintentional Surveillance in Turkey2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the conduct of video activism in Turkey through a case study on now dispersed Karahaber, an Ankara-based video activist collective formed in 2005 - through a question of whether the group’s videos provided an empowerment for the socially excluded strata of Turkish society or did they further facilitate the spectacle/surveillance culture? The main source of information for the article comes from the semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with eight core Karahaber members in Istanbul and Ankara. The secondary source is comprised by the 175 Karahaber videos, published on collective’s website http://www.karahaber.org. Relying on the theoretical framework structured by the works of Guy Debord, David Lyon and Thomas Mathiesen, article claims that Karahaber’s practices of video activism created an enforcement of synoptic urge through the facilitation of voyeuristic tendencies of protesters, thus reinforcing the effect of unintentional surveillance.

  • 18.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Applying Critical Media Sociology: Mapping the Intersections of Media and Communication Research with Surveillance Studies2015In: Differences, Inequalities and Sociological Imagination: Abstract Book, Prague: Institute of Sociology CAS , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The revelations of otherwise confidential intelligence files by Chelsea Manning, Edward Snowden and journalistic organization WikiLeaks showed once more that we live in an era of intensified and all-encompassing communications surveillance, conducted by secret services, intelligence agencies and private companies. This is an era of rapid transformations in the sphere of media and communication, which, according to Robert W. McChesney, “veers toward a classic definition of fascism” (McChesney 2013, 171). Thus it becomes urgent that better sociological conceptualizations of the stance of media and communication as an academic field within these metamorphoses is conducted - together with the explorations of what comprises the fast growing field of surveillance studies.

    Within such scope this presentation attempts to sociologically map the academic branch of surveillance studies from the perspective of the scholarly field of media and communication, and to seek out boundaries, limitations, strengths, and weaknesses of the currently conducted research. To be able to properly map out the field and mark important points within the landscape, the Journal of Surveillance & Society, a premier interdisciplinary journal in the field of surveillance, is chosen as a point of departure. Analysis of reiterating topics within the surveillance studies field is conducted based on 296 articles from 40 issues published between 2002 and 2013. While providing the analysis of the frequent topics and thus mapping out the field, the article also engages in the argumentative discussion of the missing points and aspects believed to be in the need of fortification and wider coverage.

  • 19.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Applying ICT for Development Perspective in Sweden: Renewed Look at Developed Countries from the Lens of ICT4D2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the current research conducted within the scope of information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) looks at ICTs and more general media usage in non-European, developing country contexts and frequently employs technologically deterministic perspectives. There are very few studies applying the ICT4D perspectives within the Western societies and by focusing solely on developing countries scholars often neglect the fact that the demographics, social structure and context of developed countries have dramatically changed during the course of last few decades. Yet, as Ngomba (2013) points out, the impacts and implications of the recent financial and economic crises in Europe and USA, as well as resulting rigorous austerity policies constitute significant ‘shocks’ that should shape the future of academic and popular research about the role communication technologies play within the social change processes.

     

    This paper is focused on the ongoing doctoral research at Karlstad University, which in line with Morley (2009)’s call for de-Westernized, non-media centric and materialist approaches to media studies, is focused on transnational migrant communities living in Sweden, their daily media usage, and related individual development and communal empowerment changes. Paper argues that only through the analysis of empirical data focused on how people actually use media and ICTs within the context of everyday life, of “how media do, and do not, figure in people's lives" (Couldry, 2006, p. 177), better and more pinpointed strategies for welfare development, urban poverty reduction and elimination of growing social inequalities can be elaborated on, thus leading to sustainable future.

  • 20.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Azerbaijani Mediatized Activism vs. Mediatized Surveillance: Online Resistance and Reproduction of the State Rule2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The turbulent Arab Spring, blustering across the Middle East between the years 2011 and 2012, has inspired various sorts of new insurgent oppositional movements around the world. Azerbaijan’s online opposition, enthused by the initial success of revolutions in North Africa and organized almost exclusively on social networking sites, was not an exception within this scope. As the socio-political transformation of primarily Muslim geographies of the region was gaining pace, it was not long before that Azerbaijani activists, impressed by the possibilities purportedly brought about by social media’s online networking affordances, started to organize their resistance mainly on mediated social networks.

    The response of the Azerbaijani government to the events, where hundreds of activists took to the streets of Baku to protest against corruption and demand respect for human rights was very harsh. State officials immediately halted all demonstration authorizations, and police officers quickly, and quite often violently, dispersed unauthorized ones. Thus, with all the demonstrations forcefully dismantled, and a number of protesters taken into custody or arrested, the Azerbaijani government was able to completely liquidate these protests in a short period of time,.

    The reproduction of the state rule was achieved through a series of digital interventions into the Azerbaijani Internet and mobile telecom infrastructures, with close collaboration of and intensive help received from a range of global companies specializing in various surveillance hardware, software and service provision.

    Focusing on the case of Azerbaijan, this presentation details and discusses interlinked aspects of increased mediatization of activism on the one hand, and state backlash on the other – thus aiming to contribute to an empirically based, nuanced conception of the shortcomings of mediatized activism today.

  • 21.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Azerbaijani Women, Online Mediatized Activism and Offline Mass Mobilization2016In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 5, no 4, 1-17 p., 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its post-Soviet history, Azerbaijan is an under-investigated country in academic research—compared with the other former constituencies, such as the Baltic countries or Russia, of the USSR—and gender questions of the contemporary Azerbaijani society are even less touched on. Within the current context of the post-“Arab Spring” era of mediatized connectivity and collective political engagement, this article looks into and analyzes how Azerbaijani women participate in different online and offline social and political movements, and if (and how) they are impeded by the increased state authoritarianism in Azerbaijan. Using data, obtained from online information resources, yearly reports of human rights organizations, focus group discussions, and interviews, the study detects four major activist constellations within the Azerbaijani field of gendered politics. Based on the analysis of conditions of detected groups, the article claims that flash mobs, a tactic employed mainly by liberal activists, emerge as the promising way in overcoming the normative nature of Azerbaijani patriarchal society, thus providing an opportunity for normalization and internalization of the feeling of being on the street and acting in concert with others—the practices which might lead towards an increasing participation of (especially young) women in the political processes of the country.

  • 22.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Between Art and Politics: Reflections on Video Activism of Turkish Video Collective Karahaber2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From its early introduction in mid60s, video camera has been an important tool of self-representation, political activism and alternative media production in the hands of numerous individuals, groups and movements all around the world. Whereas in the early years of the 'video age', video art and video activism was inseparable from each other, with the following decades the two became associated with quite separated spheres of daily life, video art becoming the common practice of high-culture and high-end museums and art centers, and video activism moving more into the marginal sectors and stratas of society, focusing more on oppressed and underrepresented people. However, as video becomes a more common tool of resistance in the hands of political movements of the developing countries, these two separated spheres, art and politics with the means of video, are now once more becoming more connected with each other. This paper will focus on practices of video, conducted by the Turkish video collective Karahaber, and how its videos function as an interconnected interplay of video art and video activism.

  • 23.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Can alternative media serve as contribution into 'spectacle'?: Case study on Turkish video activist collective Karahaber2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction of video device in mid-1960s in the form of Sony Corporation's Portapak sparkled new kind of political activism and new type of community media: video activism. Probably the most technologically dependent form of activism, video activism created whole new way of expressing otherwise unheard voices through self-representation of video and "own" media. However this innovative activism also came at high cost as early video activist experimentations contributed a great deal to the formation of 'Reality TV', emotional monster of modern television. Basing itself on the theoretical perspective formed by Guy Debord, and his notion of 'spectacle', this presentation will try to find an answer for the question of whether, unintentionally, alternative media and video activism, as a particular form, may serve as a contribution into modern spectacle. This quest is important in the sense of trying to prevent mistakes of early times and instead establishing video activism as a true form of empowering and emancipatory practice. Case study conducted with Turkish video activist collective Karahaber will serve as the main source of this presentation. The main source of information was provided by interviews with eight core members of Karahaber in Istanbul and Ankara, which were conducted in July to November 2009. The secondary source of information was obtained through a content analysis of 175 videos of Karahaber, published on its website http://www.karahaber.org. Content analysis of video works and interviews with group members were mostly analyzed together in order to provide better panorama and understanding of the practices of video activism as conducted by Karahaber members.

  • 24.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Challenging the intersections of media and communication research: Terra incognita of surveillance studies2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This philosophical paper is an attempt of trying to map surveillance studies as a subfield within the media and communication studies research field, and to seek out boundaries, limitations, strengths, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages of the currently conducted research. To be able to properly map out the subfield and mark important points within the landscape, the Journal of Surveillance & Society, a premier interdisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal in the field of surveillance, is chosen as a point of departure. Brief analysis of reiterating topics within the surveillance studies field is conducted based on journal's specialized issues and articles appearing in them. While providing the analysis of the frequent topics and thus mapping out the subfield, article same timely engages in the argumentative discussion of the missing points and aspects  believed to be in the need of fortification and wider coverage.

  • 25.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Challenging Universality of Music: Critical reflections and call for cross-cultural perception studies2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This theoretical paper is an attempt of trying to look at universal aspects of music, especially as outlined by Philip Tagg, and engaging into articulation on how music can universally be pleasurable for people who are total strangers to its origins and roots. Main argument of the paper, driving its conclusions from analysis of historical and recent studies concentrating on bio-emotional perception of psychophysical dimensions of musical cues within the different tonal systems, is that only the emotional part of the music, only the hidden emotions of joy and sorrow, unconsciously decoded by audience members listening to it, are responsible for this fascination and nothing else can be counted in when trying to understand the universality of music and musical codes. Paper focuses on critique of semantic interpretations of music and instead calls for shifting focus of attention on biological perception of music by human brain and nervous system. Paper ends with a call for a more crosscultural research on emotional perception and interpretation of music, both Western and non-Western.

  • 26.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Copyleft Production of Music for Social Change: Exploring the Alternatives2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political music has always been one of the most important and impact generating weapons inside the arsenal of available tools for promotion of social change within the struggle for more just and egalitarian society - with an enormous potential for political mobilization of otherwise contesting middle classes. Yet, the effort of the small-scale, politically conscious and critically oriented music bands to establish themselves as the independent actors within the contemporary reality of commercialized musical scene dominated by transnational media moguls most often becomes a struggle by itself. The notion of copyleft - a creative attempt to juxtapose copyright and disrupt power structures built around it, thus enabling the full retransformation of the existing musical communication order - becomes an important topic to consider within this scope.

    This presentation focuses on the issues related with the copyleft music production in Turkey through a case study on Bandista, radical music collective with strong political and oppositional stance, which became immensely popular in Turkish political music scenery after releasing its debut album De Te Fabula Narratur online in 2009 for free under the copyleft scheme and in no time formed itself as the leading oppositional music band in Turkey.

    Presentation analyzes the copyleft structure devised by Bandista, following the classical Marxist differentiation of use-value and exchange-value of commodities, and argues that the Bandista's copyleft experience emerges as an essential and in many ways revolutionary innovation tool for new music bands, offering an important empowerment strategy in the form of a two-fold liberation tactic.

  • 27.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Corporate Social Media: A Surveilled Public Sphere?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not uncommon that the corporate social media platforms are treated more and more as the new public sphere(s) of mediatized political communication. Yet, as Jillian C. York rightfully asks, why do we insist on assigning for-profit social networking media the role of the public space, when in reality “online social spaces standing in for the public sphere are private ones, owned by billionaires and shareholders”?

    Starting from this specific question, and following towards more general issue of the digital democracy, this presentation engages into the dissection of relationship between commercial social media and the public sphere debate from the three perspectives: a) perspective of technologies used within the development of these platforms; b) perspective of users of these media; and c) perspective of social media companies. Looking at the original Habermasian interpretation of the public sphere; and connecting it with Christian Fuchs’ politico-economical critiques this presentation thus explores the limits of treatment of corporate social networking platforms as working public sphere - as especially evident in Pew Research Center’s November 2013 research report “News Use across Social Media Platforms” which findings state that more than half of commercial social networking media users obtain their daily news only through these electronic platforms - with the reddit, Twitter and Facebook users leading this trend in an uncompetitive manner.

    Taking into consideration the economic model of corporate social media, based on constant surveillance of users and the big data analysis of their activities for the purposes of targeted advertising, presentation aims to further on contribute and tackle into the re-questioning and conceptualizing of the dynamics that (might or might not) “yield a cosmopolitan Self and an encapsulated Self” - following 2014 article of Christensen and Jansson.

  • 28.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Cultural Artefacts and Sustainable Activism within the Context of Gezi Park Protests in Turkey2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this presentation is to look at the Gezi Park protests which happened in Turkey during the summer of 2013, and to conduct audio-visual content analysis in relation to the cultural productions of the protest activists during the pre- and after-math of the events.

    Starting with a small group of environmentalists who were protesting against the demolition of Gezi Park - a small park located in Taksim Square area of Istanbul - events grew into the series of huge and unprecedented protests, swapping the whole country in a matter of days, where approximately 2.5 million people argued to have participated. Yet, protests quickly lost their momentum and only within the few months completely disappeared.

    Despite their relatively quick fading away the Gezi Park protests contributed a great deal into the social psyche of Turkish society – and were limitedly channeled into the political struggle of post-Gezi platforms such as Taksim Solidarity and United June Movement. One of the main reasons for such lasting effect was the enormous cultural and aesthetical production of various audio-visual artefacts during and after the events, where some of them are still ‘alive’ despite the passing two years: like graffiti, which are still visible on some of the walls, especially in big cities such as Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir; or protest songs produced during the events, which are still popular and can be heard in some bars and cafes.

    In this sense this presentation, by focusing on the Gezi Park protests, also addresses whether the aesthetical and cultural production and circulation of the social movement (or protest) is suitable to contribute into the sustainability of that social movement.

  • 29.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    De te fabula narratur: Methodological concerns on studying immigrants in an era of mediatization2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an humble attempt of articulating on methodological framework for conducting research on immigrants living in Western countries. Paper calls for implementation of three main goals while engaging in such an attempt of looking on media and communication usages of immigrant communities: de-Westernized, non-media centric and materialist approaches. In order to achieve better overall panorama and decent picture of social transformations, paper calls for contracting different analysis techniques: cultural studies for micro, that is an individual level and political economy for macro, that is the level of society. As a combination factor for mezzo level paper suggests usage of Actor-Network Theory, which will provide necessary arsenal of tools while tracing associations and building necessary bridge between individual immigrant and the society she resides within.

  • 30.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Exploring Terra Incognita: Mapping Surveillance Studies from the Perspective of Media and Communication Research2015In: Surveillance & Society, ISSN 1477-7487, E-ISSN 1477-7487, Vol. 13, no 1, 117-126 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article attempts to map Surveillance Studies from the perspective of the academic field of media and communication studies,and to seek out boundaries, limitations, strengths and weaknesses of current research. To map out the territory and mark importantpoints within the landscape, Surveillance & Society, a premier interdisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal in the field ofsurveillance, is used as a point of departure. Analysis of topics within the Surveillance Studies field is conducted based on 296articles from 40 issues published between 2002 and 2013.

  • 31.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    ‘Fortress Europe’ and Peripheries: Surveillance of Migrants, Readmission Agreements, and FRONTEX2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The borders of European Union are constantly transforming, yet most of the time continuing to coincide with the borders of the “Schengen agreement … which is the new Berlin wall, separating the new Roman empire from the threatening hordes of ‘Barbarians’” (Momcilovic, 2003, 445). Today the European border is “multiplying both within and without the territories of the EU” (Casas et al., 2011, 74) through the number of agreements on readmission, cooperation and securitization signed by EU member states and countries within its periphery. It is through these agreements that now Europe can exercise and claim hegemony over the maritime borders of North Africa and Middle East - turning the whole Mediterranean Sea into a Mare Nostrum, Roman Empire’s ambitious goal of defining the Mediterranean as an inner sea within its imperial contours.

    Within this scope the main focus of this presentation is on the most recent readmission agreement signed by European Union and Turkey in late 2013 - although expanding over this protocol article as well explores the sprawling power of EU over the Mediterranean Sea countries and the extent this hegemonic widening of domination effects the irregular migrants, refugees and asylum seekers who often risk their lives desperately trying to reach the southern and eastern shores of European continent. The agreement functions as a springboard to explore conceptual issues of (out-sourced) sovereignty, border externalization and ex-territorial forms of power in the control of migration and creation of transnational mobility regimes by the European Union and its member states.

  • 32.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    "Fortress Europe", FRONTEX, and Readmission Agreement with Turkey2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of article is on the most recent readmission agreement signed by European Union and Turkey in late 2013 - although expanding over this protocol article as well explores the sprawling power of EU over the Mediterranean Sea countries and the extent this hegemonic widening of domination effects the irregular migrants, refugees and asylum seekers who often risk their lives desperately trying to reach the southern and eastern shores of European continent. The agreement functions as a springboard to explore conceptual issues of (out-sourced) sovereignty, border externalization and ex-territorial forms of power in the control of migration and creation of transnational mobility regimes by the European Union and its member states.

  • 33.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Gender, Activism and Surveillance: Azerbaijani Women Protesters Online and Offline2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called “Arab Spring” has caused all kinds of new insurgent oppositional movements all around the world to emerge. Azerbaijani online opposition, inspired by the ‘success’ of revolutions in Middle East and organized mostly on social media was not an exception within this scope. However, Azerbaijan is also one of the best examples to clearly show that the technically savvy state and its surveillative potentials are constantly developing themselves as well. Mainly based on Evgeny Morozov’s concept of the net delusion this presentation looks at Azerbaijan and its new media based oppositional movements and aims to show how these efforts are crushed down by surveillative state apparatus.

    The presentation looks at the online practices of oppositional politics from the perspective of gender dynamics and conducts gender-based categorization of Internet based protesters, with the political, economic and social classifications. Such a categorization of women activists, done together with the historical overview of networked practices of offline political struggle, helps to determine how different strata of society are affected by surveillative apparatuses of the state.

    Presentation insists that only Internet and social media based politics are not enough, as the gender perspective of the topic clearly shows – since women protesters are the most affected ones by oppressive politics of the state.

  • 34.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Gendered Surveillance and Media Usage in Post-Soviet Space: The Case of Azerbaijan2015In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. 8, no 1-2, 44-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an attempt to explore the limits of gendered surveillance in Azerbaijan – that is, how and to what extent female activists and women journalists are monitored and affected by the surveillative apparatuses of the state, both online and offline. The article also very briefly examines the gender dimension of Azerbaijani political activism and protest practices. The questions of how gender stereotypes, together with the more general problem of the digital gender gap, are being used by the state authorities to control the public opinion are also addressed.

  • 35.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Gezi Park Protests in Turkey: Rhizomatic Connections and Right to the City2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Hate Talk towards Migrants in Swedish Online News Comments: The Case of The Local2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Hate Talk towards Migrants in Swedish Online News Comments: The Case of TheLocal.se2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Immersive Televisual Environments: Spectatorship, Stereoscopic Vision and the Failure of 3DTV2015In: View : Journal of European Television History and Culture, E-ISSN 2213-0969, Vol. 4, no 7, 99-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on one of the most ground-breaking technological attempts to create a novel immersive media environment for a heightened televisual user experience: 3DTV, a Network of Excellence project that was funded by the European Commission 6th Framework Information Society Technologies Programme. Based on the theoretical framework mainly outlined in the works of Jonathan Crary and Brian Winston, and on empirical data obtained from the author’s laboratory visit notes and discussions with 3DTVpractitioners, this article explores the claimed novelty of 3DTV through a focus on the history of stereoscopic vision and addresses the inconsistency between the research project’s expected and actual results.

  • 39.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Manuscript (Un)lonely impulse of delightManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Mediterranean Sea as a Non-Space: FRONTEX and Homo Sacer2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Moving forward the concept: Critical reflections on universality of music perception2014In: On the move/I Rörelse: ACSIS conference 11-13 June 2013 Norrköping, Sweden 2013/ACSIS kulturforskningskonferens 11-13 juni Norrköping, Sverige 2013 / [ed] Johanna Dahlin, Tove Andersson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2014, 97-108 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This theoretical paper is an attempt of trying to look at universal aspects of music, especially as outlined by Philip Tagg, and engaging into articulation on how music can universally be pleasurable for people who are total strangers to its origins and roots. Main argument of the paper, driving its conclusions from analysis of historical and recent studies concentrating on bio-emotional perception of psychophysical dimensions of musical cues within the different tonal systems, is that only the emotional part of the music, only the hidden emotions of joy and sorrow, unconsciously decoded by audience members listening to it, are responsible for this fascination and nothing else can be counted in when trying to understand the universality of music and musical codes. Paper focuses on critique of semantic interpretations of music and instead calls for moving the focus of scholar attention towards biological perception of music by human brain and nervous system. Paper ends with a call for a more cross-cultural research on emotional perception and interpretation of music, both Western and non-Western.

  • 42.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Reappropriating the Means of Production and Distribution: DIY, Copyleft and 'Alternative' Music2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce effects of various crises and economic breakdowns, maximize profits and to effectively control transformative processes taking place especially in developing countries, global capitalism implements more widespread and deepened versions of copyright legislatures, patent laws and acts related with trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS). According to Jan Nederveen Pieterse such attempts map out the true frontier of global change, a true borderline where we can detect "major corporations, governments in the global north and international institutions on one side, and most developing countries on the other" (Pieterse 2010: 180).

    Even if the notion of 'copyleft', a creative attempt to juxtapose copyright and thus disrupt power structures built around it, has been around for few decades now, applications of the idea in music industry is a relatively new phenomenon, and much newer one within the socio-economical context of developing countries. Within this vein this presentation focuses on issues related with 'copyleft' music production in Turkey through a case study on Bandista, radical music collective with strong political and oppositional stance formed in 2006 in Istanbul. Describing its musical performances as "situationist experiment of rage and rapture" Bandista became immensely popular in Turkish political music scenery after releasing its debut album De Te Fabula Narratur in 2009 under the 'copyleft' scheme with the additional motto "It is a present. Copy. Distribute" and in no time formed itself as the leading oppositional music band in Turkey which has a long and vivid history of politicized bands and musicians.

    The main sources of information for the article are the interview conducted with Bandista members, as well as reportages about the band appearing in various media. Article tries to look at the issue of 'copyleft' from theoretical perspective outlined by Philip Auslander, with the notion of 'music as performance' in mind, following the classical Marxist differentiation of use-value and exchange-value of commodities, musical products in this case, and argues that 'copyleft' politics emerge as an essential and in many ways revolutionary innovation tool for new music bands, which seek to form themselves as independent actors within the music scene. Even if the structure devised by Bandista is not an employment of classical 'copyleft' scheme, where free and open-source software is put on the Internet, left to be (re)used, (re)programmed and (re)developed by 'others out there', it is an important empowerment strategy, since what Bandista's experience offer is a two-fold liberation tactic, where the first step is the re-appropriation of means of production, that is by engaging in DIY processes, by learning the sound technologies and their engineering, recording and producing the music of one's own; and later on re-appropriation of means of distribution, that is the creative usage of internet websites and portals to distribute produced music for free under the 'copyleft' scheme; where implementation of this tactic culminates in formation of truly organic community of engaged concert participators instead of alienated audiences - thus the full retransformation of the existing musical communication order.

  • 43.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    'State' strikes back: Forgotten actor as an agent of intervention into online public sphere2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The turbulent 'Arab Spring' happening during the course of the last year has caused all kinds of new insurgent oppositional movements all around the world to emerge. Turkish and Azerbaijani online opposition, inspired by the 'success' of revolutions in Middle East and organized mostly on social networking sites, thus adding more 'sense' to democratization effect of Internet, is not an exception within this scope. However, both Turkey and Azerbaijan are also best examples to clearly show that technically savvy state and its surveillative potential is also constantly developing itself.

    Based on Evgeny Morozov's concept of net delusion, that is after starting with "flawed set of assumptions (cyber-utopianism)" acting on them using "flawed, even crippled, methodology (Internet-centrism)" (2011, p. xvii), this paper looks at Azerbaijan, one of the richest Post-Soviet states, and Turkey, one of the biggest and most powerful developing countries of the region determined to join European Union, and their new-media based oppositional movements, aiming to show how these efforts are crushed down by technologically developed advanced surveillative state apparatus. In the case of Turkey the main focus will be on the process of OperationTurkey, famous hacker collective Anonymous' hacking attempts, announced after Turkey revealed its intention to implement all encompassing online filter, interpreted by many as latent censorship act. However, after only few days of successful hacks, the whole group of hackers active within Turkish cyberspace were arrested. Response time of state was even faster in the case of Azerbaijan, where all oppositional protesters, calling through Facebook posts and Twitter tweets to turn Azadlig Square into "Baku's Tahrir", were arrested only in the course of few hours with charges of selling illegal substances.

    Main discussion point developed on such 'failures' is in line with analysis of David Morley, that media and communication studies as academic field is heavily suffering from "drastically foreshortened historical perspective" (2007, p. 2), and much emphasis needs to be given to longer historicity of construction of technologies of everyday, how these technologies willingly or by force were introduced and entered into our lives, and how their symbolic dimensions have been largely neglected in previous studies, that is to engage into destruction of cyber-myths, attempts already tried to be done to some extent by studies such as Marvin, 1988; Standage, 1998; Winston, 1998 and Mosco, 2004. Paper insists that only-Internet based politics is not enough, and street-based political action have to be put back into existence for fully democratic development. Trying to further develop Maria Bakardjieva's concept of subactivism, that is "small-scale, often individual decisions and actions that have either a political or ethical frame of reference (or both) and remain submerged in everyday life" (2010, p. 134), paper argues that instead of expecting 'revolution' emerging from Internet, any oppositional movement within authoritative countries and regimes firstly needs to redevelop the aspects of civil society, essential to involve into protest otherwise contesting middle classes. 

  • 44.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Surveillance, gender and social media: New politics of opposition in Azerbaijan2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'Arab Spring' has caused all kinds of new insurgent oppositional movements all around the world to emerge. Azerbaijani online opposition, inspired by the 'success' of revolutions in Middle East and organized mostly on social networking sites, thus adding more 'sense' to democratization effect of Internet is not an exception within this scope. However, Azerbaijan is also one of the best examples to clearly show that technically savvy state and its surveillative potential is also constantly developing itself. Based on Morozov's concept of net delusion this paper looks at Azerbaijan, one of the richest Post-Soviet states, and its new media based oppositional movements and aims to show how these efforts are crushed down by surveillative state apparatus. Paper insists that only-Internet based politics is not enough, as the gender perspective of the topic clearly shows, since female activists are the most effected ones by oppressive politics of the state.

  • 45.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    “The Earth Does Not Belong to People, It Belongs to Itself”: Exploring the Messages of Dirk C. Fleck’s GO! – Die Ökodiktatur2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1993 novel of German journalist Dirk C. Fleck GO! – Die Ökodiktatur (GO! The Ecological Dictatorship) offers a dystopian version of future where the planet Earth is almost unlivable due to all kinds of human-made disasters. GO!’s truly unique plot is in stark contrast with many other ecological apocalypse fictions where ‘salvation’ emerges from a non-human actor - like The Day Earth Stood Still, where it is the aliens who try to save Earth’s ecosystem through destroying the humanity, or M. Night Shyamalan's The Happening, where trees and plants start to defend themselves against humans. What makes GO! different is the story where an international group of environmentally concerned scientists carefully designs and implements ecological revolution by taking over the control of developed Western world with technological guerilla attacks - thus ensuring that the previous social and political systems are dysfunctional. The dominant economic model based on overarching and inherent technological determinism is left for a new form of governance - an ecological dictatorship, where sciences are forbidden; religions are alienated; and animistic ancient beliefs are promoted - where the environment is given higher priority than human life.

    This presentation explores the prophetic vision of the book in the light of the recent ecological, social and political developments, and tries to elaborate on some of the questions raised by the author, especially in relation to experimenting with possible potentialities of alternative human radical ecological and egalitarian progress and enabling the scientist and academics as the true actors of environmental change.

  • 46.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The Uncanny Relationship of Mediatization and Surveillance in Developing Countries2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite being a relatively young field of academic inquiry, mediatization research is already considered to be a prominent theoretical framework for understanding the long term effects of contemporary media saturation. Yet, the empirical research on mediatization conducted so far have focused primarily on Western countries, and was implemented mainly in Europe. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that especially within the context of developing countries (and also an alarming number of developed ones) media technologies and ICTs are increasingly being used for control over information - together with the heavy surveillance of dissidents and activists. Intertwined merging of mediatized electronic communication with the processes of digitalization; and convergence of various media forms (shortly called the meta-process of mediatization) inevitably leads to increase in the possibilities of their monitoring - and as the recent revelations of the NSA contractor Edward Snowden and the whistle blower organization WikiLeaks about the global pervasive state surveillance conducted by US and European intelligence agencies in close cooperation with a number of private companies clearly showed, transforms the society into the ‘surveillance society’ (Lyon, 2001). Thus, in line with Stig Hjarvard’s detection that whether the “mediatization has positive or negative consequences cannot be determined in general terms; it is a concrete, analytical question that needs to be addressed in terms of specific contexts, where the influence of specific media over certain institutions is gauged” (2008, p. 114) this presentation aims to focus upon the negative consequences of mediatization and its relationship to increased public and private surveillance with a study on Azerbaijan - where mediatization process is promoted by the modernization upgrades of telecommunications and mobile telephony infrastructure through a number of foreign aids and grants, provided by international organizations and NGOs for the purposes of adjustment towards the governing European and global standards.

  • 47.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Turkey and Copyleft Music Production: Reflectionson Bandista2013In: IASPM@Journal, ISSN 2079-3871, Vol. 3, no 1, 80-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on copyleft music production in Turkey through a case study on Bandista, amusic collective with strong oppositional stance formed in 2006 in Istanbul. Describing itsmusical performances as "situationist experiment of rage and rapture" Bandista becameimmensely popular in the Turkish political music scenery after releasing its debut album De tefabula narratur in 2009 under the copyleft scheme. The article tries to look at the copyleft withthe notion of 'music as performance' in mind, and argues that copyleft politics are essential,especially for new music bands to form themselves as independent actors within the musicscene.

  • 48.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    What do we really know about online news readers?: Critical reflections on importance of qualitative studies of newspaper user comments2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years witnessed an explosion in increased user interactivity brought into online news environments due to the advances in digital technologies and convergence of various online and offline journalistic practices. This phenomenon already started to be explored by academics from different research spheres, but mainly in the form of quantitative studies, focusing very little, if at all, on the content of user comments and reader responses, leaving out the qualitative side of the problem. In this sense this article is an attempt to contribute to uses and gratification perspective of studying news and their consumption from the standpoint of critical theory, that is to engage into a critical analysis of online user interactivity. First part of the article provides a short theoretical exploration of the current research field, whereas second part conducts experimental empirical analysis of reader responses for three news articles chosen from TheLocal.se, English-language based news website providing international audience news articles about Sweden. Article ends with a discussion of possibility of unified theoretical approach to user comments, as well as a call for more concentrated and widened research of online user interactivity both from quantitative and qualitative sides.

  • 49.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    When States Strike Back: Failures of Mediatized Activism in Azerbaijan and Turkey2016In: tripleC (cognition, communication, co-operation): Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society / Unified Theory of Information Research Group, ISSN 1726-670X, E-ISSN 1726-670X, Vol. 14, no 2, 496-515 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an empirically grounded conceptual investigation of the failures of mediatized activism in 2011 in Azerbaijan and Turkey. By analyzing two specific cases, namely the complete dispersion of corporate social media based opposition in Azerbaijan, and arrests of Anonymous led hacktivistsin Turkey, the article aims to contribute to the discussion on the future of mediatized activism in the face of the growing pervasive surveillance, conducted by state intelligence agencies in collaboration with private infotainment and telecommunications companies. By elaborating on the shortcomings and the promises of social media based activism and hacktivism, the article discusses the possibility of building alternative online spaces, which can bring these two types of mediatized activism together, and help to connect activists with the rest of the society—especially the otherwise consenting middle classes of semi-authoritarian countries.

  • 50.
    Mehrabov, Ilkin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Who exactly needs to be 'saved'?: Looking back at fundamental concepts of media and communication in relation to political struggles and social movements of developing countries2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research conducted within political communication, and generally in social sciences, seems to be infected by overemphasis put on the concept of 'agency', especially when involved into discussion of 'power'. This problem seems to be most pressing particularly in relatively newer fields of scientific inquiry, such as feminist, queer and postcolonial studies. However, as Bourdieu points out, "by constructing the objective structure of the distribution of the properties attached to individuals or institutions, one acquires an instrument for forecasting the probable behaviours of agents occupying different positions within that distribution" (2004, p. 58). In this sense this article is an attempt, especially in relation to the most recent failures happening in countries effected by Arab Spring, to revisit some fundamental concepts of political communication in order to understand these failures and draw better map for the future of struggles started to flourish in developing countries. First part of the article is concerned with the definition of objective truth, and what it means within the scientific inquiry of media and communication, and benefits mostly from Kuhn-Popper debate. Second part is inclined towards the concepts of 'subjectivity', 'power' and 'critical reflexivity', especially from the perspective of feminist epistemology, and tries to reflect onto the current debates about women rights and women movements in Middle East, Caucasus and Central Asia, same timely following the renewed discussions happening in advanced industrial democracies.

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