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  • 1.
    Andrich, David
    et al.
    The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items2015Inngår i: Educational and Psychological Measurement, ISSN 0013-1644, E-ISSN 1552-3888, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 185-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel–Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by their total scores on an instrument, Andrich and Hagquist articulated the concept of artificial DIF and showed that as an artifact of the MH method, real DIF in one item favoring one group inevitably induces artificial DIF favoring the other group in all other items. Using the dichotomous Rasch model in which the total score for a person is a sufficient statistic, and therefore justifies classifying persons by their total scores, Andrich and Hagquist showed that to distinguish between real and artificial DIF in an item identified by the MH method, a sequential procedure for resolving items is implied. Using the polytomous Rasch model, this article generalizes the concept of artificial DIF to polytomous items, in which multiple item parameters play a role. The article shows that the same principle of resolving items sequentially as with dichotomous items applies also to distinguishing between real and artificial DIF with polytomous items. A real example and a small simulated example that parallels the real example are used illustratively.

  • 2.
    Aronson, Olov
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Smoking Motivation in the Face of Stigmatization: A Bourdieusian Analysis of Impressions2019Inngår i: Stigma and Health, ISSN 2376-6972, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 30-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research from Western countries has indicated that individuals with low socioeconomic status(SES) initiate tobacco smoking even though smoking is a stigmatized practice. We propose thattheoretical developments of Bourdieu’s theories on capital can reveal a plausible mechanism thatexplains smoking motivation in the face of stigmatization, and we perform a double-blind randomizedcontrolled experiment with the impressions of a smoking adolescent girl to test and elaborate on ourproposition. The empirical data was collected through questionnaires distributed to 622 Swedishadolescents during the fall of 2015. Half the questionnaires included a picture of a smoking girl and halfthe questionnaires included an identical picture without the act of smoking. Binary logistic regressionsindicate that the girl in the picture was perceived as significantly less likable, more popular, less kind,less compassionate, more deceitful, more conceited, and more liable to bully when she smoked a cigarettethan when she did not smoke. The theoretical analysis implies that adolescents with low SES may seekto smoke in the face of stigmatization because of a motivating mechanism that functions in accordancewith Bourdieu’s economic logic of action. The concluding section presents implications for tobaccocontrolpolicies.

  • 3.
    Assarsson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå universitet.
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå universitet.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Umeå universitet.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå universitet.
    Gender inequality and adolescent suicide ideation across Africa, Asia, the South Pacific and Latin America: A cross-sectional study based on the Global School Health Survey (GSHS)2019Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, nr sup3, s. 1-10, artikkel-id 1663619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide ideation is a health issue affecting adolescents worldwide. There are significant variations in suicide ideation between countries and genders, which have not been fully explained. Research is especially lacking in countries outside Europe and North America. Gender equality has been shown to matter in other aspects of adolescent mental health, such as life satisfaction, but has not been researched in relation to suicide ideation at national level.

    Objective: To investigate how national gender inequality is related to self-reported suicide ideation among adolescents, and whether this association differs between boys and girls.

    Methods: This is a cross-national, cross-sectional study using individual survey data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, a survey in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the South Pacific, developed and supported by among others the WHO and the CDC; connecting this to national data: the gender inequality index from the UNDP; controlling for GDP per capita and secondary school enrolment. The data was analysed using a multilevel logistic regression method and included 149,306 students from 37 countries.

    Results: Higher national gender inequality, as measured by the gender inequality index, was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of suicide ideation in both girls and boys (odds ratio: 1.38 p-value: 0.015), but for girls and both sexes this was only after adjusting for selection bias due to secondary school enrolment (as well as GDP/capita). Interaction models showed that this association was stronger in boys than in girls.

    Conclusions: National gender inequality seems to be associated with higher levels of suicide ideation among adolescents in mainly low- and middle-income countries, especially among boys.

  • 4.
    Augustsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Kartläggning av studier om nordiska ungdomars psykiska hälsa2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying among Swedish Adolescents: Gender differences and associations with mental health2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study the differences between traditional bullying and cyberbullying among adolescents, focusing on gender, psychosomatic problems, and disability, and to gain insight into health staff’s experience of bullying in schools.

    The four studies in this thesis were based on surveys undertaken among 3,800 adolescents in Grades 7, 8 and 9 in Sweden, as well as focus groups of 16 people consisting of school social workers and school nurses.

    While almost no gender differences were found among traditional victims, Study I showed that girls were more likely than boys to be cybervictims. Boys were more likely than girls to be traditional bullies, while girls were equally as likely as boys to be cyberbullies. Study II showed that psychosomatic problems were associated with being a victim, a bully or a bully-victim. Cyberbullying showed no stronger association with psychosomatic problems than traditional bullying. Study III: Three main categories emerged from school health staff’s experience: 1) “Anti-bullying team”; 2) “Working style”; and 3) “Perspectives on bullying”. The last two each comprised two sub-categories: “Team member”/“Single worker”; and “Contextual perspective”/“Individual-oriented perspective”. Study IV showed that, regardless of gender and grade, students with a disability were more likely to be bully-victims and, more particularly, bully-victims involved in both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. No differences between disabled adolescents and others were found with respect to the association between bullying and psychosomatic health.

    The results show that some adolescents are more likely to experience higher levels of psychosomatic health problems than others. They also show that some adolescents are more likely to be involved in bullying, either as victims, bullies or bully-victims. This thesis also discusses contextual and individual approaches adopted by schools in preventing bullying.

  • 6.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Views of Bullying and Antibullying Working Styles Among School Nurses and School Social Workers in Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 438-459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Hellström, Lisa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper.
    Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying - An analysis of Swedish adolescent data (vol 29, pg 1896, 2013)2014Inngår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 34, s. 353-353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Hellström, Lisa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying: An analysis of Swedish adolescent data2013Inngår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 1896-1903Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the rapid development of modern IT technology, cyberspace bullying has emerged among adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine gender differences among adolescents involved in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Cross-sectional data from 2989 Swedish students aged 13–15 were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show discrepant gender patterns of involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. First, although there were only minimal gender differences among traditional victims, girls are more likely than boys to be cybervictims when occasional cyberbullying is used as a cut-off point. Second, whereas boys are more likely to be traditional bullies, girls are as likely as boys to be cyberbullies. In conclusion, compared to traditional bullying, girls are generally more involved in cyberbullying relative to boys. We discuss these results in the light of adolescents’ usage of computerized devices.

  • 9.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Hellström, Lisa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Traditional bullying and cyberbullying2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Stenbeck, Magnus
    Karolinska institutet.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Disability in Relation to Different Peer-Victimization Groups and Psychosomatic Problems2016Inngår i: Children & Schools, ISSN 1532-8759, E-ISSN 1545-682X, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 153-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between disability, victims, perpetrators, and so-called "bully-victims" (someone reporting being both a victim and a perpetrator) of traditional, cyber, or combined victimization or perpetration and psychosomatic health among adolescents. Authors analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,820 Swedish students (ages 13 through 15) using linear and multinomial regression. The results show that students with a disability were more likely to be bully-victims and, more particularly, involved in both traditional and cyber victimization. Authors did not find any differences between adolescents with a disability and others with respect to the association between peer victimization and psychosomatic health. When developing intervention programs, schools may take a comprehensive approach due to the relatively large overlap between traditional and cyber victimization. Targeting groups with known disadvantages may also help reach out to bully-victims.

  • 11.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Univ Gatan 2, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    von Kobyletzki, Laura B.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Univ Gatan 2, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Jan Waldenstroms Gatan 16, S-21428 Malmo, Sweden..
    Svensson, Mikael
    Sahlgrenska Univ, Hlth Metr Unit, Box 414, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Determinants of Antidepressants Use and Economic Costs: A Population Based Study2017Inngår i: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, Vol. 20, nr Suppl.1, s. S2-S2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Chi-Squared Test of Fit and Sample Size-A Comparison between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method2015Inngår i: Journal of Applied Measurement, ISSN 1529-7713, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 204-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.

  • 13.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Den värmländska skolan2016Inngår i: Värmländska utmaningar: Poitik Ekonomi Samhälle  Kultur Medier / [ed] P-O Norell & Lennart Nilsson, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2016, s. 423-434Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan är ett område som i högsta grad berör allmänheten. Detta märks både i den allmänna debatten i nyhetsrapportering och i vetenskapliga undersökningar av olika slag. Under de senaste fem valen har exempelvis skolfrågan varit en av de mest centrala frågorna. Enligt SVTs väljarundersökning 2014 var också skolfrågan en av de mest betydelsefulla frågorna för val av parti. Den svenska grundskolan har under senare år även utgjort ett hett debattämne i svensk massmedia. Debatten har hämtat näring från de försämrade resultaten för svenska grundskoleelever vid internationella jämförelser, inte minst utifrån den så kallade PISA-undersökningen och andra internationella men också nationella jämförelser. I detta kapitel analyseras olika aspekter av förtroendet för den värmländska skolan och attityder till några vanliga politiska förslag på skolans område

     

  • 14.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Measuring Adolescent Perceptions of School Climate: Measuring Adolescent Perceptions of School Climate –An analysis of the Psychometric Properties of a scale using Australian adolescent data2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile: +4673-701 2448

     

    (1) Background: Adolescents spend a considerable amount of their time in the school environment.  Most adolescents are also subjected to compulsory school attendance, implying that they have to deal with the environment on a daily basis. In that sense the school environment is inescapable. There are several different measures on student experiences of the school environment, but School Climate is one of the most prominent. However, there seems to be no agreement upon definition and operationalization of the School Climate concept. Also, it is uncommon to find descriptions of robust psychometric analyses of School Climate measures.    

    (2) Aims: The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of a scale of Adolescent Perceptions of School Climate by means of the Rasch model for ordered response categories.  

    (3) Sample: Using a paper-and-pencil based survey, the data was collected among 758 students  enrolled (school year 3-7) in schools located in central Perth of Western Australia in 2013.

    (4) Methods: A scale consisting of seven polytomous items is analysed by means of the polytomous Rasch model. General fit statistics as well as their graphical representations (ICC) are used to evaluate if the data fit the Rasch model. A particular focus is also directed towards possible Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across sex and grade.

    (5) Results: At a general level of analysis the scale seems to fit the Rasch model fairly well, with good separation of the individuals. Some items showed reversed item thresholds, i.e. the response categories did not work properly and as expected. Also, at a finer level of analysis focusing on DIF, the scale works fairly well, but with exceptions important in order to understand differences between younger and older adolescents.  

    (6) Conclusions: Although the scale fits the Rasch model fairly well, there is room for improvements. In particular the precision of measurement may be increased by improving the targeting through inclusion of additional items of appropriate severity.      

    Future directions

    As there seems to be a lack of instruments useful for invariant measurement of School Climate  across age groups and genders, efforts to develop instruments are required.   

  • 15.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Measuring Adolescent Perceptions of the Physical School Environment: An analysis of the psychometric properties of a scale using Swedish adolescent data2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) Background: Adolescents spend a considerable amount of their time in the school environment.  Most adolescents are also subjected to compulsory school attendance, implying that they have to deal with the environment on a daily basis. In health research adolescent perceptions about the school environment are often linked to mental and psychosomatic health. However, measurements seems to be focused on psychosocial or psychological aspects of the school environment more often than physical.  

    (2) Aims: The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of a scale of Adolescent Perceptions of the Physical School Environment by means of the Rasch model for ordered response categories.  

    (3) Sample: The analysis is based on the survey Young in Värmland which is a paper-and-pencil based survey, conducted recurrently since 1988 targeting all adolescent in school year 9 residing the county of Värmland, Sweden. So far, more than 20,000 individuals have participated in the survey. In the analysis presented here, five items based on adolescents’ perceptions of the physical school environment were subjected to analysis using RUMM2030, in total about 22,000 individuals.

    (4) Methods: A scale consisting of five polytomous items is analysed by means of the polytomous Rasch model. General fit statistics as well as their graphical representations (ICC) are used to evaluate if the scale fit the Rasch model. A particular focus is also directed towards possible Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across sex.

    (5) Results: At a general level of analysis the scale subjected to analysis seems to fit the Rasch model fairly well, with good separation of the individuals, and showing no reversed item thresholds, i.e. the response categories work properly and as expected. Also, at a finer level of analysis focusing on DIF, the scale works fairly well, but with exceptions important in order to understand differences between boys and girls.  

    (6) Conclusions: Although the scale fits the Rasch model fairly well, there is room for improvements. In particular the precision of measurement may be increased by improving the targeting through inclusion of additional items of appropriate severity.             

  • 16.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Sample Size and Chi-Squared Test of Fit: A comparison Between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method Using Swedish Adolescent Data2015Inngår i: Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium (PROMS) 2014 Conference Proceedings: Rasch and the Future / [ed] Zhang, Quan., & Yang, Hong. (Eds.), Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, s. 197-211Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Significance tests are commonly sensitive to sample size, and Chi-Squared statistics is not an exception. Nevertheless, Chi-Squared statistics are commonly used for test of fit of measurement models. Thus, for analysts working with very large (or very small) sample sizes this may require particular attention. However, several different approaches to handle a large sample size in test of fit analysis have been developed. Thus, one strategy may be to adjust the fit statistic to correspond to an equivalent sample of different size. This strategy has been implemented in the RUMM2030 software. Another strategy may be to adopt a random sample approach.

    Aims: The RUMM2030 Chi-Square value adjustment facility has been available for a long time, but still there are few studies describing the empirical consequences of adjusting the sample to correspond to a smaller effective sample size in the statistical analysis of fit. Alternatively a random sample approach could be adopted in order to handle the large sample size problem. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare these two strategies as test of fit approximations, using Swedish adolescent data. 

    Sample:The analysis is based on the survey Young in Värmland which is a paper-and-pencil based survey conducted recurrently since 1988 targeting all adolescent in school year 9 residing the county of Värmland, Sweden. So far, more than 20,000 individuals have participated in the survey. In the analysis presented here, seven items based on the adolescents, experiences of the school environment were subjected to analysis, in total 21,088 individuals.

    Methods: For the purposes of this study, the original sample size was adjusted to several different effective samples using the RUMM2030 adjustment function, in the test of fit analysis. In addition, 10 random samples for each sample size were drawn from the original sample, and averaged Chi-Square values calculated. The Chi-Square values obtained using the two strategies were compared.

    Results: Given the original sample of 21,000, adjusting to samples 5,000 or larger, the RUMM2030 adjustment facility work as well as a random sample approach. In contrast, when adjusting to lower samples the adjustment function is less effective in approximating the Chi-Square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, fit is exaggerated and misfit under estimated using the adjustment function, in particular is that true for fitting but not misfitting items.  

    Conclusion: Even though the inferences based on p-values may be the same despite big Chi-Square value differences between the two approaches, the danger of using fit statistics mechanically cannot be enough stressed. Neither the adjustment function, nor the random sample approach is sufficient in evaluating model fit, instead several complementing methods should be used.

     

  • 17.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Sample size and Chi-Squared test of fit: A comparison between a random sample approach and a Chi-Square value adjustment method using Swedish adolescent data2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) Background: Significance tests are commonly sensitive to sample size, and Chi-Squared statistics is not an exception. Nevertheless, Chi-Squared statistics are commonly used for test of fit of measurement models. Thus, for analysts working with very large (or very small) sample sizes this may require particular attention. However, several different approaches to handle a large sample size in test of fit analysis have been developed. Thus, one strategy may be to adjust the fit statistic to correspond to an equivalent sample of different size. This strategy has been implemented in the RUMM2030 software. Another strategy may be to adopt a random sample approach.

    (2) Aims: The RUMM2030 Chi-Square value adjustment facility has been available for a long time, but still there seems to a lack of studies describing the empirical consequences of adjusting a sample to a smaller effective sample in the statistical analysis of fit. Alternatively a random sample approach could be adopted in order to handle the large sample size problem. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare these two strategies as test of fit approximations, using Swedish adolescent data.  

    (3) Sample:The analysis is based on the survey Young in Värmland which is a paper-and-pencil based survey conducted recurrently since 1988 targeting all adolescent in school year 9 residing the county of Värmland, Sweden. So far, more than 20,000 individuals have participated in the survey. In the analysis presented here, seven items based on the adolescents, experiences of the psychosocial school environment were subjected to analysis, in total 21,088 individuals.

    (4) Methods: For the purposes of this study, the original sample size was adjusted to several different effective samples using the RUMM2030 adjustment function, in the test of fit analysis. In addition, 10 random samples for each sample size were drawn from the original sample, and averaged Chi-Square values calculated. The Chi-Square values obtained using the two strategies were compared.

    (5) Results: Given the original sample of 21,088, adjusting to samples of 5,000 or larger, the RUMM2030 adjustment facility work as well as a random sample approach. In contrast, when adjusting to lower samples the adjustment function is less effective in approximating the Chi-Square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, fit is exaggerated and misfit under estimated using the adjustment function. However, that is true for fitting but not for misfitting items.   

    (6) Conclusion: Even though the inferences based on p-values may be the same despite big Chi-Square value differences between the two approaches, the danger of using fit statistics mechanically cannot be enough stressed.

  • 18.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    School Pressure, Family Relationships and psycho-somatic health complaints: are the associations similar for boys and girls?2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In adolescence, the experiences of psychosomatic health complaints emerge among some students. During later parts of adolescence (14-16 years old), differences between girls and boys have been observed. Adolescents spend a considerable amount of their time in school, but still the family is very influential. In order to improve adolescent psychosomatic health, it is important to rule out how different factors influence health for different groups of adolescents.To analyze the associations between school pressure, family relationships and psychosomatic health complaints among Swedish adolescents. A specific objective is to rule out whether the associations are similar for boys and girls i.e. to investigate potential statistical interaction effects by sex.This study is based on HBSC data collected in 2013/14 among Swedish adolescents. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression analysis (OLS) and multinomial logistic regression.Tentative results indicate that there are strong connections between students’ experiences of school pressure (risk factor), as well as family relationships (protective factor), and psychosomatic complaints (psychological, somatic and psychosomatic). However, it is important to recognize that the associations may work differently for girls and boys.In order to be able to improve the health of adolescents, it may be necessary to rule out the influence of different factors on psychosomatic health, and if this influence is similar for different groups of adolescents.

  • 19.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Skolprestationer & psykisk ohälsa2019Inngår i: Skolhälsan, ISSN 0284-284X, nr 1, s. 14-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 20.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    The PsychoSomatic Problems Scale: an analysis of the psychometric properties using Australian adolescent data2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Background: The PsychoSomatic problems Scale (PSP-Scale) has frequently been used in the Scandinavian countries in order to monitor adolescent psychosomatic health. According to Psychometric analyses based on the the polytomous Rasch model, the PSP-scale shows good measurement properties (see Hagquist, 2008). However, the properties of the PSP-scale have not been examined for non-European samples and for younger adolescents.

    Aims: The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of the PsychoSomatic Problems Scale by means of the polytomous Rasch model using an Australian sample of younger adolescents (school year 3-7).   

    Sample: Using a paper-and-pencil based survey, the data was collected among 758 adolescents enrolled (school year 3-7) in schools in central Perth of Western Australia in 2013.  

    Methods: The PSP-scale consists of eight polytomous items intended to tap information about student experiences of psychosomatic health complaints. The PSP-scale was analysed by means of the polytomous Rasch model. General fit statistics as well as their graphical representations (ICC) are used to evaluate if the data fit the Rasch model. A particular focus is also directed towards possible Differential Item Functioning (DIF) across school year and sex.

    Results: At a general level of analysis, the scale seems to fit the Rasch model fairly well, with good targeting and separation of the individuals. However, some of the items showed reversed item thresholds, indicating that the response categories did not work as expected in the Australian setting. Further there seems to be some tendencies of Differential item functioning by grade.

    Conclusions: In comparing the psychosomatic problems among different age groups, in particular younger and older, the analyst needs to be particularly cautious. Also, cultural and language aspects need to be addressed if an instrument is to be used in a different setting than the one it was developed in.   

    Future directions: There seems to be a lack of instruments useful for invariant measurement of psychosomatic health among adolescents in different age groups. However, in order to achieve invariant measurement across age groups, efforts to develop instruments are required, in particular if older and younger adolescents  are to be compared. 

    Further comments:

    Hagquist, C. (2008). Psychometric Properties of the PsychoSomatic Problems Scale: A Rasch Analysis on Adolescent Data. Social Indicators Research, 86: 511-523.

  • 21.
    Bergh, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Giota, Joanna
    University of Gothenburg, Department of Education and Special Education.
    The Social Responsibility Goal Orientation: An analysis of the psychometric properties of a scale using adolescent data from Sweden2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In the Achievement Goal Theory, different reasons for learning are contrasted. Mastery and Performance are most commonly used while less attention is paid to Social Responsibility goal orientations, despite that this is an integral part of many curricula. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of a scale of Social Responsibility goal orientation by means of the polytomous Rasch model. Mehods: This study is based on data from the longitudinal ETF project (Evaluation Through Follow up) among Swedish students. Two cohorts (born in 1992 and 1998) of students in school year 9 were subjected to analysis. Data was collected by a self-administered postal questionnaires to randomly selected students. In total, 6,010 students responded in 1992 and 4,573 in 1998. A scale consisting of 6 polytomous items is analysed. General fit statistics as well as their graphical representations (ICC) are used to evaluate the fit to the Rasch model. Strategies to handle large samples in statistical test of fit are discussed.   Results: The social responsibility scale seems to fit the Rasch model fairly well, with good separation of individuals, and showing no reversed item thresholds, i.e. the response categories work as intended. The estimates are also relatively stable over cohorts. However, there are indications of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by sex.    Conclusions: Although, the Social Responsibility scale fits the Rasch model fairly well, there are room for improvements. In particular, targeting may be improved by the inclusion of additional items of appropriate difficulty. 

  • 22.
    Bergh, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Williamsson, Viktoria
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap.
    Går det att höja kvaliteten och effektivisera examination i samhällskunskap?2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Examination utgör en central del i våra utbildningar, inte desto mindre verkar det vara ovanligt med djupare reflektioner över kvaliteten i dessa.

    Det projekt som vi vill dela med oss av här är ett pågående utvecklingsprojekt som har till syfte att  analysera examinationen i samhällskunskap inom ämneslärarutbildningen. Redovisningen baserar sig på en kvantitativ analys av hur väl en salsskrivning i samhällskunskap 1 på ämneslärarprogrammet tjänar sitt syfte, d.v.s. fungerar tentamen bra som examination betraktat? Hur skulle den kunna göras bättre?

    En central fråga rör om tentamens svårighetsgrad verkar vara anpassad till den studentgrupp som avses. Om några frågor skulle visa sig vara för enkla – alla studenter klarar frågorna - hjälper ju inte dessa oss med att mäta studenternas kunskaper. På motsatt sätt kan man tänka sig att några frågor är alldeles för svåra, d.v.s. inga studenter klarar av frågorna.  Analysen visar bl.a. att:

    • Genom att formulera väl övervägda frågor i förhållande till aktuella lärandemål skulle den insats och tidsåtgång som krävs för bedömning av tentamen kunna göras mer effektiv med ökad kvalitet, och studenter utsätts inte för onödiga frågor.
  • 23.
    Berglund, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Subjective well-being and job satisfaction among self-employed and regular employees: does personality matter differently?2016Inngår i: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 55-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the importance of personality traits for subjective well-being

    (SWB) and job satisfaction among self-employed. The aim of this article is to

    investigate if the Big-Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness,

    conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience) have different

    relationships with SWB and job satisfaction among self-employed compared with

    regular employees. Data come from a Swedish survey comprising representative

    samples of self-employed (n D 2483) and regular employees (n D 2642). Personality

    traits are measured using a 10-item personality measure. Our findings show that there

    are only small differences, between self-employed and regular employees, in the

    associations between personality traits and SWB. For job satisfaction, on the other

    hand, we find much stronger relationships for self-employed than the regularly

    employed. For self-employed, every personality trait except ‘openness to experience’

    have a significant positive relationship with job satisfaction. In comparison, only

    ‘extraversion’ and ‘emotional stability’ are significantly correlated to job satisfaction

    among regular employees. The relationship between ‘extraversion’ and job

    satisfaction was furthermore substantially weaker among regular employees.

    Therefore, being self-employed seems to be particularly beneficial for individuals

    scoring high on ‘extraversion,’ ‘agreeableness,’ and ‘conscientiousness.’

  • 24.
    Bortes, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Is the effect of ill health on school achievement among Swedish adolescents gendered?2019Inngår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 8, s. 1-8, artikkel-id 100408Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates why the relationship between health problems requiring hospitalization between the ages of 13 and 16 and school achievement (school grades in 9th grade) in Sweden was stronger for girls than for boys. We reviewed previous research on gender differences in subjective health, health care utilization and medical drug treatment to identify mechanisms responsible for this gendered effect. The relationship was analysed using retrospective observational data from several national full-population registers of individuals born in 1990 in Sweden (n = 115 196), and ordinary least squares techniques were used to test hypotheses. We found that girls had longer stays when hospitalized, which mediated 15% of the interaction effect. Variability in drug treatment between boys and girls did not explain the gendered effect of hospitalization. The main mediator of the gendered effect was instead differences in diagnoses between boys and girls. Girls’ hospitalizations were more commonly related to mental and behavioural diagnoses, which have particularly detrimental effects on school achievement. © 2019 The Authors

  • 25.
    Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Health problems during childhood and school achievement: Exploring associations between hospitalization exposures, gender, timing, and compulsory school grades2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 12, s. 1-14, artikkel-id e0208116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To investigate while accounting for health at birth 1) associations between health problems during childhood, measured as hospitalizations, and school achievement in the final year of compulsory school, measured as overall grade points and eligibility for upper secondary education, 2) if and how gender moderates the association between health problems and school achievement, 3) if and how the timing of a health problem during childhood is associated with later school achievement. Methods Analyzes were performed on a population-based cohort (n = 115 196) born in 1990 in Sweden (51.3% boys, 48.7% girls) using data from several national registries. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyze associations between study variables. Results Overall grade points and eligibility for continuation to upper secondary school were lower for individuals exposed to hospitalizations. Only the association between hospitalizations and overall grade points was moderated by gender and only for ages 13-16 years. Exposure close to actual grading had worst outcomes. Conclusions Health problems, measured through hospitalizations, was significantly associated with lower school achievements among Swedish children. Girls exposed to health problems requiring hospitalizations had relatively poorer school achievements as compared to boys. Health problems requiring hospitalization during junior high school had the greatest negative association with final achievement at compulsory school.

  • 26.
    Brikell, Isabell
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Jan-Olov
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Orebro, Sch Med Sci, Orebro, Sweden..
    Lahey, Benjamin B.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Kuntsi, Jonna
    Kings Coll London, MRC Social Genet & Dev Psychiat Ctr, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England..
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rydelius, Per-Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Relative immaturity in Childhood and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms From Childhood to Early Adulthood: Exploring Genetic and Environmental Overlap Across Development2016Inngår i: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 0890-8567, E-ISSN 1527-5418, Vol. 55, nr 10, s. 886-895Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been linked to immaturity relative to peers in childhood, yet it is undear how such immaturity is associated with ADHD across development. This longitudinal twin study examined the genetic and environmental contributions to the association between parents' perception of their child's immaturity relative to peers (RI) in childhood and ADHD symptoms across development. Method: 1,302 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development were followed prospectively from childhood to early adulthood. Parent ratings of RI were collected at 8 to 9 years and parent and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms were collected at 8 to 9, 13 to 14, 16 to 17, and 19 to 20 years using the Child Behavior Checklist Attention Problems scale. In addition, ADHD symptoms corresponding to DSM criteria were used for sensitivity analysis. Analyses were conducted using longitudinal structural equation modeling with multiple raters. Results: RI-related etiologic factors, predominantly influenced by genes, explained 10-14% of the variance in ADHD symptoms from 8 to 9 up to 16 to 17 years. The influence of these RI-related factors on ADHD symptoms attenuated to 4% by 19 to 20 years of age. The remaining variance in ADHD symptoms was primarily explained by genetic factors independent of RI, which remained relatively stable across development, explaining 19% to 30% of the variance in ADHD symptoms from 13 to 14 up to 19 to 20 years. Conclusion: The results show that RI is significantly associated with ADHD symptoms, particularly during childhood and adolescence, and that the association is primarily explained by a shared genetic liability. Nevertheless, the magnitude of associations across development was modest, highlighting that RI is merely one aspect contributing to the complex etiology of ADHD symptoms.

  • 27.
    Danielsson, Nanette
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Associations between adolescent sleep disturbance and different worry themes: findings from a repeated cross-sectional study from 1988 to 20112016Inngår i: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 194-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The objective was to investigate relationships between adolescent sleep disturbance and various worry themes.

    Methods

    Questionnaire data from 8 cross-sectional collections between 1988 and 2011 were used. The sample included more than 20,000 adolescents aged 15-16. Binary logistic regressions were used for the analyses.

    Results

    Sleep disturbance and female sex increased the odds of worrying about all themes. Sleep disturbance shared stronger associations with worry about financial security, accidents/illness, being bullied, and terrorist attacks (odds ratios, 2.65-3.35) compared with worry about environmental destruction or nuclear war (odds ratios, 1.73-2.11). No interactions between sleep and year of investigation were found.

    Conclusions

    Little is known about the association between adolescent worry and sleep, and about sleep disturbance and specific worry content. This study shows that the strength in the relationship between adolescent worry and sleep varies with worry themes. Knowledge of the worry content related to sleep may aid in targeting preventions and interventions.

  • 28.
    Evans, Brittany
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Beijers, Roseriet
    Radboud University, the Netherlands.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    de Weerth, Carolina
    Radboud University, the Netherlands.
    Childhood urbanicity and hair steroid hormone levels in ten-year-old children2019Inngår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 102, s. 53-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research suggests that it may be more stressful for children to grow up in an urban area than in a rural area. Urbanicity may affect physiological stress system functioning as well as the timing of sexual maturation. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether moderate urbanicity (current and childhood, ranging from rural areas to small cities) was associated with indices of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis functioning (cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone and progesterone levels) and whether sex moderated any associations. Method: Children (N = 92) were all 10 years old and from the Dutch general population. Hair samples were collected and single segments (the three cm most proximal to the scalp) were assayed for concentrations of steroid hormones (LCMS/MS method). Neighborhood-level urbanicity and socioeconomic status were measured from birth through age ten years. Analyses were controlled for neighborhood- and family socioeconomic status, body mass index and season of sampling. Results: The results from multivariate analyses of variance showed no associations between current or childhood moderate urbanicity and hair steroid hormone concentrations. Interaction terms between moderate urbanicity and sex were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Associations between urbanicity and steroid hormone levels may only be detectable in highly urban areas and/or during later stages of adolescence. Alternatively, our findings may have been due to most children being from families with a higher socioeconomic status. 

  • 29.
    Evans, Brittany
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Radboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands, VU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherland.
    Buil, J. M.
    VU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands; Erasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands.
    Burk, W. J.
    Radboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands.
    Cillessen, A. H. N.
    Radboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands.
    van Lier, P. A. C.
    VU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands ; Erasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands.
    Urbanicity is Associated with Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Elementary School-Aged Children2018Inngår i: Journal of Child and Family Studies, ISSN 1062-1024, E-ISSN 1573-2843, Vol. 27, nr 7, s. 2193-2205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Adults are 38% more likely to suffer from a psychiatric disorder when they live in an urban compared to a rural area. Urban upbringing may be particularly important. The aim of the present study was to examine whether urbanicity was independently associated with mental health in elementary school-aged children. Specifically, we investigated whether living in a more urban area was associated with exhibiting more behavioral and emotional problems, and whether this remained while controlling for other major risk factors for mental health problems in children. Data came from a Dutch general population study of children (n = 895). Information from four waves was used, in which children were aged approximately 8, 9, 11, and 12 years old. We used mixed effects models to assess the association between urbanicity and the outcomes of behavioral problems and emotional problems separately, while controlling for other major risk factors. The analyses showed that children who lived in more urban areas were significantly more likely to exhibit behavioral (p < .001) and emotional (p < .001) problems. This effect remained when controlling for neighborhood socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity, family socioeconomic status, parental symptoms of psychopathology, parenting stress, and parenting practices (behavioral: p = .02, emotional: p = .009). In line with research in adults, urbanicity seems to be independently associated with behavioral and emotional problems in children. A possible underlying mechanism is that the city is a stressful environment for children to grow up in, which contributes to an increased risk for mental health problems.

  • 30.
    Franssen, Gaston
    et al.
    University of Amsterdam.
    Van Geelen, Stefan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital of the University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Self-management as management of the self: Future directions for healthcare and the promotion of mental health2017Inngår i: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, ISSN 1071-6076, E-ISSN 1086-3303, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 179-184Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Giota, Joanna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Emanuelsson, Ingemar
    University of Gothenburg.
    Changes in individualized teaching practices in municipal and independent schools 2003, 2008 and 2014: Student achievement, family background and school choice in Sweden2019Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, s. 78-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated student experiences of teaching practices in grade 9 at 2003, 2008 and 2014 after the Swedish education reforms of the 1990s. Teaching practices in both municipal and independent schools were related to student achievement and family background. Data from three nationally representative cohorts within the ongoing Swedish longitudinal ETF-project have been used. The results show changes from more conventional to more individualistic teaching practices. Independent schools emphasize more self-regulated learning. Child-centred forms of work are though found to be equally beneficial for student achievement as more conventional teaching methods. In spite of education reforms, family background is equally important for student achievement as earlier. Obtained results are discussed in relation to increased school competition in Sweden.

  • 32.
    Grip, Karin K.
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Psychol, S-40530 Gothenburg, Vastergotland, Sweden..
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Axberg, Ulf
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Psychol, S-40530 Gothenburg, Vastergotland, Sweden..
    Broberg, Anders G.
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Psychol, S-40530 Gothenburg, Vastergotland, Sweden..
    Perceived Quality of Life and Health Complaints in Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence2014Inngår i: Journal of family Violence, ISSN 0885-7482, E-ISSN 1573-2851, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 681-692Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Children 9 to 13 years old exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) reported on their violence exposure, attachment to both parents, temperament (negative emotionality and emotion regulation), perceived quality of life, and health complaints. Half of the children perceived their quality of life as good and did not have recurrent health complaints. When controlling for socioeconomic status, health complaints were associated with higher IPV exposure and negative emotionality, whereas quality of life was associated with attachment security, higher capacity for emotion regulation, and lower negative emotionality. These results underscore the importance of increasing and supporting the capacity of children exposed to IPV to handle and express their emotions, as well as making school nurses and other primary care practitioners more attentive to IPV as a possible background factor in children's health complaints.

  • 33.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Adolescent mental health: Gender differences in consequences for everyday life2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Alcohol consumption and life satisfaction among adolescents: The moderating role of gender2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Alkohol-, narkotika- och tobaksvanor bland niondeklassare: Resultat från Ung i Värmland 1988-20112012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Analysis of Differential Item Functioning in Social Science Research using the Rasch Model2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Analysis of Differential Item Functioning: When is item split justified?2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Applications of Rasch Measurement Theory in Health Research2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Associations between family type and binge drinking among adolescents in Sweden2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Associations of Family Residency and Child-Parent Relations with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents in Sweden2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Centrum för folkhälsoforskning2013Inngår i: Vårt liv: En krönika om Landstinget i Värmland 1863–2013 / [ed] Ajaxson, Anders., & Svanqvist, Staffan., Karlstad: Landstinget i Värmland , 2013, 1, s. 467-470Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Challenges in cross country comparisons of adolescent mental health – Illustrative examples based on Rasch-analysis of HBSC-data.2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Consequences for Everyday Life of Mental Health Problems Among Adolescents2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Determinants of Artificial DIF: a study based on simulated polytomous data2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Discrepant time trends of mental health across grades and genders among adolescents in Sweden2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Do 7 items provide as good measurement as 13 items?: A comparison of a short and long version of KIDSCREEN2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 47.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Drogvanor och psykisk ohälsa bland ungdomar i Värmland 1988-20112015Inngår i: Barns liv och hälsa i Värmland 2014 / [ed] Jernbro, C., Bornehag, C.-G., Janson, S., Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2015, s. 126-141Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Införandet av mellanölet 1965 (1) och försöket med fri starkölsförsäljning 1967-68 i Värmlands län samt i Göteborgs och Bohus län (2) gjorde ungdomars alkoholkon-sumtion till en het politisk fråga som fick stor medial uppmärksamhet. I spåren av 1990-talets ekonomiska kris har också ungas psykiska ohälsa präglat den politiska debatten och medierapporteringen. Ungdomars drogvanor och psykiska hälsa har i decennier också varit centrala frågor för folkhälsoarbetet. Återkommande mätningar av ungdomars drogvanor och psykiska hälsa har i Värmland gjorts sedan slutet av 1980-talet, inom ramen för undersökningen Ung i Värmland som riktar sig till skolelever i årskurs nio (3, 4).

    I föreliggande kapitel redovisas data om drogvanor och om psykosomatiska besvär från Ung i Värmland för perioden 1988–2011. Under denna tidsperiod ägde stora förändringar rum i Sverige och i världen. 1988 var arbetslösheten i Sverige låg. Fem år senare präglades Sverige av massarbetslöshet och svår ekonomisk kris. Ungdomarna drabbades särskilt hårt av den höga arbetslösheten. I krisens spår följde ekonomiska nedskärningar i skolor och andra offentliga verksamheter (5). Under början och mitten av 1990-talet ökade ”barnfattigdomen”. Under den studerade tidsperioden har också migrationen ökat, och familjestrukturen förändrats.

    Sveriges EU-inträde 1995 förändrade förutsättningarna för den svenska alkoholpolitiken. Sverige har steg för steg tvingats acceptera EU:s regler för införsel av alkohol. Från 2001 till 2004 steg den årliga totala konsumtionen av ren alkohol per invånare 15 år och äldre med cirka 20 %, till 10,56 liter (6). Därefter minskade konsumtionen till en lägstanivå år 2012, 9,1 liter. Från 2012 till 2013 ökade konsumtionen med 8 % och uppgick 2013 till 9,9 liter ren alkohol per invånare 15 år och äldre.

    Syftet med kapitlet är att beskriva psykosomatiska besvär och alkohol- och narkotikavanor bland värmländska ungdomar i 15–16-årsåldern, med fokus på förändringar över tid, skillnader mellan pojkar och flickor samt mellan ungdomar med olika studieinriktningar. Undersökningsgruppen i Värmland jämförs även med riksgenomsnittet gällande alkohol- och narkotikavanor bland niondeklassare.

  • 48.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Explaining Differential Item Functioning focusing on the crucial role of external information: An example from the measurement of adolescent mental health2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Explaining differential item functioning focusing on the crucial role of external information: An example from the measurement of adolescent mental health2019Inngår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikkel-id 1985Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An overarching objective in research comparing different sample groups is to ensure that the reported differences in outcomes are not affected by differences between groups in the functioning of the measurement instruments, i.e. the items have to work in the same way for the different sample groups to be compared. Lack of invariance across sample groups are commonly called Differential Item Functioning (DIF). There is a sense in which the DIF of an item can be taken account of by resolving (splitting) the item into group specific items, rather than deleting the item. Resolving improves fit, retains the reliability and content provided by the item, and compensates for the DIF in estimation of person parameters on the scale of the instrument. However, it destroys invariance of the item’s parameter value among the groups. Whether or not a DIF item should be resolved depends on whether the source of the DIF is relevant or irrelevant for the content of the variable. The present paper shows how external information can be used to investigate if the gender DIF found in the item “Stomach ache” in a psychosomatic symptoms scale used among adolescents may reflect abdominal pain because of a biological factor, the girls’ menstrual periods. Methods: Swedish data from the international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) collected in 2005/06, 2009/10 and 2013/14 were used, comprising a total of 18,983 students in grades 5, 7 and 9. A composite measure of eight items of psychosomatic problems was analysed for DIF with respect to gender and menstrual periods using the Rasch model. Results: The results support the hypothesis that the source of the gender DIF for the item “Stomach ache” is a gender specific biological factor. In that case the DIF should be resolved if the psychosomatic measure is not intended to tap information about abdominal pain caused by a gender specific biological factor. In contrast, if the measure is intended to tap such information, the DIF should not be resolved. Conclusions: The conceptualisation of the measure governs whether the item showing DIF should be resolved or not. Keywords: Differential item functioning (DIF), Resolving for DIF, Psychosomatic problems, Rasch model, Source of DIF, Validity and reliability, HBSC

  • 50.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Exploring and understanding the source of DIF: Relevant or irrelevant for the content of the variable?2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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