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  • 1.
    Adamsson, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    En Montessori-inspirerad pedagogik utmanar högpresterande elever matematiskt: En kvalitativ studie om vilka strategier lärare som använder en Montessori- inspirerad pedagogik i årskurs 1-3 anser utmanar och stimulerar högpresterande elever i matematik.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att ta reda på vilka strategier lärare som använder en Montessori-inspirerad pedagogik anser stimulerar och utmanar högpresterande elever i matematik samt om de upplevde några svårigheter eller problem med att undervisa högpresterande elever i matematik. För att undersöka det har sex kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts med lärare som har varit eller som är verksamma i årskurserna 1-3. Resultatet av intervjuerna visar att lärarna har en gemensam uppfattning om att en Montessori-inspirerad pedagogik utmanar och stimulerar högpresterande elever i matematik eftersom grundtanken i Montessori-pedagogiken är "eleven i centrum". Det här innebär att lärarna måste utgå från varje elevs förutsättningar, behov och aktuella kunskapsnivå. I resultatet framkommer också att lärarna använder sig av olika strategier i form av matematikbok från en högre årskurs, special- och fördjupningsområden, åldersintegrering och lärande med flera sinnen för att stimulera och utmana de högpresterande eleverna matematiskt. Det framgår också i resultatet att lärarna inte upplever några större problem eller svårigheter i undervisningen av högpresterande elever i matematik. De belyser ändå att den egna matematiska kompetensen, tidsbrist och eget kontrollbehov ibland kan utgöra hinder för att stimulera och utmana de högpresterande eleverna tillräckligt. Utifrån studien kan man dra slutsatserna att lärare som använder en Montessori-inspirerad pedagogik lägger stor vikt vid att hitta rätt strategi för rätt elev, vilket bidrar till att de högpresterande eleverna får utmaning och stimulans. De olika hindren som lärarna belyser skulle kunna minskas med fortbildning och samarbete mellan årskurserna. 

  • 2.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Towards Secure Multipath TCP Communication2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution in networking coupled with an increasing demand to improve user experience has led to different proposals to extend the standard TCP. Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is one such extension that has the potential to overcome few inherent limitations in the standard TCP. While MPTCP's design and deployment progresses, most of the focus has been on its compatibility. The security aspect is confined to making sure that the MPTCP protocol itself offers the same security level as the standard TCP.

    The topic of this thesis is to investigate the unexpected security implications raised by using MPTCP in the traditional networking environment. The Internet of today has security middle-boxes that perform traffic analysis to detect intrusions and attacks. Such middle-boxes make use of different assumptions about the traffic, e.g., traffic from a single connection always arrives along the same path. This along with many other assumptions may not be true anymore with the advent of MPTCP as traffic can be fragmented and sent over multiple paths simultaneously.

    We investigate how practical it is to evade a security middle-box by fragmenting and sending traffic across multiple paths using MPTCP. Realistic attack traffic is used to evaluate such attacks against Snort IDS to show that these attacks are feasible. We then go on to propose possible solutions to detect such attacks and implement them in an MPTCP proxy. The proxy aims to extend the MPTCP performance advantages to servers that only support standard TCP, while ensuring that intrusions can be detected as before. Finally, we investigate the potential MPTCP scenario where security middle-boxes only have access to some of the traffic. We propose and implement an algorithm to perform intrusion detection in such situations and achieve a nearly 90% detection accuracy. Another contribution of this work is a tool, that converts IDS rules into equivalent attack traffic to automate the evaluation of a middle-box.

  • 3.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Partial Signature Matching in an MPTCP World using Insert-only Levenshtein DistanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Slice Distance: An Insert-Only Levenshtein Distance with a Focus on Security Applications2018In: Proceedings of NTMS 2018 Conference and Workshop, New York: IEEE, 2018, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levenshtein distance is well known for its use in comparing two strings for similarity. However, the set of considered edit operations used when comparing can be reduced in a number of situations. In such cases, the application of the generic Levenshtein distance can result in degraded detection and computational performance. Other metrics in the literature enable limiting the considered edit operations to a smaller subset. However, the possibility where a difference can only result from deleted bytes is not yet explored. To this end, we propose an insert-only variation of the Levenshtein distance to enable comparison of two strings for the case in which differences occur only because of missing bytes. The proposed distance metric is named slice distance and is formally presented and its computational complexity is discussed. We also provide a discussion of the potential security applications of the slice distance.

  • 5.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Automated Testing of IDS Rules2015In: Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), 2015 IEEE Eighth International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As technology becomes ubiquitous, new vulnerabilities are being discovered at a rapid rate. Security experts continuously find ways to detect attempts to exploit those vulnerabilities. The outcome is an extremely large and complex rule set used by Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) to detect and prevent the vulnerabilities. The rule sets have become so large that it seems infeasible to verify their precision or identify overlapping rules. This work proposes a methodology consisting of a set of tools that will make rule management easier.

  • 6.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    IDS rule management made easy2016In: Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI), 2016 8th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Signature-based intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are commonly utilized in enterprise networks to detect and possibly block a wide variety of attacks. Their application in industrial control systems (ICSs) is also growing rapidly as modem ICSs increasingly use open standard protocols instead of proprietary. Due to an ever changing threat landscape, the rulesets used by these IDSs have grown large and there is no way to verify their precision or accuracy. Such broad and non-optimized rulesets lead to false positives and an unnecessary burden on the IDS, resulting in possible degradation of the security. This work proposes a methodology consisting of a set of tools to help optimize the IDS rulesets and make rule management easier. The work also provides attack traffic data that is expected to benefit the task of IDS assessment.

  • 7.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Multipath TCP IDS Evasion and Mitigation2015In: Information Security: 18th International Conference, ISC 2015, Trondheim, Norway, September 9-11, 2015, Proceedings, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9290, p. 265-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing network security infrastructure is not ready for future protocols such as Multipath TCP (MPTCP). The outcome is that middleboxes are configured to block such protocols. This paper studies the security risk that arises if future protocols are used over unaware infrastructures. In particular, the practicality and severity of cross-path fragmentation attacks utilizing MPTCP against the signature-matching capability of the Snort intrusion detection system (IDS) is investigated. Results reveal that the attack is realistic and opens the possibility to evade any signature-based IDS. To mitigate the attack, a solution is also proposed in the form of the MPTCP Linker tool. The work outlines the importance of MPTCP support in future network security middleboxes.

  • 8.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Lidén, Anders
    Towards Multipath TCP Aware Security Technologies2016In: 2016 8th IFIP International Conference onNew Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), New York: IEEE, 2016, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is a proposed extension to TCP that enables a number of performance advantages that have not been offered before. While the protocol specification is close to being finalized, there still remain some unaddressed challenges regarding the deployment and security implications of the protocol. This work attempts to tackle some of these concerns by proposing and implementing MPTCP aware security services and deploying them inside a proof of concept MPTCP proxy. The aim is to enable hosts, even those without native MPTCP support, to securely benefit from the MPTCP performance advantages. Our evaluations show that the security services that are implemented enable proper intrusion detection and prevention to thwart potential attacks as well as threshold rules to prevent denial of service (DoS) attacks.

  • 9.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Lidén, Anders
    A Multipath TCP Proxy2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is an extension to traditionalTCP that enables a number of performance advantages,which were not offered before. While the protocol specificationis close to being finalized, there still remain some concernsregarding deployability and security. This paper describes theon going work to develop a solution that will facilitate thedeployment of MPTCP. The solution will not only allow non-MPTCP capable end-hosts to benefit from MPTCP performancegains, but also help ease the network security concerns that manymiddleboxes face due to the possibility of data stream beingfragmented across multiple subflows.

  • 10.
    Afzal, Zeeshan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Rossebø, Judith
    Integrated Operations, ABB AS, Norway.
    Chowdhury, Mohammad
    Talha, Batool
    ABB Corporate Research, ABB AS, Norway.
    A Wireless Intrusion Detection System for 802.11 networks2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, SIGNAL PROCESSING AND NETWORKING (WISPNET), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 828-834Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless local area networks (WLANs) deployment is increasing rapidly. At the same time, WLANs have become an attractive target for many potential attackers. In spite of that, the de facto standard used to implement most WLANs (IEEE 802.11) has what appear to be residual vulnerabilities related to identity spoofing. In this paper, a pragmatic study of two common attacks on the standard is conducted. These attacks are then implemented on test beds to learn attack behavior. Finally, novel attack signatures and techniques to detect these attacks are devised and implemented in a proof of concept Wireless Intrusion Detection System (WIDS).

  • 11.
    Agapi, Mesodiakaki
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Zola, Enrica
    Univ Politecn Cataluna, Dept Network Engn, Barcelona, Spain.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    User Association in 5G Heterogeneous Networks with Mesh Millimeter Wave Backhaul Links2017In: 2017 IEEE 18th International Symposium on A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), IEEE, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifth generation (5G) wireless networks will target at energy and spectrum efficient solutions to cope with the increasing demands in capacity and energy efficiency. To achieve this joint goal, dense networks of small cells (SCs) are expected to overlay the existing macro cells. In parallel, for the SC connection to the core network, a promising solution lies in a mesh network of high capacity millimeter wave backhaul (BH) links. In the considered 5G architecture, each SC is able to forward its BH traffic to the core network through alternative paths, thus offering high BIT network reliability. In this context, the joint problem of user association and HI routing becomes challenging. In this paper, we focus on this problem targeting at energy and spectrum efficient solutions. A low-complexity algorithm is proposed, which bases its user association and BIT routing decision i) on minimizing the spectrum resources to guarantee the user rate, so as to provide high spectrum efficiency, and ii) on minimizing both the access network and BH route power consumption to provide high energy efficiency. Our results show that our solution provides better trade-offs between energy and spectrum efficiency than the state-of-the-art in 3GPP scenarios.

  • 12.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Are MIRCC and Rate-based Congestion Control in ICN READY for Variable Link Capacity?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-centric networking (ICN) has been introduced as a potential future networking architecture. ICN promises an architecture that makes information independent from lo- cation, application, storage, and transportation. Still, it is not without challenges. Notably, there are several outstanding issues regarding congestion control: Since ICN is more or less oblivious to the location of information, it opens up for a single application flow to have several sources, something which blurs the notion of transport flows, and makes it very difficult to employ traditional end-to-end congestion control schemes in these networks. Instead, ICN networks often make use of hop-by-hop congestion control schemes. How- ever, these schemes are also tainted with problems, e.g., several of the proposed ICN congestion controls assume fixed link capacities that are known beforehand. Since this seldom is the case, this paper evaluates the consequences in terms of latency, throughput, and link usage, variable link capacities have on a hop-by-hop congestion control scheme, such as the one employed by the Multipath-aware ICN Rate-based Congestion Control (MIRCC). The evaluation was carried out in the OMNeT++ simulator, and demonstrates how seemingly small variations in link capacity significantly deterio- rate both latency and throughput, and often result in inefficient network link usage. 

  • 13.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    et al.
    RISE SICS.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    RISE SICS.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    ICN Congestion Control for Wireless Links2018In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) 2018, Barcelona, Spain, April 16-18 2018. / [ed] IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-centric networking (ICN) with its design around named-based forwarding and in-network caching holds great promises to become a key architecture for the future Internet. Still, despite its attractiveness, there are many open questions that need to be answered before wireless ICN becomes a reality, not least about its congestion control: Many of the proposed hop-by-hop congestion control schemes assume a fixed and known link capacity, something that rarely – if ever – holds true for wireless links. As a first step, this paper demonstrates that although these congestion control schemes are able to fairly well utilise the available wireless link capacity, they greatly fail to keep the link delay down. In fact, they essentially offer the same link delay as in the case with no hop-by-hop, only end- to-end, congestion control. Secondly, the paper shows that by complementing these congestion control schemes with an easy- to-implement, packet-train link estimator, we reduce the link delay to a level significantly lower than what is obtained with only end-to-end congestion control, while still being able to keep the link utilisation at a high level. 

  • 14. Aiki, T.
    et al.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Existence and uniqueness of solutions to a mathematical model predicting service life of concrete structures2009In: Advances in Mathematical Sciences and Applications, ISSN 1343-4373, Vol. 19, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Aiki, Toyohiko
    et al.
    Japan.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Large-time behavior of solutions to a thermo-diffusion system with Smoluchowski interactions2017In: Journal of Differential Equations, ISSN 0022-0396, E-ISSN 1090-2732, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 3009-3026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We prove the large time behavior of solutions to a coupled thermo-diffusion arising in the modeling of the motion of hot colloidal particles in porous media. Additionally, we also ensure the uniqueness of solutions of the target problem. The main mathematical difficulty is due to the presence in the right-hand side of the equations of products between temperature and concentration gradients. Such terms mimic the so-called thermodynamic Soret and Dufour effects. These are cross-coupling terms emphasizing in this context a strong interplay between heat conduction and molecular diffusion.

  • 16.
    Airola, Rasmus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hager, Kristoffer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Image Classification, Deep Learning and Convolutional Neural Networks: A Comparative Study of Machine Learning Frameworks2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of machine learning and specifically neural networks is a growing trend in software development, and has grown immensely in the last couple of years in the light of an increasing need to handle big data and large information flows. Machine learning has a broad area of application, such as human-computer interaction, predicting stock prices, real-time translation, and self driving vehicles. Large companies such as Microsoft and Google have already implemented machine learning in some of their commercial products such as their search engines, and their intelligent personal assistants Cortana and Google Assistant.

    The main goal of this project was to evaluate the two deep learning frameworks Google TensorFlow and Microsoft CNTK, primarily based on their performance in the training time of neural networks. We chose to use the third-party API Keras instead of TensorFlow's own API when working with TensorFlow. CNTK was found to perform better in regards of training time compared to TensorFlow with Keras as frontend. Even though CNTK performed better on the benchmarking tests, we found Keras with TensorFlow as backend to be much easier and more intuitive to work with. In addition, CNTKs underlying implementation of the machine learning algorithms and functions differ from that of the literature and of other frameworks. Therefore, if we had to choose a framework to continue working in, we would choose Keras with TensorFlow as backend, even though the performance is less compared to CNTK.

  • 17.
    Alaqra, Ala Sarah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    The Wicked Problem of Privacy: Design Challenge for Crypto-based Solutions2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data privacy has been growing in importance in recent years, especially with the continuous increase of online activity. Researchers study, design, and develop solutions aimed at enhancing users’ data privacy. The wicked problem of data privacy is a continuous challenge that defies straightforward solutions. Since there are many factors involved in data privacy, such as technological, legal, and human aspects, we can only aim at mitigating rather than solving this wicked problem. Our aim was to focus on human aspects for designing usable crypto-based privacy-enhancing solutions.  In this thesis, we followed a user centered design method by using empirical qualitative means for investigating user’s perceptions and opinions of our solutions. Most of our work has focused on redactable signatures in the cloud context within the eHealth use-case. Redactable signatures are  a privacy enhancing scheme allowing to remove parts of a signed document by a specified party for achieving data minimization without invalidating the respective signature.

    We mainly used semi-structures interviews and focus groups in our investigations. Our results yielded key HCI considerations as well as guidelines of different means for supporting the design of future solutions.

  • 18.
    Alaqra, Alaa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Manuscript: Enhancing privacy controls for patients via a selective authentic EHR exchange serviceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Alaqra, Alaa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Manuscript: HCI patterns for cryptographically equipped cloud servicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Alaqra, Ala(a)
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Groß, Thomas
    Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.
    Lorünser, Thomas
    Austrian Institute of Technology, Vienna, Austria.
    Slamanig, Daniel
    Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Signatures for Privacy, Trust and Accountability in the Cloud: Applications and Requirements2015In: Privacy and Identity Management. Time for a Revolution?: 10th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.5, 9.6/11.7, 11.4, 11.6/SIG 9.2.2 International Summer School, Edinburgh, UK, August 16-21, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] David Aspinall, Jan Camenisch, Marit Hansen, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Charles Raab, Springer Publishing Company, 2015, Vol. 476, p. 79-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarises the results of a workshop at the IFIP Summer School 2015 introducing the EU Horizon 2020 project PRISMACLOUD, that is, Privacy and Security Maintaining Services in the Cloud. The contributions of this summary are three-fold. Firstly, it provides an overview to the PRISMACLOUD cryptographic tools and use-case scenarios that were presented as part of this workshop. Secondly, it distills the discussion results of parallel focus groups. Thirdly, it summarises a ``Deep Dive on Crypto'' session that offered technical information on the new tools. Overall, the workshop aimed at outlining application scenarios and eliciting end-user requirements for PRISMACLOUD.

  • 21.
    Alaqra, Alaa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Pettersson, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Malleable Signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth Scenario2016In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss end user requirements that we elicited for the use of malleable signatures in a Cloud-based eHealth scenario. The concept of a malleable signature, which is a privacy enhancing cryptographic scheme that enables the redaction of personal information from signed documents while preserving the validity of the signature, might be counter- intuitive to end users as its functionality does not correspond to the one of a traditional signature scheme. A qualitative study via a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups has been conducted to understand stakeholders’ opinions and concerns in regards to the possible applications of malleable signatures in the eHealth area, where a medical record is first digitally signed by a doctor and later redacted by the patient in the cloud. Results from this study yielded user requirements such as the need for suitable metaphors and guidelines, usable templates, and clear redaction policies. 

  • 22.
    Alay, Özgü
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    García, Rafael
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Peón Quirós, Miguel
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Mancuso, Vincenzo
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Hirsch, Thomas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Dely, Tobias
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Werme, Jonas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Hansen, Audun
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Safari Khatouni, Ali
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Mellia, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Ajmone Marsan, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Monno, Roberto
    Nextworks, Italy.
    Lønsethagen, Håkon
    Telenor R&D, Norway.
    MONROE, a distributed platform to measure and assess mobile broadband networks: demo2016In: Proceedings of the Tenth ACM International Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental Evaluation, and Characterization, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 85-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This demo presents the MONROE distributed platform and how it can be used to implement measurement and assessment experiments with operational mobile broadband networks (MBBs). MONROE provides registered experimenters with open access to hundreds of nodes, distributed over several European countries and equipped with multiple MBB connections, and a backend system that collects the measurement results. Experiments are scheduled through a user-friendly web client, with no need to directly access the nodes. The platform further embeds tools for real-time traffic flow analysis and a powerful visualization tool.

  • 23.
    Alay, Özgü
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Peón-Quirós, Miguel
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Mancuso, Vincenzo
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Hirsch, Thomas
    Celerway Communications, Norway.
    Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway Communications, Norway.
    Hansen, Audun
    Celerway Communications, Norway.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Safari Khatouni, Ali
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Mellia, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Ajmone Marsan, Marco
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain and Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Experience: An open platform for experimentation with commercial mobile broadband networks2017In: MobiCom '17 Proceedings of the 23rd Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 70-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open experimentation with operational Mobile Broadband (MBB) networks in the wild is currently a fundamental requirement of the research community in its endeavor to address the need of innovative solutions for mobile communications. Even more, there is a strong need for objective data about stability and performance of MBB (e.g., 3G/4G) networks, and for tools that rigorously and scientifically assess their status. In this paper, we introduce the MONROE measurement platform: an open access and flexible hardware-based platform for measurements and custom experimentation on operational MBB networks. The MONROE platform enables accurate, realistic and meaningful assessment of the performance and reliability of 11 MBB networks in Europe. We report on our experience designing, implementing and testing the solution we propose for the platform. We detail the challenges we overcame while building and testing the MONROE testbed and argue our design and implementation choices accordingly. We describe and exemplify the capabilities of the platform and the wide variety of experiments that external users already perform using the system

  • 24.
    Alay, Özgü
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Lutu, Andra
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway.
    Rafael, García
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Peón Quirós, Miguel
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Mancuso, Vincenzo
    IMDEA Networks Institute, Spain.
    Hirsch, Thomas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Tobias, Dély
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Werme, Jonas
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Fosselie Hansen, Audun
    Celerway AS, Norway.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Safari Khatouni, Ali
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Mellia, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Ajmone Marsan, Marco
    Politecnico di Torino & IMDEA Networks, Italy.
    Monno, Roberto
    Nextworks, Italy.
    Lønsethagen, Håkon
    Telenor R&D, Norway.
    Measuring and Assessing Mobile Broadband Networks with MONROE2016In: 2016 IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile, and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), Red Hook: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile broadband (MBB) networks underpin numerous vital operations of the society and are arguably becoming the most important piece of the communications infrastructure. In this demo paper, our goal is to showcase the potential of a novel multi-homed MBB platform for measuring, monitoring and assessing the performance of MBB services in an objective manner. Our platform, MONROE, is composed of hundreds of nodes scattered over four European countries and a backend system that collects the measurement results. Through a user-friendly web client, the experimenters can schedule and deploy their experiments. The platform further embeds traffic analysis tools for real-time traffic flow analysis and a powerful visualization tool.

  • 25.
    Aldaz, J. M.
    et al.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, ICMAT, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.;Univ Autonoma Madrid, Dept Matemat, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Barza, Sorina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Fujii, M.
    Osaka Kyoiku Univ, Dept Math, Kashiwara, Osaka 5828582, Japan..
    Moslehian, Mohammad Sal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Advances in Operator Cauchy-Schwarz Inequalities and their Reverses2015In: Annals of Functional Analysis, ISSN 2008-8752, E-ISSN 2008-8752, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 275-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cauchy-Schwarz (C-S) inequality is one of the most famous inequalities in mathematics. In this survey article, we first give a brief history of the inequality. Afterward, we present the C-S inequality for inner product spaces. Focusing on operator inequalities, we then review some significant recent developments of the C-S inequality and its reverses for Hilbert space operators and elements of Hilbert C*-modules. In particular, we pay special attention to an operator Wielandt inequality.

  • 26.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    A Case Study of Recent Mifare Classic Field Deployments From an (In-)Security Perspective2013In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM 2013), Split, Croatia: FESB, University of Split , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mifare Classic is a very popular near-field communication technology that provides a shared-key, access-controlled, storage. Although the authentication protocol of Mifare Classic is compromised since half a decade, systems are still being deployed based on this technology, e.g. for access control systems and for public transport ticketing. By using commodity hardware, such as NFC enabled smartphones, by passing the security measures in some cases only require the installation and operation of a smartphone app. To this end, we present case studies of a number of recent Mifare Classic systems deployed during the last year, to serve as an illustration of practical security problems and to raise awareness thereof among NFC technology buyers and system implementors.

  • 27.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Del Giudice, Giacomo
    Politecnico di Bari, Italy.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    De Cicco, Luca
    Ecole superieure d'Electricite, France; Politecnico di Bari, Italy.
    Mascolo, Saverio
    Politecnico di Bari, Italy.
    Impact of TCP Congestion Control on Bufferbloat in Cellular Networks2013In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM 2013) / [ed] Angelos Lazaris, Balaji Rengarajan, IEEE Press, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of excessively large and too filled network buffers, known as bufferbloat, has recently gained attention as a major performance problem for delay-sensitive applications. One important network scenario where bufferbloat may occur is cellular networks.

    This paper investigates the interaction between TCP congestion control and buffering in cellular networks. Extensive measurements have been performed in commercial 3G, 3.5G and 4G cellular networks, with a mix of long and short TCP flows using the CUBIC, NewReno and Westwood+ congestion control algorithms. The results show that the completion times of short flows increase significantly when concurrent long flow traffic is introduced. This is caused by increased buffer occupancy from the long flows. In addition, for 3G and 3.5G the completion times are shown to depend significantly on the congestion control algorithms used for the background flows, with CUBIC leading to significantly larger completion times.

  • 28.
    Alfredsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Del Giudice, Giacomo
    Politecnico di Bari, Italy.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brunstrom, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    De Cicco, Luca
    Ecole superieure d'Electricite, France; Politecnico di Bari, Italy.
    Mascolo, Saverio
    Politecnico di Bari, Italy.
    Observations of Bufferbloat in Swedish Cellular Networks2013In: Proceedings of the 9th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW 2013) / [ed] Bengt Ahlgren, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Ali, Nour
    et al.
    Brunel University, London, UK.
    Baker, Sean
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    O’Crowley, Ross
    Red Orkid Limited, Dublin, Ireland.
    Herold, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Buckley, Jim
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Architecture consistency: State of the practice, challenges and requirements2018In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 224-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecture Consistency (AC) aims to align implemented systems with their intended architectures. Several AC approaches and tools have been proposed and empirically evaluated, suggesting favourable results. In this paper, we empirically examine the state of practice with respect to Architecture Consistency, through interviews with nineteen experienced software engineers. Our goal is to identify 1) any practises that the companies these architects work for, currently undertake to achieve AC; 2) any barriers to undertaking explicit AC approaches in these companies; 3) software development situations where practitioners perceive AC approaches would be useful, and 4) AC tool needs, as perceived by practitioners. We also assess current commercial AC tool offerings in terms of these perceived needs. The study reveals that many practitioners apply informal AC approaches as there are barriers for adopting more formal and explicit approaches. These barriers are: 1) Difficulty in quantifying architectural inconsistency effects, and thus justifying the allocation of resources to fix them to senior management, 2) The near invisibility of architectural inconsistency to customers, 3) Practitioners’ reluctance towards fixing architectural inconsistencies, and 4) Practitioners perception that huge effort is required to map the system to the architecture when using more formal AC approaches and tools. Practitioners still believe that AC would be useful in supporting several of the software development activities such as auditing, evolution and ensuring quality attributes. After reviewing several commercial tools, we posit that AC tool vendors need to work on their ability to support analysis of systems made up of different technologies, that AC tools need to enhance their capabilities with respect to artefacts such as services and meta-data, and to focus more on non-maintainability architectural concerns.

  • 30.
    Ali, Nour
    et al.
    Brunel University, London, UK.
    Baker, Sean
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    O'Crowley, Ross
    Red Orkid Limited, Dublin, Ireland.
    Herold, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Buckley, Jim
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Architecture consistency: State of the practice, challenges and requirements (vol 23, pg 224, 2018)2018In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 1868-1869Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Alizadeh Noghani, Kyomaars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hernandez Benet, Cristian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Antonio, Marotta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Jestin, Patrick
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Srivastava, Vivek V.
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Automating Ethernet VPN deployment in SDN-based Data Centers2017In: 2017 Fourth International Conference on Software Defined Systems (SDS)., IEEE, 2017, p. 61-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layer 2 Virtual Private Network (L2VPN) is widely deployed in both service provider networks and enterprises. However, legacy L2VPN solutions have scalability limitations in the context of Data Center (DC) interconnection and networking which require new approaches that address the requirements of service providers for virtual private cloud services. Recently, Ethernet VPN (EVPN) has been proposed to address many of those concerns and vendors started to deploy EVPN based solutions in DC edge routers. However, manual configuration leads to a time-consuming, error-prone configuration and high operational costs. Automating the EVPN deployment from cloud platforms such as OpenStack enhances both the deployment and flexibility of EVPN Instances (EVIs). This paper proposes a Software Defined Network (SDN) based framework that automates the EVPN deployment and management inside SDN-based DCs using OpenStack and OpenDaylight (ODL). We implemented and extended several modules inside ODL controller to manage and interact with EVIs and an interface to OpenStack that allows the deployment and configuration of EVIs. We conclude with scalability analysis of our solution.

  • 32.
    Alizadeh Noghani, Kyomaars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hernandez Benet, Cristian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Antonio, Marotta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Jestin, Patrick
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Srivastava, Vivek V.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Automating Ethernet VPN Deployment in SDN-based Data Centers2017In: 2017 FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE DEFINED SYSTEMS (SDS), IEEE, 2017, p. 61-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Layer 2 Virtual Private Network (L2VPN) is widely deployed in both service provider networks and enterprises. However, legacy L2VPN solutions have scalability limitations in the context of Data Center (DC) interconnection and networking which require new approaches that address the requirements of service providers for virtual private cloud services. Recently, Ethernet VPN (EVPN) has been proposed to address many of those concerns and vendors started to deploy EVPN based solutions in DC edge routers. However, manual configuration leads to a time-consuming, error-prone configuration and high operational costs. Automating the EVPN deployment from cloud platforms such as OpenStack enhances both the deployment and flexibility of EVPN Instances (EVIs). This paper proposes a Software Defined Network (SDN) based framework that automates the EVPN deployment and management inside SDN-based DCs using OpenStack and OpenDaylight (ODL). We implemented and extended several modules inside ODL controller to manage and interact with EVIs and an interface to OpenStack that allows the deployment and configuration of EVIs. We conclude with scalability analysis of our solution.

  • 33.
    Alizadeh Noghani, Kyomaars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hernandez Benet, Cristian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Taheri, Javid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    SDN helps volume in Big Data2018In: Big Data and Software Defined Networks / [ed] Javid Taheri, London: The Institution of Engineering and Technology , 2018, 1, p. 185-206Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both Big Data and SDN are described in detail in previous chapters. This chapter investigates how SDN architecture can leverage its unique features to mitigate the challenges of Big Data volume. Accordingly, first, we provide an overview of Big Data volume, its effects on the underlying network, and mention some potential SDN solutions to address the corresponding challenges. Second, we elaborate more on the network-monitoring, traffic-engineering, and fault-tolerant mechanisms which we believe they may help to address the challenges of Big Data volume. Finally, this chapter is concluded with some open issues.

  • 34.
    Alizadeh Noghani, Kyomaars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    SDN enhanced Ethernet-VPN for Data Center Interconnect2017In: The Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 6th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet), IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) is an emerging technology that addresses the networking challenges presented by geo-distributed Data Centers (DCs). One of the major advantages of EVPN over legacy layer 2 VPN solutions is providing All-Active (A-A) mode of operation so that the traffic can truly be multi-homed on Provider Edge (PE) routers. However, A-A mode of operation introduces new challenges. In the case where the Customer Edge (CE) router is multi-homed to one or more PE routers, it is necessary that only one of the PE routers should forward Broadcast, Unknown unicast, and Multicast (BUM) traffic into the DC. The PE router that assumes the primary role for forwarding BUM traffic to the CE device is called the Designated Forwarder (DF). The proposed solution to select the DF in the EVPN standard is based on a distributed algorithm which has a number of drawbacks such as unfairness and intermittent behavior. In this paper, we introduce a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based architecture for EVPN support, where the SDN controller interacts with EVPN control plane. We demonstrate how our solution mitigates existing problems for DF selection which leads to improved EVPN performance

  • 35. Alizadeh Noghani, Kyoomars
    et al.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    SDN Enhanced Ethernet VPN for Data Center Interconnect2017In: 2017 IEEE 6th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet) / [ed] Maga, D, 2017, p. 77-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) is an emerging technology that addresses the networking challenges presented by geo-distributed Data Centers (DCs). One of the major advantages of EVPN over legacy layer 2 VPN solutions is providing All-Active (A-A) mode of operation so that the traffic can truly be multi-homed on Provider Edge (PE) routers. However, A-A mode of operation introduces new challenges. In the case where the Customer Edge (CE) router is multi-homed to one or more PE routers, it is necessary that only one of the PE routers should forward Broadcast, Unknown unicast, and Multicast (BUM) traffic into the DC. The PE router that assumes the primary role for forwarding BUM traffic to the CE device is called the Designated Forwarder (DF). The proposed solution to select the DF in the EVPN standard is based on a distributed algorithm which has a number of drawbacks such as unfairness and intermittent behavior. In this paper, we introduce a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based architecture for EVPN support, where the SDN controller interacts with EVPN control plane. We demonstrate how our solution mitigates existing problems for DF selection which leads to improved EVPN performance.

  • 36.
    Almqvist, Ylva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Kan en lärare hinna med alla elever i dagens matematikundervisning?: En intervjustudie av hur lärare beskriver undervisningen av elever som presterar lågt i matematik.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I want to illustrate how teachers describe their preventions and interventions when teaching students with low achievement in mathematics. This is a qualitative study based on a series of group interviews of teachers in the Swedish compulsory school. Mathematics teachers still hold a traditional compensatory perspective on students with low achievement thus placing the responsibility for learning with the students. The general opinion is that special pedagogics is necessary to enable support enough to help students with low achievement in mathematics to reach a passing grade. Thanks to further training, primarily through “Matematiklyftet”, the view on the possibility to include low achieving students in the classroom in a good way is more positive. There is an ongoing work in schools to improve the mathematics teaching, but one cannot see a complete or common plan for the schools neither from the school administration nor the teachers. The preventive measures made to include the low achieving students does have a positive effect for all students. Much of the implemented changes have its origin in talking mathematics in the classroom and not following the textbook as slavishly as previously done.

  • 37.
    Anderson, Collin
    et al.
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Winter, Philipp
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    -, Roya
    Global Network Interference Detection over the RIPE Atlas Network2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing censorship measurement platforms frequentlysuffer from poor adoption, insufficient geographic coverage, and scalability problems. In order to outline ananalytical framework and data collection needs for futureubiquitous measurements initiatives, we build on top ofthe existent and widely-deployed RIPE Atlas platform.In particular, we propose methods for monitoring thereachability of vital services through an algorithm thatbalances timeliness, diversity, and cost. We then use Atlas to investigate blocking events in Turkey and Russia.Our measurements identify under-examined forms of interference and provide evidence of cooperation betweena well-known blogging platform and government authorities for purposes of blocking hosted content.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Exact Probability Distribution versus Entropy2014In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 5198-5210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem addressed concerns the determination of the average numberof successive attempts of guessing a word of a certain length consisting of letters withgiven probabilities of occurrence. Both first- and second-order approximations to a naturallanguage are considered. The guessing strategy used is guessing words in decreasing orderof probability. When word and alphabet sizes are large, approximations are necessary inorder to estimate the number of guesses. Several kinds of approximations are discusseddemonstrating moderate requirements regarding both memory and central processing unit(CPU) time. When considering realistic sizes of alphabets and words (100), the numberof guesses can be estimated within minutes with reasonable accuracy (a few percent) andmay therefore constitute an alternative to, e.g., various entropy expressions. For manyprobability distributions, the density of the logarithm of probability products is close to anormal distribution. For those cases, it is possible to derive an analytical expression for theaverage number of guesses. The proportion of guesses needed on average compared to thetotal number decreases almost exponentially with the word length. The leading term in anasymptotic expansion can be used to estimate the number of guesses for large word lengths.Comparisons with analytical lower bounds and entropy expressions are also provided.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Martina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hur väl uppfyller läroboken lärarnas behov i undervisningen?How well does the textbook fulfill teh teachers´ needs in the teaching?: En studie kring lärarnas syn på läroboken i matematikA study of the teachers´ view on the textbook in mathematics2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish school the textbook is seen as a central teaching material in mathematics. In many classrooms individual, silent work in the textbook is particularly common during mathematics lessons. Silent work is often a large part of the lesson, although research shows that the teaching of mathematics should include variation and communication and that the pupils should at an early age be given the opportunity to understand the relation between mathematics and daily life.The teacher has a central role in choosing which teaching material are best suited for each teaching situation and each individual pupil. The teacher is also supposed to adapt instruction to individual's ability in a way that enhances the pupil´s curiosity, thus contributing to an increased inner motivation.The aim of this study was to get teachers' perspective on textbooks. In school mathematic the textbook is a common teaching material and because of that there were a questions about how well the textbook actually lives up to the teachers' needs.The chosen method was both qualitative and quantitative. A survey was sent out to mathematics teachers in grade 1-3. A simple survey with a reduced number of predetermined answers was supposed to attract many teachers to answer them. Unfortunately there was low participation among the respondents, which made it difficult to answer the research questions. As a complement a more in-depth survey was sent out to only a few respondents. The two different surveys were coordinated in the analysis.The result showed that teachers in mathematics in year 1-3 often use a textbook. A big part of them believe the textbook is a motivating factor for the pupils, and that younger pupils like to work with their textbook. The results also showed that there is a difference of opinion as to whether or not the textbook itself gives good opportunities to adaptive instruction, as well as concerning. How well it is aligned with their own understanding of the required knowledge goals for class 3. All teachers see their own teaching as varied and that the communicative aspect of the subject is important. The results also showed that the teachers that work without textbooks don't see any advantages with it, except as a help for their own planning.The conclusion is that the textbook is an important teaching material, not least as a support in one's own planning.Teachers in class 1-3 believe themselves to have a varied mathematics pedagogy and also that they have motivated pupils. The teachers agree on the importance to anchor mathematics in daily life since it is always there, around us.

  • 40.
    Andriash, A. V.
    et al.
    All Russia Res Inst Automat VNIIA, Moscow, Russia.
    Bobylev, Alexander V.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Brantov, A. V.
    All Russia Res Inst Automat VNIIA, Moscow, Russia.;RAS, PN Lebedev Phys Inst, Moscow 117901, Russia.
    Bychenkov, V. Yu.
    All Russia Res Inst Automat VNIIA, Moscow, Russia.;RAS, PN Lebedev Phys Inst, Moscow 117901, Russia.
    Karpov, S. A.
    All Russia Res Inst Automat VNIIA, Moscow, Russia.
    Potapenko, I. F.
    RAS, MV Keldysh Appl Math Inst, Moscow 117901, Russia.
    Stochastic simulation of the nonlinear kinetic equation with high-frequency electromagnetic fields2013In: PROBLEMS OF ATOMIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 1562-6016, no 4, p. 233-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general approach to Monte Carlo methods for Coulomb collisions is proposed. Its key idea is an approximation of Landau-Fokker-Planck (LFP) equations by Boltzmann equations of quasi-Maxwellian kind. High-frequency fields are included into consideration and comparison with the well-known results are given.

  • 41.
    Angulo, Julio
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT.
    Berthold, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Elkhiyaoui, Kaoutar
    EURECOM.
    Fernandez Gago, M. Carmen
    University of Málaga.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    David, Nunez
    University of Málaga.
    Pulls, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University.
    Reuben, Jenni
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Karlstad University.
    Van Rompay, Cédric
    EURECOM.
    Santana de Oliveira, Anderson
    SAP Labs.
    Önen, Melek
    EURECOM.
    D:D-5.3 User-Centric Transparency Tools V22015Report (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Antonio, Marotta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). University of Naples Federico II.
    Avallone, Stefano
    University of Naples Federico II.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    A Joint Power Efficient Server and Network Consolidation approach for virtualized data centers2018In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, E-ISSN 1872-7069, Vol. 130, p. 65-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing and virtualization are enabling technologies for designing energy-aware resource management mechanisms in virtualized data centers. Indeed, one of the main challenges of big data centers is to decrease the power consumption, both to cut costs and to reduce the environmental impact. To this extent, Virtual Machine (VM) consolidation is often used to smartly reallocate the VMs with the objective of reducing the power consumption, by exploiting the VM live migration. The consolidation problem consists in finding the set of migrations that allow to keep turned on the minimum number of servers needed to host all the VMs. However, most of the proposed consolidation approaches do not consider the network related consumption, which represents about 10–20% of the total energy consumed by IT equipment in real data centers. This paper proposes a novel joint server and network consolidation model that takes into account the power efficiency of both the switches forwarding the traffic and the servers hosting the VMs. It powers down switch ports and routes traffic along the most energy efficient path towards the least energy consuming server under QoS constraints. Since the model is complex, a fast Simulated Annealing based Resource Consolidation algorithm (SARC) is proposed. Our numerical results demonstrate that our approach is able to save on average 50% of the network related power consumption compared to a network unaware consolidation.

  • 43.
    Antonio, Marotta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Zola, Enrica
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
    D'Andreagiovanni, Fabio
    Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    A fast robust optimization-based heuristic for the deployment of green virtual network functions2017In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 95, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network Function Virtualization (NFV) has attracted a lot of attention in the telecommunication field because it allows to virtualize core-business network functions on top of a NFV Infrastructure. Typically, virtual network functions (VNFs) can be represented as chains of Virtual Machines (VMs) or containers that exchange network traffic which are deployed inside datacenters on commodity hardware. In order to achieve cost efficiency, network operators aim at minimizing the power consumption of their NFV infrastructure. This can be achieved by using the minimum set of physical servers and networking equipment that are able to provide the quality of service required by the virtual functions in terms of computing, memory, disk and network related parameters. However, it is very difficult to predict precisely the resource demands required by the VNFs to execute their tasks. In this work, we apply the theory of robust optimization to deal with such parameter uncertainty. We model the problem of robust VNF placement and network embedding under resource demand uncertainty and network latency constraints using robust mixed integer optimization techniques. For online optimization, we develop fast solution heuristics. By using the virtualized Evolved Packet Core as use case, we perform a comprehensive evaluation in terms of performance, solution time and complexity and show that our heuristic can calculate robust solutions for large instances under one second.

  • 44.
    Antonsson, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Digitala verktyg i matematiken: En enkätstudie om hur lärare integrerar digitala verktyg i matematikundervisningen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital tools are getting increasingly widespread in our everyday lives as well as in school. How-ever, according to the national agency for education in Sweden, digital tools are rarely used to develop the mathematics education. With a survey, I investigated how teachers integrate digital tools in mathematics education and if the teachers’ perceived knowledge affects the integration in some way. With help from the TPACK framework I analyzed the results from 97 respondents. The results showed that teachers who experience good knowledge tend to vary their teaching using digital tools more than teachers who appreciated their skills as inadequate. The most common area of use for digital tools in mathematics is skills training, class review and visual-ization. The study suggests that there is a need for education in how to use digital tools in the education in order to be able to integrate digital tools in a favorable manner.

  • 45.
    Anttila, Pontus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Mot effektiv identifiering och insamling avbrutna länkar med hjälp av en spindel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the customer has no automated method for finding and collecting broken links on their website. This is done manually or not at all.

    This project has resulted in a practical product, that can be applied to the customer’s website. The aim of the product is to ease the work when collecting and maintaining broken links on the website. This will be achieved by gathering all broken links effectively, and place them in a separate list that at will can be exported by an administrator who will then fix these broken links.

    The quality of the customer’s website will be higher, as all broken links will be easier to find and remove. This will ultimately give visitors a better experience.

  • 46.
    Anwar, Adnan
    et al.
    UNSW, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia..
    Mahmood, A. N.
    La Trobe Univ, Bundoora, Vic 3086, Australia..
    Taheri, Javid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Dept Comp Sci, S-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Tari, Zahir
    RMIT Univ, Distributed Syst, Melbourne, Vic 3001, Australia..
    Zomaya, Albert Y.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Informat Technol, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    HPC-Based Intelligent Volt/VAr Control of Unbalanced Distribution Smart Grid in the Presence of Noise2017In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1446-1459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of Volt/VAr optimization has been significantly improved due to the integration of measurement data obtained from the advanced metering infrastructure of a smart grid. However, most of the existing works lack: 1) realistic unbalanced multi-phase distribution system modeling; 2) scalability of the Volt/VAr algorithm for larger test system; and 3) ability to handle gross errors and noise in data processing. In this paper, we consider realistic distribution system models that include unbalanced loadings and multi-phased feeders and the presence of gross errors such as communication errors and device malfunction, as well as random noise. At the core of the optimization process is an intelligent particle swarm optimization-based technique that is parallelized using high performance computing technique to solve Volt/VAr-based power loss minimization problem. Extensive experiments covering the different aspects of the proposed framework show significant improvement over existing Volt/VAr approaches in terms of both the accuracy and scalability on IEEE 123 node and a larger IEEE 8500 node benchmark test systems.

  • 47. Arcozzi, N
    et al.
    Barza, Sorina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Garcia-Domingo, J.L.
    Soria, J.
    Hardys inequalities for monotone functions on partly ordered measure spaces2006In: Proc. Roy. Soc. Edingburgh Sect. A, 136 (2006), no.5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Artale Harris, Pietro
    et al.
    Università di Roma La Sapienza.
    Cirillo, Emilio N.M
    Università di Roma La Sapienza.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Weak solutions to Allen-Cahn-like equations modelling consolidation of porous media2017In: IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics, ISSN 0272-4960, E-ISSN 1464-3634, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 224-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the weak solvability of a system of coupled Allen–Cahn-like equations resembling cross-diffusion which arises as a model for the consolidation of saturated porous media. Besides using energy-like estimates, we cast the special structure of the system in the framework of the Leray–Schauder fixed-point principle and ensure in this way the local existence of strong solutions to a regularized version of our system. Furthermore, weak convergence techniques ensure the existence of weak solutions to the original consolidation problem. The uniqueness of global-in-time solutions is guaranteed in a particular case. Moreover, we use a finite difference scheme to show the negativity of the vector of solutions.

  • 49.
    Arvidsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Andreasson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Distributed computing for the public transit domain2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Arvidsson, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Utvärdering av containerbaserad virtualisering för telekomsignalering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New and innovative technologies to improve the techniques that are already being used are constantly developing. This project was about evaluating if containers could be something for the IT company Tieto to use on their products in telecommunications. Container are portable, standalone, executable lightweight packages of software that also contains all it needs to run the software. Containers are a very hot topic right now and are a fast-growing technology. Tieto wanted an investigation of the technology and it would be carried out with certain requirements where the main requirement was to have a working and executable protocol stack in a container environment. In the investigation, a proof of concept was developed, proof of concept is a realization of a certain method or idea in order to demonstrate its feasibility. The proof of concept led to Tieto wanting additional experiments carried out on containers. The experiments investigated if equal performance could be achieved with containers compared to the method with virtual machine used by Tieto today. The experiment observed a small performance reduction of efficiency, but it also showed benefits such as higher flexibility. Further development of the container method could provide a just as good and equitable solution. The project can therefore be seen as successful whereas the proof of concept developed, and experiments carried out both points to that this new technology will be part of Tieto's product development in the future.

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