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  • 1.
    Finstad, Anders G.
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norge.
    Forseth, Torbjorn
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norge.
    Jonsson, Bror
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Oslo, Norge.
    Bellier, Edwige
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norge.
    Hesthagen, Trygve
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norge.
    Jensen, Arne J.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norge.
    Hessen, Dag O.
    Department of Biology, CEES, University of Oslo, Norge.
    Foldvik, Anders
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norge.
    Competitive exclusion along climate gradients: energy efficiency influences the distribution of two salmonid fishes2011In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 17, no 4, 1703-1711 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the importance of thermal adaptations and energy efficiency in relation to the geographical distribution of two competing freshwater salmonid fish species. Presence–absence data for Arctic char and brown trout were obtained from 1502 Norwegian lakes embracing both temperature and productivity gradients. The distributions were contrasted with laboratory-derived temperature scaling models for food consumption, growth and energy efficiency. Thermal performances of the two species were almost identical. However, Arctic char exhibited double the growth efficiency (per unit of food) and appear to have out-competed brown trout from cold, low-productivity lakes, perhaps by scramble competition. Brown trout, for which previous reports have shown to be aggressive and dominant, have likely excluded the more energy-efficient Arctic char from relatively warm, productive lakes, perhaps by contest competition. Competitive interaction changing in outcome with lake productivity, rather than thermal performance, is likely a major determinant of the range distribution of the two species. Our study highlights the need for more focus on choice of relevant ecophysiological traits in ecological climate impact studies and species distribution modelling.

  • 2. Otero, Jaime
    et al.
    L'Abee-Lund, Jan Henning
    Castro-Santos, Ted
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Storvik, Geir O.
    Jonsson, Bror
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Norsk institutt for naturforskning (NINA).
    Dempson, Brian
    Russell, Ian C.
    Jensen, Arne J.
    Bagliniere, Jean-Luc
    Dionne, Melanie
    Armstrong, John D.
    Romakkaniemi, Atso
    Letcher, Benjamin H.
    Kocik, John F.
    Erkinaro, Jaakko
    Poole, Russell
    Rogan, Ger
    Lundqvist, Hans
    MacLean, Julian C.
    Jokikokko, Erkki
    Arnekleiv, Jo Vegar
    Kennedy, Richard J.
    Niemela, Eero
    Caballero, Pablo
    Music, Paul A.
    Antonsson, Thorolfur
    Gudjonsson, Sigurdur
    Veselov, Alexey E.
    Lamberg, Anders
    Groom, Steve
    Taylor, Benjamin H.
    Taberner, Malcolm
    Dillane, Mary
    Arnason, Fridthjofur
    Horton, Gregg
    Hvidsten, Nils A.
    Jonsson, Ingi R.
    Jonsson, Nina
    McKelvey, Simon
    Naesje, Tor F.
    Skaala, Oystein
    Smith, Gordon W.
    Saegrov, Harald
    Stenseth, Nils C.
    Vollestad, Leif Asbjorn
    Basin-scale phenology and effects of climate variability on global timing of initial seaward migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)2014In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 20, no 1, 61-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrations between different habitats are key events in the lives of many organisms. Such movements involve annually recurring travel over long distances usually triggered by seasonal changes in the environment. Often, the migration is associated with travel to or from reproduction areas to regions of growth. Young anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) emigrate from freshwater nursery areas during spring and early summer to feed and grow in the North Atlantic Ocean. The transition from the freshwater ('parr') stage to the migratory stage where they descend streams and enter salt water ('smolt') is characterized by morphological, physiological and behavioural changes where the timing of this parr-smolt transition is cued by photoperiod and water temperature. Environmental conditions in the freshwater habitat control the downstream migration and contribute to within- and among-river variation in migratory timing. Moreover, the timing of the freshwater emigration has likely evolved to meet environmental conditions in the ocean as these affect growth and survival of the post-smolts. Using generalized additive mixed-effects modelling, we analysed spatio-temporal variations in the dates of downstream smolt migration in 67 rivers throughout the North Atlantic during the last five decades and found that migrations were earlier in populations in the east than the west. After accounting for this spatial effect, the initiation of the downstream migration among rivers was positively associated with freshwater temperatures, up to about 10 °C and levelling off at higher values, and with sea-surface temperatures. Earlier migration occurred when river discharge levels were low but increasing. On average, the initiation of the smolt seaward migration has occurred 2.5 days earlier per decade throughout the basin of the North Atlantic. This shift in phenology matches changes in air, river, and ocean temperatures, suggesting that Atlantic salmon emigration is responding to the current global climate changes.

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