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  • 1.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013).
    Nyroos, Lina
    The teacher as examiner of L2 oral tests: A challenge to standardization2018Inngår i: Language Testing, ISSN 0265-5322, E-ISSN 1477-0946, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 217-238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper looks at the issue of standardization in L2 oral testing. Whereas external examiners are frequently used globally, some countries opt for test-takers’ own teachers as examiners instead. In the present study, Sweden is used as a case in point, with a focus on the mandatory, high-stakes, summative, 9th-grade national test in English (speaking part). The national test has the typical characteristics of standardized tests and its main objective is to contribute to equity in assessment and grading on a national level. However, using teachers as examiners raises problems for standardization. The aim of this study is to examine teachers’/examiners’ practices and views regarding four aspects of the speaking test – test-taker grouping, recording practices, the actual test occasion, and examiner participation in students’ test interactions – and to discuss findings in relation to issues concerning the normativity and practical feasibility of standardization, taking the perspectives of test-takers, teachers/examiners, and test constructors into account. In order to answer research questions linked to these four aspects of L2 oral testing, self-report survey data from a random sample of teachers (N = 204) and teacher interviews (N = 11) were collected and quantitative data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Survey findings revealed that despite thorough instructions, teacher practices and views vary greatly across all aspects, which was further confirmed by interview data. Three background variables – teacher certification, work experience, gender – were investigated to see whether they could provide explanations. Whereas certification and gender did not contribute significantly to explaining the findings, work experience bore some relevance, but effect sizes were generally small. The study concludes that using teachers as examiners is a well-functioning procedure in terms of assessment for learning, but raises doubts regarding assessment of learning and standardization; a solution for test authorities could be to frame the test as non-standardized.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier. Research group on subject-specific education (ROSE).
    National reading tests in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: A comparison of construct definitions, cognitive targets, and response formats2017Inngår i: Language Testing, ISSN 0265-5322, E-ISSN 1477-0946, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 83-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading comprehension tests are often assumed to measure the same, or at least similar, constructs. Yet, reading is not a single but a multidimensional form of processing, which means that variations in terms of reading material and item design may emphasize one aspect of the construct at the cost of another. The educational systems in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden share a number of traits, and in the recent decade, the development of national test instruments, especially for reading, has been highly influenced by international surveys of student achievement. In this study, national tests of L1 reading comprehension in secondary school in the three Scandinavian countries are compared in order to reveal the present range of diversity/commonality within the three test domains. The analysis employs both qualitative and quantitative aspects of data, including frameworks, text samples, task samples, and scoring guidelines from 2011 to 2014. Findings indicate that the three tests differ substantially from each other, not only in terms of the intentional and operative constructs of reading to be measured, but also in terms of testing methods and stability over time. Implications for the future development of reading comprehension assessment are discussed.

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