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  • 1.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap.
    Lindgren, Lars
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rysz, Jakub
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för kemi och biomedicinsk vetenskap.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap.
    Tuning the Vertical Phase Separation in Polyfluorene:Fullerene Blend Films by Polymer Functionalization2011Inngår i: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 23, nr 9, s. 2295-2302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving control over the nanomorphology of blend films of the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM, with light-absorbing conjugated polymers is an important challenge in the development of efficient solution-processed photovoltaics. Here, three new polyfluorene copolymers are presented, tailored for enhanced miscibility with the fullerene through the introduction of polymer segments with modified side chains, which enhance the polymer’s polar character. The composition of the spincoated polymer:PCBM films is analyzed with dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (dSIMS). The dSIMS depth profiles demonstrate compositional variations perpendicular to the surface plane, as a result of vertical phase separation, directed by the substrate. These variations propagate to a higher degree through the film for the polymers with a larger fraction of modified side chains. The surface composition of the films is studied by Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). Quantitative analysis of the NEXAFS spectra through a linear combination fit with the spectra of the pure components yields the surface composition. The resulting blend ratios reveal polymer-enrichment of the film surface for all three blends, which also becomes stronger as the polar character of the polymer increases. Comparison of the NEXAFS spectra collected with two different sampling depths shows that the vertical composition gradient builds up already in the first nanometers underneath the surface of the films. The results obtained with this new series of polymers shed light on the onset of formation of lamellar structures in thin polymer:PCBM films prepared from highly volatile solvents

  • 2.
    Holmes, Natalie P.
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013). University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Marks, Melissa
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Cave, James M.
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Feron, Krishna
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Barr, Matthew G.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Fahy, Adam
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Sharma, Anirudh
    Flinders University, Australia; University of Bordeaux, France.
    Pan, Xun
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Kilcoyne, David A. L.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States.
    Zhou, Xiaojing
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Lewis, David A.
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Flinders University, Australia.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Walker, Alison B.
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Belcher, Warwick J.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Dastoor, Paul C.
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Engineering Two-Phase and Three-Phase Microstructures from Water-Based Dispersions of Nanoparticles for Eco-Friendly Polymer Solar Cell Applications2018Inngår i: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 30, nr 18, s. 6521-6531Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoparticle organic photovoltaics, a subfield of organic photovoltaics (OPV), has attracted increasing interest in recent years due to the eco-friendly fabrication of solar modules afforded by colloidal ink technology. Importantly, using this approach it is now possible to engineer the microstructure of the light absorbing/charge generating layer of organic photovoltaics; decoupling film morphology from film deposition. In this study, single-component nanoparticles of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) were synthesized and used to generate a two-phase microstructure with control over domain size prior to film deposition. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and electron microscopy were used to characterize the thin film morphology. Uniquely, the measured microstructure was a direct input for a nanoscopic kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model allowing us to assess exciton transport properties that are experimentally inaccessible in these single-component particles. Photoluminescence, UV-vis spectroscopy measurements, and KMC results of the nanoparticle thin films enabled the calculation of an experimental exciton dissociation efficiency (ηED) of 37% for the two-phase microstructure. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the materials was characterized with dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermal annealing led to an increase in ηED to 64% due to an increase in donor-acceptor interfaces in the thin film from both sintering of neighboring opposite-type particles in addition to the generation of a third mixed phase from diffusion of PC61BM into amorphous P3HT domains. As such, this study demonstrates the higher level of control over donor-acceptor film morphology enabled by customizing nanoparticulate colloidal inks, where the optimal three-phase film morphology for an OPV photoactive layer can be designed and engineered.

  • 3.
    Shi, Juanzi
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Chem Phys & NanoLund, POB 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Ocean Univ China, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Qingdao 266100, Shandong, Peoples R China..
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Chen, Ruiyun
    Shanxi Univ, Inst Laser Spect, Taiyuan 030006, Shanxi, Peoples R China..
    Hawash, Zafer
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Phys, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Deribew, Dargie
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Phys, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Phys, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Inganas, Olle
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem & Biol IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Scheblykin, Ivan G.
    Lund Univ, Chem Phys & NanoLund, POB 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Photo-Oxidation Reveals H-Aggregates Hidden in Spin-Cast-Conjugated Polymer Films as Observed by Two-Dimensional Polarization Imaging2019Inngår i: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 31, nr 21, s. 8927-8936Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spin-cast intermolecular interactions in conjugated polymer films lead to the formation of excited states delocalized over a few oriented and tightly packed conjugated segments. The optoelectronic properties of conjugated polymers are strongly dependent on the presence of such oriented domains at a nanoscale level. We observe oriented domains as large as several micrometers in size spontaneously formed in spin-cast PBDT-TPD films. Two-dimensional polarization imaging of fresh and photodegraded films showed a much higher visibility of the oriented domains in the degraded samples. We propose that the film is a mixture of two phases with different degrees of chain alignment. The photoluminescence of the more anisotropic phase is more stable against photodegradation in comparison with the less anisotropic phase. Photodegradation predominately quenches photoluminescence of the less anisotropic phase making the oriented domains more visible in the polarization contrasts. Spectral and energy transfer properties of the more oriented phase allowed us to assign it to weakly coupled H-aggregates with the suppressed 0-0 vibronic transition. Stable photoluminescence of H-aggregates in comparison with that of nonaggregated (less oriented) chains may help to understand degradation mechanisms of polymer devices and shows the role of energy transfer in this process. Selective degradation-induced quenching can reveal hidden inhomogeneity of conjugated polymer films.

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