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  • 1.
    Björström, Cecilia M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, Svante
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Poland.
    Andersson, Mats
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry/Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Vertical phase separation in spin-coated films of a low bandgap polyfluorene/PCBM blend: Effects of specific substrate interaction2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 8, p. 3906-3912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the effect of the substrate on the vertical phase separation in spin-coated thin films of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-5,5-40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole] (APFO-3) blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Compositional depth profiles of the films are measured by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).We found that changing the substrate from silicon to gold affects the composition profile near the substrate interface. This is caused by a specific interaction between the polymer (APFO-3) and the gold surface, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The composition profile in the area away from the substrate interface, as well as the enrichment of the free surface with APFO-3, remain however unaffected by the choice of substrate. The vertical composition was also analysed for APFO-3:PCBM films spin-coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated with a thin layer of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS).

  • 2.
    Evertsson, J.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Bertram, F.
    Lund University.
    Zhang, Fan
    KTH.
    Rullik, L.
    Lund University.
    Merte, L. R.
    Lund University.
    Shipilin, M.
    Lund University.
    Soldemo, Markus
    KTH.
    Ahmadi, Sareh
    KTH.
    Vinogradov, N.
    ESRF, France.
    Carla, F.
    ESRF, France.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH.
    Götelid, Mats
    KTH.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH.
    Mikkelsen, A.
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, J. -O
    Sapa Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, E.
    Lund University.
    The thickness of native oxides on aluminum alloys and single crystals2015In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 349, p. 826-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from measurements of the native oxide film thickness on four different industrial aluminum alloys and three different aluminum single crystals. The thicknesses were determined using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, atomic force microscopy was used for micro-structural studies of the oxide surfaces. The reflectivity measurements were performed in ultra-high vacuum, vacuum, ambient, nitrogen and liquid water conditions. The results obtained using X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate good agreement. However, the oxide thicknesses determined from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show a larger discrepancy from the above two methods. In the present contribution the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. We also address the effect of the substrate type and the presence of water on the resultant oxide thickness.

  • 3. Razado, I.C.
    et al.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Hansson, G.V.
    Uhrberg, R.I.G.
    Hydrogen-induced metallization on Ge(1 1 1) c(2×8)2006In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 252, no 15, p. 5300-5303, article id 53005303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Balasubramanian, T.
    Uhrberg,, R. I. G.
    Surface electronic structure of the √3 × √3, √39 × √39 and 6 × 6 surfaces of Ag/Ge(111): observation of a metal to semiconductor transition2001In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 175, p. 237-242Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Sakamoto, K.
    Uhrberg, R. I. G.
    Semiconductor-metal-semiconductor transition: valence band photoemission study of Ag/Si(111) surfaces2002In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 190, no 1-4, p. 103-107Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Uhrberg,, R. I. G.
    Atomic structures of Ag/Ge(111)sqrt39xsqrt39 and 6x6 surfaces studied by STM: observations of bias dependent reconstruction transformations2003In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Appl. Surf. Sci., 212-213, 353 (2003), Vol. 212-213, p. 353-359Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 6 of 6
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