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  • 1.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Energy consumption, costs and environmental impacts doe urban water cycle services: Case study of Oslo (Norway)2011In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 792-800Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Chan, Arthur
    NTNU, Energy & Proc Engn Dept, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Understanding the water-energy-carbon nexus in urban water utilities: Comparison of four city case studies and the relevant influencing factors2014In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 153-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Hydraul & Environm Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Elmi, Rashid Abdi
    Economic-environmental analysis of handling biogas from sewage sludge digesters in wastewater treatment plants for energy recovery: Case study of Bekkelaget wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway2013In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 58, no 10, p. 220-235Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Christer
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University.
    Co-production of gasification based biofuels in existing combined heat and power plants - Analysis of production capacity and integration potential2016In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 111, no September, p. 830-840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid fuel fired fluidized bed (FB) boilers are common in combined heat and power (CHP) plants in district heating- and process industry. In this study, utilization of such FB boilers for production of syngas in dual fluidized bed gasifiers and subsequent catalytic biofuel production to substitute natural gas (SNG), methanol (MeOH) and Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT) has been examined. Based on the hypothesis that waste-heat and tail gas from the biofuel processes can be utilized in the CHP plant, process configurations aiming for operationally robustness and low investment cost rather than maximum stand-alone efficiency have been explored and implemented in actual industrial cases and over the full operating range of the boilers. The results of the study show that significant improvements of overall efficiency can be achieved by integration of the biofuel processes in the CHP plants and that a relatively high biofuel production capacity can be achieved. SNG showed the highest obtainable efficiency and production capacity of the studied biofuels, whereas the FT process showed largest increase in terms of efficiency when integrated in the CHP plant, compared to its stand-alone efficiency.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Stawreberg, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Material-flow analysis, energy analysis, and partial environmental-LCA of a district-heating combined heat and power plant in Sweden2017In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 144, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined heat and power (CHP) plants are a great improvement over waste-to-energy incineration plants supplying only heat, and power plants supplying only electricity. The primary purpose of a functioning CHP plant however, may be to provide district heating services, and thereby its main output will be heat energy. This paper is a case study commissioned by Karlskoga Energi och Miljö AB (KEMAB in short; Karlskoga Energy and Environment) in the Värmland State of south-central Sweden, and focuses on the functioning of the CHP plant owned and operated by the company. The life-cycles of the fuels used by the CHP – household/industrial waste, bio-oil, light fuel oil, wood waste, wood chips, a slaughterhouse-waste-derived product and peat to generate 202,222 MWh of heat, 119,234 MWh of steam and 28,220 MWh of electricity have been studied, and the carbon footprint calculated for year-2016. Using two sets of emissions factors for the combustion stage of the life-cycle, as part of a data uncertainty analysis, the total emissions were 44,000 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) and 58,000 tonnes CO2-eq respectively. A quasi-realistic scenario analysis in which plastics are not available for incineration and have to be substituted with alternatives has also been carried out, and while wood waste has been suggested as the best alternative with regard to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, availability permitting, a combination of alternatives has been mooted as the practical option.

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