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  • 1.
    Ericsson, Leif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Photoemission study of ZnO nanocrystals: Thermal annealing in UHV and induced band bending2013In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 612, p. 10-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO nanocrystals distributed by spin-coating on SiO2/Si surfaces were annealed in UHV and studied in situ by synchrotron radiation based X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Changes in chemical composition and electronic structure of ZnO nanocrystal surfaces were found with increasing annealing temperatures. Annealing at 650 °C reduces the surface contaminant levels without any observed de-composition of ZnO. After annealing at 700 °C an initial de-composition of ZnO together with further reduction of contaminants was observed. As a result, 650 °C is found to be the optimal annealing temperature for thermal cleaning of ZnO nanocrystals. Chemical changes and induced point defect formation cause changes in the band structure of the ZnO/SiO2/Si system. An upward band bending of 0.7 eV on the surfaces of the ZnO nanocrystals was found after annealing at 300 °C. The bands on the surfaces of ZnO nanocrystals gradually bend downwards with increasing annealing temperatures. A downward band bending of 1.4 eV is the result after annealing at 750 °C for 1 h. This large downward band bending is explained as due to the change in balance of oxygen vacancies and zinc vacancies on the surfaces of ZnO nanocrystals.

  • 2.
    Gurnett, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Holleboom, Thijs
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Photoemission study of the Li/Ge(111)-3×1 reconstruction2009In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, ISSN 0039-6028, Vol. 603, no 4, p. 727-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we report our findings on the electronic structure of the Li induced Ge(1 1 1)–3 × 1reconstruction as determined by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (ARUPS) and core-level spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The results are compared to the theoretical honeycomb-chain-channel (HCC) model for the 3 × 1reconstruction as calculated using density functional theory (DFT). ARUPS measurements were performed in both the and directions of the 1 × 1 surface Brillouin zone at photon energies of 17 and 21.2 eV. Three surface related states were observed in the direction. In the direction, at least two surface states were seen. The calculated band structure using the single-domain HCC model for Li/Ge(1 1 1)–3 × 1 was in good agreement with experiment, allowing for the determination of the origin of the experimentally observed surface states. In the Ge core-level spectra, two surface related components were identified, both at lower binding energy with respect to the Ge bulk peak. Our DFT calculations of the surface core-level shifts were found to be in fair agreement with the experimental results. Finally, in contrast to the Li/Si(1 1 1)–3 × 1 case, no double bond between Ge atoms in the top layer was found

  • 3. Jemander, S.T.
    et al.
    Lin, N.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Uhrberg, R. I. G.
    Hansson, G. V.
    An STM study of the surface defects of the (√3 × √3)-Sn/Si(111) surface2001In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 475, no 1-3, p. 181-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Sakamoto, K.
    et al.
    Takeyama, W.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Uhrberg, R.I.G.
    High-resolution Si 2p core-level and low-energy electron diffraction studies of the Ca/Si(111)-(3x2) surface2003In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 532-535, p. 628-632Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Soldemo, Markus
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lundgren, Edvin
    Lund University.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH.
    Oxidation of Fe(110) in oxygen gas at 400 °c2016In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 644, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial oxidation of Fe(110) in oxygen gas at 400 °C beyond initial adsorbate structures has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Formation of several ordered phases of surface oxides is observed at oxygen coverages between approximately 2.3 and 3.5 oxygen atoms/Fe(110) surface atom. Initially, a FeO(111)-like film is formed with a parallelogram-shaped moiré pattern. It has two mirror domains that are formed symmetrically around the growth direction of a zigzag-shaped adsorbate structure. With increased local oxygen coverage, the moiré structure transforms into a ball-shaped form. Both these moiré structures have equal atomic stacking at the surface and equal apparent height in STM, suggesting oxygen ions diffusing into the film upon oxidation and that the oxide growth takes place at the iron-iron oxide interface. The FeO(111)-like film turns into a Fe3O4(111)-like film with a triangular bistable surface termination as the oxidation proceeds further. The FeO(111)-like film growth proceeds according to the Frank-van der Merwe mechanism while the Fe3O4(111)-like film grows according to the Stranski-Krastanov mechanism.

  • 6.
    Soldemo, Markus
    et al.
    KTH.
    Niu, Yuran
    Lund University.
    Zakharov, Alexei
    Lund University.
    Lundgren, Edvin
    Lund University.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH.
    A well-ordered surface oxide on Fe(110)2015In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 639, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-ordered surface oxide grown on Fe(110) has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction, low energy electron microscopy, and core level photoelectron spectroscopy. The iron oxide film exhibits wide terraces and is formed after exposure to 100-1000 L at 1 x 10(-6) mbar O-2 and 400 degrees C. Two domains, mirror symmetric in the Fe(110)-lattice mirror symmetry planes but otherwise equal, are observed. The surface oxide forms a relatively large coincidence surface unit cell (16.1 angstrom x 26.5 angstrom). Imaging by STM reveals a strong bias dependence in the apparent height within the surface unit cell. The oxygen terminating atomic layer has a hexagonal atomic structure, FeO(111)-like, with the atomic sparing of 3.2 angstrom, that is expanded by similar to 63% relative to bulk FeO(111).

  • 7.
    Starfelt, Samuel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Initial quantum well states in Ag thin films on the In/Si(111)-root 3 x root 3 surface2020In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 692, p. 1-7, article id 121531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver thin films have been formed by room temperature deposition of Ag on In/Si(111)-root 3 x root 3. The Ag films have been investigated using both angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS). This creates a powerful link between the electronic structures and the film morphology. The valence band spectra show a clear evidence of quantum well state (QWS) formation already for a 2 monolayer (ML) film. This QWS moves towards the Fermi level for the 3 ML film, which also reveals a second QWS. The QWSs' dispersions have been plotted along the (Gamma) over bar(M) over bar and (Gamma) over bar(K) over bar symmetry lines of the 1 x 1 surface Brillouin zone (SBZ), where the (Gamma) over bar(M) over bar direction shows the umklapp-mediated QWSs. The valence band spectra for the 3 ML Ag film also show a strong Ag sp band close to the edge of the Ag(111) 1 x 1 SBZ. In the STS spectrum from 2 ML, two peaks are visible below the Shockley surface state. These peaks are compared with the ARPES data and attributed to different features of the QWS, namely the turning part where the QWS band intersects with the bulk Si valence band region and the local binding energy minimum close to the (Gamma) over bar point.

  • 8.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Puglia, Carla
    Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University.
    Göthelid, Emmanuelle
    Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University.
    Bäckvall, Jan-E.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Stockholm University.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Molecular orientation of thiol-derivatized tetraphenylporphyrin on gold studied by XPS and NEXAFS2009In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 603, no 7, p. 1026-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tetraphenylporphyrins bearing four linkers consisting of thioacetyl-functionalized carbon chains were immobilized on a gold surface via thiolate–gold bonds using two different preparation routes. The structure of these molecular layers was characterized in detail with synchrotron radiation based core-level spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The results show that the geometry of the molecular layers and the number of linkers that bind to the gold surface depends on the preparation schemes. The deprotection of the linkers through removal of the terminal acetyl group before the molecular adsorption (deprotected systems) resulted in porphyrins bound to the gold surface with on the average three linkers, their normal axis being tilted ∼38° with respect to the surface normal. On the other hand, porphyrin layers prepared directly with the acetyl group still in place on the linkers (protected systems) are made of molecules bound to the gold surface via two linkers on the average. The resulting orientation is more upright, with the normal axis of the porphyrin plane tilted ∼50° with respect to the surface normal. Moreover, NEXAFS measurements revealed that the acetyl deprotected porphyrin layers have a higher degree of ordering than the protected systems.

  • 9.
    Widstrand, Susanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Larsson, Mats I.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Johansson, Lars S.O.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Miki, H.
    Yeom, H.W.
    Oshima, M.
    Preparation of stoichiometric GaN(0001)1x1 studied with spectromicroscopy2004In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 572, no 2-3, p. 409-417Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Jemander, S. T.
    Lin, N.
    Hansson, G. V.
    Uhrberg, R. I. G.
    Origin of 3x3 diffraction on the Sn1-xSix /Si(111)sqrt3xsqrt3 surface2003In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 531, no 1, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Sakamoto, K.
    Uhrberg,, R. I. G.
    Surface electronic structures of Au-induced reconstructions on the Ag/Ge(111)sqrt3xsqrt3 surface2003In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 934, p. 532-535Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Uhrberg, R.I.G.
    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Ag/Ge(111): Observation of Surface Reconstruction Transformations2003In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 546, no 1-2, p. L789-L796Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 12 of 12
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