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  • 1.
    Ali, Nour
    et al.
    Brunel University, London, UK.
    Baker, Sean
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    O’Crowley, Ross
    Red Orkid Limited, Dublin, Ireland.
    Herold, Sebastian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Buckley, Jim
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Architecture consistency: State of the practice, challenges and requirements2018Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 224-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecture Consistency (AC) aims to align implemented systems with their intended architectures. Several AC approaches and tools have been proposed and empirically evaluated, suggesting favourable results. In this paper, we empirically examine the state of practice with respect to Architecture Consistency, through interviews with nineteen experienced software engineers. Our goal is to identify 1) any practises that the companies these architects work for, currently undertake to achieve AC; 2) any barriers to undertaking explicit AC approaches in these companies; 3) software development situations where practitioners perceive AC approaches would be useful, and 4) AC tool needs, as perceived by practitioners. We also assess current commercial AC tool offerings in terms of these perceived needs. The study reveals that many practitioners apply informal AC approaches as there are barriers for adopting more formal and explicit approaches. These barriers are: 1) Difficulty in quantifying architectural inconsistency effects, and thus justifying the allocation of resources to fix them to senior management, 2) The near invisibility of architectural inconsistency to customers, 3) Practitioners’ reluctance towards fixing architectural inconsistencies, and 4) Practitioners perception that huge effort is required to map the system to the architecture when using more formal AC approaches and tools. Practitioners still believe that AC would be useful in supporting several of the software development activities such as auditing, evolution and ensuring quality attributes. After reviewing several commercial tools, we posit that AC tool vendors need to work on their ability to support analysis of systems made up of different technologies, that AC tools need to enhance their capabilities with respect to artefacts such as services and meta-data, and to focus more on non-maintainability architectural concerns.

  • 2.
    Ali, Nour
    et al.
    Brunel University, London, UK.
    Baker, Sean
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    O'Crowley, Ross
    Red Orkid Limited, Dublin, Ireland.
    Herold, Sebastian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Buckley, Jim
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Architecture consistency: State of the practice, challenges and requirements (vol 23, pg 224, 2018)2018Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 1868-1869Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Méndez Fernández, Daniel
    et al.
    Technische Universität München Garching Germany.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Wieringa, Roel
    University of Twente Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Naming the pain in requirements engineering: Contemporary problems, causes, and effects in practice2016Inngår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, s. 1-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering (RE) has received much attention in research andpractice due to its importance to software project success. Its interdisciplinary nature, thedependency to the customer, and its inherent uncertainty still render the discipline diffi-cult to investigate. This results in a lack of empirical data. These are necessary, however, todemonstrate which practically relevant RE problems exist and to what extent they matter.Motivated by this situation, we initiated the Naming the Pain in Requirements Engineer-ing (NaPiRE) initiative which constitutes a globally distributed, bi-yearly replicated family of surveys on the status quo and problems in practical RE. In this article, we report on thequalitative analysis of data obtained from 228 companies working in 10 countries in variousdomains and we reveal which contemporary problems practitioners encounter. To this end,we analyse 21 problems derived from the literature with respect to their relevance and crit-icality in dependency to their context, and we complement this picture with a cause-effectanalysis showing the causes and effects surrounding the most critical problems. Our resultsgive us a better understanding of which problems exist and how they manifest themselvesin practical environments. Thus, we provide a first step to ground contributions to RE onempirical observations which, until now, were dominated by conventional wisdom only.

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