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  • 1.
    Gerber, Markus
    et al.
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Seelig, Harald
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Kellmann, Michael
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany.
    Ludyga, Sebastian
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Colledge, Flora
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Brand, Serge
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Bianchi, Renzo
    Université de Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
    Usefulness of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) as a screening tool for the detection of clinically relevant burnout symptoms among young elite athletes2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 39, p. 104-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Having psychometrically sound instruments is essential to the understanding of the determinants and consequences of athlete burnout. Therefore, this study examines the psychometric properties of a German version of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) and its usefulness as a screening tool for the detection of clinically relevant burnout symptoms. Design: Prospective study. Method: 257 young elite athletes were recruited from Swiss Olympic Sport Classes (37% females; M = 16.8 years, SD = 1.4). 197 students were assessed a second time after six months. All students filled in a standardized questionnaire about domain-specific and domain-unspecific burnout symptoms, depressive symptoms, stress, and life satisfaction. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor structure of the ABQ. Moreover, all subscales had acceptable internal consistency. Support was also found for the convergent validity of the ABQ; all subscales were positively correlated with perceived stress, burnout and depression, whereas negative correlations existed with life satisfaction. By contrast, some ABQ subscales shared only limited variance, the three ABQ subscales did not predict each other across time, and none of the ABQ subscales was suitable for the screening of clinically relevant burnout symptoms. Conclusions: While the factor structure and internal consistency of the ABQ was supported, our study corroborates previous concerns about the psychometric properties and validity of the ABQ. While the ABQ has advanced research on athlete burnout, we hold that further debates about the most suitable way to assess burnout among elite athletes are urgently needed.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Carlin, Maicon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Podlog, Leslie
    USA.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 35, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the link between elite athletes' motivational profiles and burnout using a person-centered approach. Participants were 391 Spanish elite athletes (201 males and 190 females), aged 16-30 years who completed questionnaires measuring demographic information, self-determined motivation, and athlete burnout. Latent profile analysis resulted in a five profile solution labeled: amotivation (Class 1), low motivation (Class 2), moderately autonomous motivation (Class 3), amotivated and moderately controlled motivation (Class 4), and highly motivated (Class 5). While no significant differences were found in emotional/physical exhaustion, Class 4 (amotivated and moderately controlled motivation) scored higher than classes 2 (low motivation), 3 (moderately autonomous motivation), and 5 (highly motivated) on a Reduced sense of Accomplishment and Sport Devaluation. Findings are discussed in relation to Self-Determination Theory, suggesting that the quality of one's motivation may be equally, if not more important than the quantity of motivation in determining subsequent health, well-being, and performance outcomes.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hancock, David
    Indiana university.
    Coté, Jean
    Queens university Canada.
    Describing citation structures in sport burnout literature: a citation network analysis2014In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 620-625Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Hassmen, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Örebro universitet.
    A qualitative analysis of burnout in elite Swedish athletes2008In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Martinent, Guillaume
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Guillet-Descas, Emma
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.
    Performance based self-esteem and athlete-identity in athlete burnout: A person-centered approach2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 38, p. 56-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance-based self-esteem and a self-identity dominated by being an athlete have been associated with athlete burnout. Our aim is to extend previous research by adopting a person-centered approach and examining whether profiles of burnout can be identified based on the athletes’ identity and performance-based self-esteem. Swedish junior athletes completed measures of athlete burnout, athlete identity, and performance-based self-esteem. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: Low burnout profile (n = 131), Moderate burnout profile (n = 178), Moderately high burnout profile (n = 125) and High burnout profile (n = 37). Higher scores of athletic identity were significantly less likely to be in the high burnout profile and athletes with higher scores of performance-based self-esteem were significantly more likely to be in the high burnout profile compared to the other three burnout profiles. These findings suggest that athletes with a performance-based self-esteem might be at greater risk of experiencing burnout.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Skoog, Thérese
    Örebro universitet.
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hope and athlete burnout: Stress and affect as mediators2013In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 640-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    In this study we examined the relationship between trait hope and burnout in elite junior soccer players and whether stress and positive and negative affect mediated this relationship.

    Methods

    Participants were 238 Swedish soccer players (166 males, 71 females; one did not indicate gender) aged 15–19 years who completed questionnaires measuring trait hope, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and athlete burnout (i.e., emotional/physical exhaustion, a reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation).

    Results

    Bivariate correlations were consistent with hope theory contentions indicating significant negative relationships between hope and all three burnout dimensions. The relationship between hope and emotional/physical exhaustion was fully mediated by stress and positive affect. For sport devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment, stress and positive affect partially mediated the relationship with hope. In contrast, negative affect did not mediate the relationship between hope and any of the burnout dimensions.

    Conclusion

    The results support earlier findings that hope is negatively related to athlete burnout. Support was also found for the hypothesis that high hope individuals would experience less stress and therefore less burnout. Promoting hope may be relevant in reducing the likelihood of this detrimental syndrome.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Smith, A.L
    Hassmén, P
    Peer motivational climate and burnout perceptions of intensively sport involved adolescents2010In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, no 11, p. 453-460Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    et al.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, UFR STAPS Grenoble, Lab Sport & ENvironm Social, F-38041 Grenoble 9, France..
    Trouilloud, David
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, UFR STAPS Grenoble, Lab Sport & ENvironm Social, F-38041 Grenoble 9, France..
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Guillet-Descas, Emma
    Univ Lyon 1, CRIS, Ctr Rech & Innovat Sport, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Associations between the perceived quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete burnout: An examination of the mediating role of achievement goals2016In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 22, p. 210-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the current study was to examine (1) associations between the quality of the coach athlete relationship as perceived by athletes and athlete burnout and, (2) the role of achievement goals in mediating the association between the coach athlete relationship and burnout. Design: Cross-sectional. Method: 359 athletes completed measures of the perceived quality of the coach athlete relationship (the 3Cs model), achievement goals (the 2 x 2 model) and burnout (the athlete burnout model). Results: Structural equation modeling revealed negative relationships between the perceived quality of the coach athlete relationship and the three dimensions of athlete burnout (df = 118, chi(2) = 215.37, RMSEA =.05 [.04; .061, TLI = .97, CFI = .97). Moreover, results suggested that mastery-approach goals partially mediated the relationship between the coach athlete relationship and two dimensions of athlete burnout: sport devaluation (i.e., indirect and direct effects: p < .001) and reduced accomplishment (i.e., indirect and direct effects: p < .01). Conclusion: The current study confirms and broadens previous knowledge on the socio-cognitive correlates of athlete burnout by demonstrating that the level of athlete burnout is associated with the perceived quality of the relationship with the coach. Results also highlight that achievement goals partially mediate these relationships. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Jowett, Sophia
    et al.
    University Loughborough, England.
    Adie, James W.
    Coventry University, England.
    Bartholomew, Kimberley J.
    University East Anglia, England.
    Yang, Sophie X.
    Sichuan University, China.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Lopez-Jimenez, Alicia
    University Autonoma Madrid.
    Motivational processes in the coach-athlete relationship: A multi-cultural self-determination approach2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 32, p. 143-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Grounded in self-determination theory, the present study examined the cultural invariance of a model that hypothesized sport performers' well-being will be predicted by both their perceptions of motivation and the quality of the relationship held with their coach. Method: Participants (N = 756), originating from five countries (British, Chinese, Greek, Spanish, and Swedish), completed a questionnaire that measured perceived coach-athlete relationship quality, basic psychological need satisfaction, self-determined motivation, and well-being. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to analyze the data. Results: Analysis revealed that athletes who perceived a high quality relationship experienced heightened levels of basic need satisfaction. Need satisfaction positively predicted self-determined motivation, which, in turn, linked to enhanced well-being. Moreover, mediation analyses supported the explanatory roles of need satisfaction and self-determined motivation within the model. Lastly, multi-sample SEM invariance testing revealed the model to be largely invariant across cultures. Conclusions: The results support the universal application of self-determination theory and the central role interpersonal relationships play in promoting well-being. Crown Copyright (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Swedish youth football players' attitudes towards moral decision in sport as predicted by the parent-initiated motivational climate2016In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 25, p. 110-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between late adolescent football players' perceptions of the motivational climate as initiated by mothers and fathers and attitudes towards moral decision making in sports. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Participants were 213 Swedish football players (144 males, 67 females) aged 16-19 years who completed measures assessing perceived parent-initiated motivational climate (i.e., success-without effort climate [SWEC]; worry conducive climate [WCC]; and learning/enjoyment climate [LEC]) and attitudes towards moral decision-making in sport (i.e., acceptance of cheating [AOC]; acceptance of gamesmanship [AOC.] and keeping winning in proportion [KWIP]). Results: Canonical correlations demonstrated moderate positive relations between parent initiated both mother and father performance climates (WCC and SWEC) and AOC and AOG. Moreover, the relationship between mother and father-initiated learning/enjoyment climate (LEC) were shown to be moderately and positively associated with the prosocial attitude dimension of KWIP. Results also showed that a mother-initiated LEC and a mother-initiated SWEC were stronger predictors of the criterion variables (AOC, AOG, and KWIP) than equivalent father-initiated climate dimensions. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of considering the relationship between parent initiated climates especially initiated by mothers and the development of moral decision-making among youth football players.

  • 11.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Swedish youth football players’ attitudes towards moral decision in sport as predicted by the parent-initiated motivational climate2016In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 25, p. 110-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods: Participants were 213 Swedish football players (144 males, 67 females) aged 16-19 years who completed measures assessing perceived parent-initiated motivational climate (i.e., success-without effort climate [SWEC]; worry conducive climate [WCC]; and learning/enjoyment climate [LEC]) and attitudes towards moral decision-making in sport (i.e., acceptance of cheating [AOC]; acceptance of gamesmanship [AOC.] and keeping winning in proportion [KWIP]). Results: Canonical correlations demonstrated moderate positive relations between parent initiated both mother and father performance climates (WCC and SWEC) and AOC and AOG. Moreover, the relationship between mother and father-initiated learning/enjoyment climate (LEC) were shown to be moderately and positively associated with the prosocial attitude dimension of KWIP. Results also showed that a mother-initiated LEC and a mother-initiated SWEC were stronger predictors of the criterion variables (AOC, AOG, and KWIP) than equivalent father-initiated climate dimensions. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of considering the relationship between parent initiated climates especially initiated by mothers and the development of moral decision-making among youth football players

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