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  • 1.
    Back, Jenny
    et al.
    Halmstad Univ, Ctr Res Welf Hlth & Sport, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Josefsson, Torbjorn
    Halmstad Univ, Ctr Res Welf Hlth & Sport, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad Univ, Ctr Res Welf Hlth & Sport, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Psychological risk factors for exercise dependence2019In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study was to investigate if exercisers' personality characteristics were associated with exercise dependence. Specifically, the purpose was to examine if anxiety, obsessive passion, and physical appearance orientation were associated to an increased risk for exercise dependence. Participants were 330 exercisers from exercise groups, sport clubs and university sport science classes in the southwest of Sweden. Data were analysed using CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis. The CHAID analysis indicated that anxiety was the main predictor of exercise dependence. More specifically, 12.7% more exercisers who experienced high levels of anxiety symptoms (i.e. scores above 6), were, in comparison to the exercises experiencing low levels of anxiety, classified as ?at risk for exercise dependence?. For exercisers that reported low levels of anxiety symptoms (i.e. scores below 7), obsessive passion for exercise was a positive statistically significant predictor (absolute risk difference?=?8.6%). Overall, the results highlight anxiety as a main risk factor behind exercise dependence. Also, the risk of exercise dependence may increase either from obsessive passion or as a coping strategy for anxiety. Furthermore, results may illustrate two types of exercise dependence; ?primary? exercise dependence driven mainly by an obsessive passion for exercise and ?secondary? exercise dependence where exercise function as a strategy to cope with anxiety.

  • 2.
    Podlog, Leslie
    et al.
    University of Utah.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Skoog, Thérese
    Örebro universitet.
    Gao, Zan
    Maria, Westin
    Sofiahemmet Stockholm.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Sofiahemmet Stockholm.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Need satisfaction, motivation, and engagement among high Performance youth athletes: A multiple mediation analysis2015In: International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1612-197X, E-ISSN 1557-251X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 415-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether the various types of motivation articulated in self-determination theory (SDT) mediated the relationship between basic need satisfaction (i.e. competence, autonomy, and relatedness) and athlete engagement. Four types of motivation as assessed by the Situational Motivation Scale including intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation, and amotivation were examined as mediators of the need satisfaction–engagement relationship. Swedish downhill skiers (N = 192; n = 95 males, n  = 97 females) aged 15–20 years completed questionnaires assessing the study variables of interest. Mediation analyses revealed that all four motivational regulations were significant partial mediators of the relationship between autonomy support and engagement. Moreover, except for external regulation, all three motivational regulations fully mediated the association between relatedness and engagement. Finally, intrinsic motivation and identified regulation partially mediated the relationship between competence and engagement. Findings support SDT contentions highlighting the importance of self-determined forms of motivation in mediating need satisfaction and engagement. The mediation patterns and directions for future research are discussed.

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