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  • 1.
    Backe, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Monitoring the "tip of the iceberg": Ambulance records as a source of injury surveillance2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, no 36, p. 250-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of moderate and severe injury morbidity in a defined population based on ambulance records, and to validate ambulance records as a potential source of surveillance.Methods: A geographical target area was defined; the county of Värmland, Sweden. All ambulance attendances and hospitalisations for unintentional and intentional injury in 2002 were selected, analysed and compared.Results: Ambulance data comprised 3964 injury cases (14.5/1000). Most injuries for which ambulance attention was sought occurred in road traffic areas (27 %), followed by residential areas (20 %), school and institutional areas (14 %) and sports areas (8 %). An ecological comparison between ambulance based data and hospitalisations showed that ambulance services captured approximately the same amount of injury cases (3235 ambulance reports compared to 3456 hospital discharges) with a similar profile.Conclusions: This study provides epidemiological support for ambulance services as a potential source of regular surveillance data on moderate and severe injuries. However, at a population level, our results indicate that ambulance data tend to overestimate some injury categories, and underestimate others, compared to hospital data. The significance of these differences for preventive work, as well as other practical aspects of the feasibility for regular injury surveillance will be analysed and discussed on the basis of general criteria for evaluation of surveillance systems in a forthcoming paper.

  • 2.
    Frieberg, Otto-Patrik
    et al.
    1Health Centre Läkarhuset Unicare, Borlänge; Centre of Clinical Research (CKF), Dalarna.
    Millqvist, Eva
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    From, Ingrid
    Dalarna University.
    Development and validation of the self-administered Falun health instrument (SAFHI) using data from health promoted workplaces in Sweden2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 735-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to develop and to validate the self-administered Falun health instrument. An additional aim was to test its applicability in measuring people's lifestyles linked to health. Methods: In 2002, an instrument was constructed containing questions regarding the hazardous use of alcohol, tobacco, unhealthy diets and insufficient physical activity. A pilot study using the instrument was assessed between 2002 and 2006. In Sweden, it was further expanded and tested during the years 2004-2014 among a total of 1295 people. Results: Face validity was evaluated among colleagues and experts for clarity and completeness resulting in minor adjustments of some questions. With the test-retest method, the self-administered Falun health questionnaire showed a positive and high reproducibility and high compliance. Cronbach's alpha showed a high level of consistency (average 0.86). Factor analysis demonstrated the choice of questions correlated highly to the measured lifestyle. Conclusions: This study showed that the self-administered Falun health questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument, useful for detecting individuals at risk of developing diseases that are related to individual choice of lifestyle.

  • 3.
    Granrud, M. D.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Steffenak, A. K. M.
    Inland Norway university.
    Theander, Kersti
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Gender differences in symptoms of depression among adolescents in Eastern Norway: Results from a cross-sectional study2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare and describe gender differences and the associations between symptoms of depression and family conflict and economics, lifestyle habits, school satisfaction and the use of health-care services among adolescents. Methods: Data were retrieved from Ungdata which is a cross-sectional study. Adolescents (n=8052) from secondary school grades 8, 9 and 10 (age 13–16 years) participated in the study from 41 municipal schools in four counties. Results: Girls reported a higher prevalence of symptoms of depression than boys. Gender differences were seen on all items related to symptoms of depression, family conflict and economics, lifestyle habits, school satisfaction and health-care services. Multiple regressions showed that family conflicts and economics contributed to 19.2% of the variance in symptoms of depression in girls and 12.4% in boys. School satisfaction made a strong contribution: 21.5% in girls and 15.4% in boys. The total model explained 49% of the total variance in symptoms of depression in girls and 32.5% in boys. Conclusions: Gender demonstrated a pattern through a higher proportion of girls reporting symptoms of depression, family conflict and economics, lifestyle habits, school satisfaction and use of health-care services. Even though the adolescents reported symptoms of depression, few used the school health-care services and public health nurses. This indicates that they need a person-centered approach for symptoms of depression. The findings may have important implications for planning for adolescents in school health services.

  • 4.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Family residency and psychosomatic problems among adolescents in Sweden: The impact of child-parent relations2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Profound changes in family structure took place in many countries, during the second part of the previous century. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the association between the type of family residency and psychosomatic problems in younger and older adolescents, particularly focusing on alternate residency, and to examine the impact of child-parent relations.

    Methods: We used data collected in 2009 by Statistics Sweden among 172,298 Swedish students in grade 6 and grade 9 (approximate ages 12 and 15 years old); comprising 80% and 86%, respectively, of the entire population of students in those grades. We collected the data with a questionnaire, completed anonymously in school: We used the Psychosomatic Problems (PSP) scale as the outcome measure.

    Results: The type of family residency showed a weaker association with psychosomatic problems than the child-parent relationships did. Living in non-intact families increased the probability of adolescent psychosomatic problems by 0–0.05, compared to intact families. In grade 9, there were no differences in psychosomatic problems between the students in alternate residency and those living with their two parents; and in grade 6, these differences were relatively small. In comparison, a worse relationship with parents increased the probability of psychosomatic problems by 0.11–0.17, depending on the school grade and type of family residency.

    Conclusions:The structure of the family, as well as the child-parent relationships needs to be taken into account, to properly estimate the magnitude of the family situation as a determinant of adolescent psychosomatic problems. Our results justify universal intervention at the policy level.

  • 5.
    Hagquist, Curt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Sundh, Mona
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charli
    Örebro universitet.
    Smoking habits before and after the introduction of a minimum-age law for tobacco purchase: Analysis of data on adolescents from three regions of Sweden2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Scandinvian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 373-379Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Kleppang, Annette L
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Elverum, Norway.
    Thurston, Miranda
    Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Elverum, Norway.
    Hartz, Ingeborg
    Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Elverum, Norway.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Department of Public Health, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Elverum, Norway; Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this work was to examine psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents in relation to changes over time and the associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys in 2001 and 2009 in Hedmark County. Adolescents aged 15–16 years old completed a questionnaire regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychological distress and other health and lifestyle variables. The self-report Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to assess psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between psychological distress, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Results: Self-reported psychological distress increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 (from 19.4 to 28.2%), with the proportion of girls reporting psychological distress being twice as large as the proportion of boys. The proportion of adolescents who were physically active for ⩾11 hours per week increased significantly over the same period (from 6.0 to 10.4%). Sedentary behaviour ⩾6 hours per school day increased significantly among both sexes between 2001 and 2009. Physical activity (⩾11 hours) and sedentary behaviour (⩾6 hours) were both significantly associated with psychological distress. Conclusions: The association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak; only high amounts of physical activity and high amounts of screen-based sedentary behaviour were associated with psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide further insights into these associations and to understand the extent to which these variables might be causally related.

  • 7.
    Larm, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Vastmanland Cty Hosp Vasteras, Clin Res Ctr, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden.;Malardalens Univ, Sch Hlth Care & Social Welf, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Aslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala Univ, Vastmanland Cty Hosp Vasteras, Clin Res Ctr, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Nilson, K. W.
    Uppsala Univ, Vastmanland Cty Hosp Vasteras, Clin Res Ctr, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden..
    How are social capital and sense of coherence associated with hazardous alcohol use?: Findings from a large population-based Swedish sample of adults2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 525-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study examined whether social capital and a sense of coherence are associated with hazardous alcohol use in a large population-based Swedish sample. In particular, the objectives were (a) to examine which of five subdimensions of social capital is associated with hazardous alcohol use, (b) to investigate the moderating role of sense of coherence and (c) to examine possible sex differences. Methods: A postal survey was distributed to a sample of respondents (aged 18-84 years) from five Swedish counties that was stratified by sex, age and city; 40,674 (59.2%) participants responded, of which 45.5% were men and 54.5% were women with a mean +/- SD age of 53.8 +/- 17.9 years. Results: Structural dimensions of social capital were associated with an increased probability of hazardous alcohol use among both men and women, whereas the increased probability associated with cognitive dimensions occurred mostly among women. Sense of coherence was robustly associated with a decreased probability of hazardous alcohol use among both men and women. There were few moderating effects of sense of coherence and sex differences emerged mainly for the cognitive dimension of social capital. Conclusions: Associations between social capital dimensions and hazardous alcohol use were partly sex-specific, whereas the benefits of a sense of coherence accrued to both sexes. Social capital dimensions and sense of coherence were generally unrelated to each other. Only associations between the cognitive dimensions of social capital and hazardous alcohol use differed by sex.

  • 8.
    Lucas, Steven
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Tindberg, Ylva
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bully, bullied and abused. Associations between violence at home and bullying in childhood2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 27-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim was to examine experiences of bullying among Swedish adolescents and whether victims and perpetrators were also exposed to violence in the home, with particular focus on how abuse severity affected the risk of exposure to bullying. Methods: A nationally representative sample of pupils aged 14-15 responded to a questionnaire exploring exposure to corporal punishment and other types of violence. Results were analysed using Pearson's chi-square and multiple logistic regression, adjusting for factors regarding the child, the parents and the families' socioeconomic status. Results: Among the 3197 respondents, a significant proportion reported at least one incident of either bullying victimisation (girls 36%, boys 26%) or bullying perpetration (girls 24%, boys 36%). Physical and emotional violence in the home, including witnessed intimate partner violence, were significantly associated with both bullying victimisation and bullying perpetration. Odds ratios for exposure to bullying rose with increasing frequency and severity of abuse. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 for any event of abuse vs. single episodes of bullying to 20.3 for multiple types of abuse vs. many episodes of bullying. The child's gender and the presence of a chronic health condition were consistently associated with nearly all levels of abuse and bullying. Conclusions: Bullying experiences are common among youth and are clearly associated with abuse. Frequent bullying, whether as victim or perpetrator, warrants particular vigilance, as it appears to be an indicator of severe violence in the home.

  • 9.
    Moen, Øyfrid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Care and Nursing, Gjøvik .
    Hedelin, Birgitta
    Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Care and Nursing, Gjøvik .
    Hall-Lord, Marie-Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Care and Nursing, Gjøvik .
    Parental perception of family functioning in everyday life with a child with ADHD2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe and investigate family characteristics in relation to support, behaviour of the child, family functioning and sense of coherence from the parents' perspective in families with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A further aim was to explore predictors of family functioning.

    Methods: The study population consisted of 1964 parents of children with ADHD aged 15 years old and younger. In all, 265 parents responded to a questionnaire (response rate 48.2%; 217 mothers and 48 fathers). In addition to questions about the parents, children, family characteristics and support from health services, the questionnaire included the Family Assessment Device (FAD), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Sense of Coherence (SOC) and Social Cohesion and Support Index (SCS). Data were analysed with descriptive, comparative and standard multiple regression analyses.

    Results: Parents with ADHD reported a weaker SOC and poorer FAD in the family than parents without ADHD. Parents with children medicated for ADHD were significantly more satisfied with social support (SCS), rated their children's behaviour as less problematic and reported better family functioning. Parents' age, SOC, SCS, SDQ and support from the community health services explained 46.2% of the variation in FAD.

    Conclusions: A strong SOC, social support and support from the community health services were strongly associated with a positive effect on family functioning. Parents with ADHD reported a weaker SOC and poorer family functioning than parents without ADHD. This knowledge may be useful and should be taken into account when planning support for such families.

  • 10.
    Molarius, Anu
    et al.
    Karlstad University. Vastmanland Cty Council, Competence Ctr Hlth, S-72189 Vasteras, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Granstrom, Fredrik
    Sormland Cty Council, R&D Ctr, Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Linden-Bostrom, Margareta
    Orebro Cty Council, Dept Community Med & Publ Hlth, Orebro, Sweden..
    Elo, Sirkka
    Orebro Cty Council, Dept Community Med & Publ Hlth, Orebro, Sweden..
    Domestic work and self-rated health among women and men aged 25-64 years: Results from a population-based survey in Sweden2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study investigated the association between domestic work and self-rated health among women and men in the general population. Methods: The study is based on women (N = 12,910) and men (N = 9784) aged 25-64 years, who responded to a survey questionnaire in 2008 (response rate 56%). Logistic regression models were used to assess the association adjusting for age, educational level, employment status, family status and longstanding illness. Population attributable risks (PAR) were calculated to assess the contribution of domestic work to the prevalence of suboptimal self-rated health. Results: More women (29%) than men (12%) spent more than 20 hours per week in domestic work. Women also experienced domestic work more often as burdensome. Disability pensioners and single mothers reported highest levels of burdensome domestic work. There was a strong independent association between burdensome domestic work and suboptimal self-rated health both in women and men. The PAR for burdensome domestic work was 21% in women and 12% in men and comparable to other major risk factors. Conclusions: The results suggest that domestic work should not be omitted when considering factors that affect self-rated health in the general population.

  • 11.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Age- and sex-specific analysis of homicide mortality as a function of economic development: A cross-national comparison2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, p. 464-471Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    A comparison of hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden by latitude and sunlight exposure2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Changes in sleep habits between 1985 and 2013 among children and adolescents in Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 869-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim was to investigate changes in child and adolescent sleep habits in Sweden over time. This had not been done previously. Methods: Cross-sectional questionnaire data over three decades of investigations of the Health Behaviours of School Children study (1985/1986, 2005/2006 and 2013/2014) were used. The sample included 18,682 children and adolescents, aged 11, 13 and 15. Empirically based age-specific sleep duration recommendations were used to operationalise sleep duration. Results: The results showed that, over time, fewer go to bed early and more go to bed late. Regarding sleep duration, there have been decreases in the proportion of children and adolescents that sleep as much as is recommended for their age. Sleep onset difficulties have increased for all ages and increase the odds of sleeping less than recommended as well as having late bedtimes. Boys were more likely than girls to have later bedtimes and to sleep less than recommended. A vocational educational track, not planning to study further or being unsure of which track to choose increased the odds for 15 year olds to have late bedtimes and to sleep less than recommended compared with a college preparatory track. Conclusions: The results indicate that over time, fewer children and adolescents attain sufficient sleep duration. This may have implications for study results, mental health and cognitive abilities.

  • 14.
    Nygren, Karina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013). Umeå universitet.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Self-reported school demands and psychosomatic problems among adolescents: Changes in the association between 1988 and 2011?2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 174-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: the aim of the present study was to examine changes over time in the relationship between self-reported school demands and psychosomatic problems, also considering the impact of student influence and teacher support. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study (young in Värmland) including eight data collections (1988–2011) among Swedish students aged 15–16 were used (n = 20,115). Analyses with multinomial logistic regression and descriptive statistics were applied. Results: Between 1988 and 2011, the proportions of students with a higher degree of psychosomatic problems increased, as did the proportion of students experiencing school demands that were too high. Finer-level analyses based on stratification of student groups did not show any associations at the aggregated level between increases of school demands and psychosomatic problems. Similarly, individual level analyses showed that the strength of the association between school demands and psychosomatic problems was not affected by year of investigation. Conclusions:Changes in school demands over time could not explain the increasing trend in psychosomatic problems among adolescents. Since the relationship between school demands and psychosomatic problems is strong across time, there is, however, a continued need for school-based interventions. More studies are required to gain further understanding of adolescent mental health from a trend perspective.

  • 15.
    Ostberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Skaraborg Primary Care, R&D Ctr, SE-54130 Skovde, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden.;Res Ctr, Publ Dent Serv, Vastra Gotaland, Sweden..
    Wikstrand, I.
    Skaraborg Primary Care, R&D Ctr, SE-54130 Skovde, Sweden.;Hlth Care Ctr Centrum, Skovde, Sweden..
    Bostrom, K. Bengtsson
    Skaraborg Primary Care, R&D Ctr, SE-54130 Skovde, Sweden..
    Group treatment of obesity in primary care practice: A qualitative study of patients' perspectives2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 98-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To explore patients' experiences of very low calorie diet (VLCD) and subsequent corset treatment of obesity in a primary care setting, and to explore their perceptions of factors influencing weight control. Methods: In western Sweden, five focus group sessions were carried out. The main themes for the discussions were the informants' perceptions of the treatment they had received and their experiences of living with obesity. The analysis was based on the Grounded Theory methodology. Results: The outcomes reflect obese individuals' struggle to handle the demands of their life situation and to recognize their own resources. The core category generated was labelled "Achieving a balance in life and adjusting one's identity". Three categories related to the process of weight reduction were identified: living with obesity, reducing weight and developing self-management. The group treatment with VLCD was positively perceived by the participants, but the corset treatment was considered to be of less value. Conclusions: Maintenance after weight reduction was demanding and the findings indicate a need for extended support. For some individuals the corset treatment could be a psychological support. Follow-up after weight reduction programmes should focus on long-term self-help strategies.

  • 16.
    Schyllander, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Nyberg, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Ekman Stark, Diana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Högskolan Väst.
    Case analysis of all children's drowning deaths occuring in Sweden 1998-20072013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 174-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The goal of this research project was to explore circumstances surrounding each drowning death occurring to children and adolescents ages 0–17 in Sweden during the years 1998–2007. Methods: Records from the National Board of Forensic Medicine (NBFM) and other sources were analysed. We collected information on children’spersonal characteristics (sex, age, ethnic background, weight, height, physical condition, and pre-existing health conditions) and the circumstances of deaths (time and place of occurrence, type of drowning, resuscitation efforts and medical care given, for example). We also collected information on prevention factors: the physical environment, adult supervision, whether or not the child could swim, and if the child was using a personal flotation device at the time of death. Results: Our analysis showed that 109 children had drowned in Sweden during the study period – of this group, 96 had died from unintentional causes. Children from immigrant backgrounds, particularly with families coming from the Middle East and Iran, were inordinately represented in the group of victims who had died from unintentional drowning deaths. Other risk factors included: coming from a single parent-headed family, alcohol use by older victims and a lack of ability to swim. Conclusions: Prevention efforts to prevent drowning in the future should focus on preventing alcohol use by young bathers; better fencing around swimming sites; improved coverage of swimming lessons to all children in Sweden, especially children from immigrant families; more education on drowning risks for single parents; and better awareness by adults on the need for constant supervision of children and adolescents in and near water.

  • 17.
    Strandmark K, Margaretha
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Rahm, GullBritt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Our objective was to develop and implement an intervention program in collaboration with workplace personnel, to evaluate the process as a vehicle to prevent and combat bullying. Methods: The project emanates from a community-based participatory approach. We obtained data from individual and focus group interviews. We used grounded theory methodology, and made a comparative analysis before and after the intervention. Results: Focus group interviews at the three first meetings indicated that those best positioned to prevent and combat bullying were the immediate supervisors, in collaboration with co-workers and upper management. The goal of zero tolerance toward bullying can be achieved if all concerned work together, using a humanistic value system, an open workplace atmosphere, group collaboration and conflict resolution. We developed an intervention, including lecturers and reflection groups, which ultimately resulted in an action plan. Focus group interviews at the fourth meeting, after the implementation, showed that employees were then more aware of bullying problems; the atmosphere at the workplace improved; the collaboration between and within the group was stronger; and the supervisor worked continuously to prevent and combat bullying, using the humanistic values suggested. We propose additional systematic work to implement our action plan and a conflict resolution system. Conclusions: The anti-bullying program implementation in the workplace achieved some success, but the intervention process is ongoing.

  • 18.
    Strandmark, Margaretha
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Method development at Nordic School of Public Health NHV: Phenomenology and Grounded Theory2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, p. 61-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Qualitative methods such as phenomenology and grounded theory have been valuable tools in studying public health problems. Aim: A description and comparison of these methods. Results: Phenomenology emphasises an inside perspective in form of consciousness and subjectively lived experiences, whereas grounded theory emanates from the idea that interactions between people create new insights and knowledge. Fundamental aspects of phenomenology include life world, consciousness, phenomenological reduction and essence. Significant elements in grounded theory are coding, categories and core categories, which develop a theory. Conclusions: There are differences in the philosophical approach, the name of the concept and the systematic tools between the methods. Thus, the phenomenological method is appropriate when studying emotional and existential research problems, and grounded theory is a method more suited to investigate processes. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  • 19.
    Svensson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Adolescent Alcohol- and Illicit Drug-Use in First and Second Generation Immigrants in Sweden2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Vaez, Marjan
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Leijon, Ola
    The Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska institutet.
    Wikman, Anders
    Karolinska institutet.
    Nord, Tora
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Lidwall, Ulrik
    Karolinska institutet; Swedish Social Insurance Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiberg, Michael
    Swedish Social Insurance Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Gonäs, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karolinska institutet.
    A follow-up of the introduction of a maximum entitlement period for receiving sickness benefits in Sweden: A nationwide register-based study2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, Sweden introduced a policy change to limit the number of days for sickness benefits (SB). This study aimed to elucidate the characteristics of those who reached the maximum entitlement period for receiving sickness benefits (MEPSB) and their future main source of income. Methods: All 5,309,759 individuals, aged 20–63 and residents of Sweden in 2009 were followed from July 2008 to July 2010 regarding SB-days and date of MEPSB and then categorised into three groups: I) no SB-days, II) ongoing SB-days, and III) MEPSB. Mean numbers of SB-days 2.5 years before and 2 years after the policy change and main source of income in 2011 were assessed. Associations between sociodemographic factors, occupation and paid work as main source of income were estimated by odds ratio (OR). Results: A total of 0.7% reached MEPSB in 2010. The mean numbers of SB-days before and after the policy change were higher in the MEPSB group than in the other two groups. In the MEPSB group, 14% had their main source of income from paid work in 2011; this was more common among women born in Sweden (OR = 1.29), people living with a partner and children (women OR = 1.29; men OR = 1.48), and those with occupations representing high educational levels. Conclusions: One out of seven individuals with MEPSB in 2010 had their main source of income from paid work in 2011, although they had a long-term SB before and after the policy change. Further research is warranted to address the long-term effects of this policy change.

  • 21.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Nyholm, M
    Gullberg, B
    Rastam, L
    Lindblad, U
    Tooth loss and obesity in a defined Swedish population2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 427-433Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 21 of 21
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