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  • 1.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Injury risks in schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity or autismspectrumdisorder: Results from two school-based health surveys of 6- to 17-year-old children in Sweden2016Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 58, s. 49-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Sweden and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been associated with an increased risk of injury in pediatric populations elsewhere in the world. Current evidence regarding the possible link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and injury risk appears limited, even though some potentially risk-increasing symptoms overlap. The purpose of this study was thus to study the association between both ADHD and ASD concerning the risk of injury among Swedish schoolchildren. Methods: Two samples were used: a population based register study containing data from 18,416 children ranging from the ages of 6-17 years collected by school nurses during 2012/2014 (Survey A), and a national cross-sectional study of 3202 ninth-grade children (similar to 15 years old) collected from 92 schools in 2011 (Survey B). The data were analyzed using chi(2)-tests and log binomial generalized linear models to obtain risk ratios (RR), comparing cases reportedly affected by ADHD or ASD to unaffected controls. Results: After adjusting for confounders, ADHD was associated with a 65% increased risk of injury (RR 1.65 [95% CI: 132-2.05] in Survey A, and a 57% increased risk of injury (RR 1.57 [95% CI: 1.27-1.95]) in Survey B. ASD was not significantly associated with any differences in injury risk (RR 0.81 [95% CI: 0.57-1.14]). Conclusions: The results indicate that there is an elevated injury risk among Swedish schoolchildren with ADHD but not for children with ASD. Future studies should focus on causal mechanisms mediating the association between ADHD and injuries in order to facilitate injury prevention strategies. Practical applications: Parents and teachers of schoolchildren with ADHD should be made aware of the elevated injury risks associated with the diagnosis. Safety experts and injury control professionals should consider the development of specialized prevention strategies in order to reduce these risks.

  • 2.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    The effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children: An interrupted time series study2014Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 51, s. 15-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous population-based research has shown that bicycle helmet laws can reduce head injury rates among cyclists. According to deterrence theory, such laws are mainly effective if there is a high likelihood of being apprehended. In this study, we investigated the effect of the Swedish helmet law for children under the age of 15, a population that cannot be fined. Method  An interrupted time series design was used. Monthly inpatient data on injured cyclists from 1998–2012, stratified by age (0–14, 15 +), sex, and injury diagnosis, was obtained from the National Patient Register. The main outcome measure was the proportion of head injury admissions per month. Intervention effect estimates were obtained using generalized autoregressive moving average (GARMA) models. Pre-legislation trend and seasonality was adjusted for, and differences-in-differences estimation was obtained using adults as a non-equivalent control group. Results There was a statistically significant intervention effect among male children, where the proportion of head injuries dropped by 7.8 percentage points. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on the proportion of head injuries among female children. Conclusion According to hospital admission data, the bicycle helmet law appears to have had an effect only on male children.

  • 3.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Bergqvist, Anders
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Assessing the number of fire fatalities in a defined population2015Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 55, s. 99-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Fire-related fatalities and injuries have become a growing governmental concern in Sweden, and a national vision zero strategy has been adopted stating that nobody should get killed or seriously injured from fires. There is considerable uncertainty, however, regarding the numbers of both deaths and injuries due to fires. Different national sources present different numbers, even on deaths, which obstructs reliable surveillance of the problem over time. We assume the situation is similar in other countries. This study seeks to assess the true number of fire-related deaths in Sweden by combining sources, and to verify the coverage of each individual source. By doing so, we also wish to demonstrate the possibilities of improved surveillance practices. Method: Data from three national sources were collected and matched; a special database on fatal fires held by The Swedish Contingencies Agency (nationally responsible for fire prevention), a database on forensic medical examinations held by the National Board of Forensic Medicine, and the cause of death register held by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Results: The results disclose considerable underreporting in the single sources. The national database on fatal fires, serving as the principal source for policymaking on fireprevention matters, underestimates the true situation by 20 %. Its coverage of residential fires appears to be better than other fires. Conclusions: Systematic safety work and informed policy-making presuppose access to correct and reliable numbers. By combining several different sources, as suggested in this study, the national database on fatal fires is now considerably improved and includes regular matching with complementary sources.

  • 4.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Huss, Fredrik
    Burn Center, Department of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The state of the residential fire fatality problem in Sweden: Epidemiology, risk factors, and event typologies2017Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 62, s. 89-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Residential fires represent the largest category of fatal fires in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of fatal residential fires in Sweden and to identify clusters of events.

    Method

    Data was collected from a database that combines information on fatal fires with data from forensic examinations and the Swedish Cause of Death-register. Mortality rates were calculated for different strata using population statistics and rescue service turnout reports. Cluster analysis was performed using multiple correspondence analysis with agglomerative hierarchical clustering.

    Results

    Male sex, old age, smoking, and alcohol were identified as risk factors, and the most common primary injury diagnosis was exposure to toxic gases. Compared to non-fatal fires, fatal residential fires more often originated in the bedroom, were more often caused by smoking, and were more likely to occur at night. Six clusters were identified. The first two clusters were both smoking-related, but were separated into (1) fatalities that often involved elderly people, usually female, whose clothes were ignited (17% of the sample), (2) middle-aged (45–64 years old), (often) intoxicated men, where the fire usually originated in furniture (30%). Other clusters that were identified in the analysis were related to (3) fires caused by technical fault, started in electrical installations in single houses (13%), (4) cooking appliances left on (8%), (5) events with unknown cause, room and object of origin (25%), and (6) deliberately set fires (7%).

    Conclusions

    Fatal residential fires were unevenly distributed in the Swedish population. To further reduce the incidence of fire mortality, specialized prevention efforts that focus on the different needs of each cluster are required.

    Practical applications

    Cooperation between various societal functions, e.g. rescue services, elderly care, psychiatric clinics and other social services, with an application of both human and technological interventions, should reduce residential fire mortality in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Nilson, Finn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Fall-related fracture trends among elderly in Sweden – exploring transitions among hospitalized cases2013Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, nr 45, s. 141-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem

    Fall-related injuries have been a cause of worry during the end of the 20th century with increasing trends among the elderly.

    Method

    Using data from the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR) based on hospital admissions, this study explores the trends in fall-related fractures between 1998 and 2010.

    Results

    The data shows a decreasing trend in fall-related fractures in all age- and sex-specific groups apart from men 80 years and above. While hip fracture incidence rates decreased in all age- and sex-specific groups, both central fractures and upper extremity fractures have increased in all age- and sex-specific groups apart from women 65–79 years. Lower extremity fractures have increased in the older age groups and decreased in the younger. Discussion: The differences found between the groups of fractures and by age- and sex-specific groups indicate a possible transition where more serious fractures are decreasing while less serious fractures increase among hospitalized cases.

    Summary

    Perhaps due to a focus on hip fracture prevention, this study shows that while the incidence rate of hospitalized hip fractures has decreased, other fall-related hospitalized fractures have increased.

    Impact on industry

    Potentially, this could be indicative of a healthier younger elderly, coupled with a frailer older elderly requiring more comprehensive healthcare also for less serious injuries. Further research is needed to confirm our results.

  • 6.
    Rådbo, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Svedung, Inge
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Suicides and other fatalities from train-person collisions on Swedish railroads: A descriptive epidemiologic analysis as a basis for systems-oriented prevention2008Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 423-428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Sund, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Do home fire and safety checks by on-duty firefighters decrease the number of fires?: Quasi-experimental evidence from Southern Sweden2019Ingår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 70, s. 39-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Fire and rescue services Syd, in the south of Sweden, started to conduct home fire and safety checks on a large scale in 2010. The goal was to reduce the damages from residential fires. Method: We estimate the effects of the intervention on the incidence of residential fires and evaluate its economic effect. We use a difference-in-kinks design to analyze time-varying intervention effects and conduct a cost–benefit analysis for the economic evaluation. Results: The results demonstrate that fires and developed fires decrease by a maximum of approximately 6% and 8% per year (assuming 100% causality)and that the intervention has positive economic effects, with the benefits estimated to be maximum 8–11 times higher than the costs. Practical applications: The results should be valuable as input when deciding whether to implement home fire and safety checks elsewhere.

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