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  • 1.
    Bergh, Daniel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Social relations in school and psychosomatic health among Swedish adolescents: the role of academic orientation2011In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 699-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of this study was to analyse the connection between two types of social relations in school (to peers and to teachers) and psychosomatic health complaints among adolescents in school Year 9 in the Swedish compulsory school. In particular,              the focus is on the importance of students’ academic orientation as a possible modifier of the association between social relations and psychosomatic health complaints.

    Methods: The data were collected during the 1995–2005 time period from approximately 10 000 Swedish adolescents in the age of 15–16 years by using a questionnaire that was handed out in the class room.

    Results: There are strong associations between adolescents’ social relations in school (both to peers and to teachers) and psychosomatic health complaints. Worse relationships are connected to worse psychosomatic health. The health effects of teacher contacts                     were significantly modified by academic orientation; they were stronger for theoretically (i.e. those with better health) than for non-theoretically oriented students.

    Conclusion: Interpreted from a social class perspective, the results may reflect that the theoretically oriented students to a higher degree strive to conform to the culture present in school making this group of students more sensitive for teacher relations                     manifested as recognitions, rewards or penalties. In order to promote social equity in health, efforts to improve social relations in school should not solely focus on the teacher–student relationships but also on the relationships between peers.

  • 2.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Investigating the effect of banning non-reduced ignition propensity cigarettes on fatal residential fires in Sweden 2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 334-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:Annually, 100 people die as a result of residential fires in Sweden and almost a third of the fatal fires are known to be caused by smoking. In an attempt to reduce the occurrence of these events, reduced ignition propensity (RIP) cigarettes have been developed. They are designed to reduce the risk of fire by preventing the cigarette from burning through the full length when left unattended. In November 2011, a ban was introduced, forbidding the production and sale of all non-RIP cigarettes in all member states of the European Union, including Sweden.

    METHODS:Monthly data on all recorded residential fires and associated fatalities in Sweden from January 2000 to December 2013 were analyzed using an interrupted time series design. The effect of the intervention [in relative risk (RR)] was quantified using generalised additive models for location, shape and scale.

    RESULTS:There were no statistically significant intervention effects on residential fires (RR 0.95 [95% CI: 0.89-1.01]), fatal residential fires (RR 0.99 [95% CI: 0.80-1.23]), residential fires where smoking was a known cause (RR 1.10 [95% CI: 0.95-1.28]) or fatal residential fires where smoking was a known cause (RR 0.92 [95% CI: 0.63-1.35]).

    CONCLUSION:No evidence of an effect of the ban on all non-RIP cigarettes on the risk of residential fires in Sweden was found. The results may not be generalisable to other countries.

  • 3.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood: Results from the Northern Swedish cohort2015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 796-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about the possible long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. Research indicates that unemployment may lead to socioeconomic downward mobility and mental health problems, but we still lack knowledge of the long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. This article examines the potential long-term association between youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood. 

    Methods: The ‘Northern Swedish cohort’ was used with data from five data collections, from 1981 (age 16) until 2007 (age 42). Youth unemployment was measured as months in unemployment between age 16 and 21, and health outcome as functional somatic symptoms (an index of 10 items of self-reported symptoms). Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between months in youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms at age 21 and age 42, stratified for women and men and adjusted for potential confounders, such as time spent in education at age 21 and later unemployment between age 21 and 42. 

    Results: Youth unemployment was significantly related to functional somatic symptoms at age 21 for men after controlling for confounders, but not for women. Among men, the association remained for functional somatic symptoms at age 42, after controlling for confounders. 

    Conclusions: Adolescence seems to be a sensitive period during which unemployment could have remaining health effects in adulthood, at least for men, though assumptions of causality are tentative and more research is needed.

  • 4.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Health inequalites among adolescents - the impact of academic orientation and parents' education2007In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, p. 21-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Health inequalities among adolescents - the impact of academic orientation and parents' education2007In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 21-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traditionally, the socio-economic position of adolescents has been measured using information about parents' occupation, parents' level of education, or household income. Since the adolescence is a developmental stage characterised by a search for and a move into individual life tracks a shift of focus from socio-economic position of origin to socio-economic position of destination is justified. Academic orientation may be used as a rough indicator of future social position. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the link between academic orientation and parents' education on the one hand and subjective health and health-related behaviour among adolescents on the other. Methods: The study was based on cross-sectional questionnaire data collected in 1999 and 2003 among 1828 18-year-old students in year 2 of upper secondary school in a Swedish city. The data were analysed using contingency tables and logistic regression. Results: Subjective health and health-related behaviour was strongly linked to academic orientation but not directly to parents' education. The pattern is unambiguous, poor health and health-damaging behaviour being significantly higher among students in non-theoretical programmes than among students in theoretical programmes. Conclusion: Academic orientation is a useful concept in order to detect health inequalities and a powerful way of identifying adolescents at higher risk. The unequal distribution of health and health-damaging behaviour according to academic orientation among adolescents turns out to be an important challenge for public health work.

  • 6.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Psychosomatic health problems among adolescents in Sweden - are the time trends gender-related?2009In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 331-336Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Evans, Brittany
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Towards explaining time trends in adolescents’ alcohol use: A multilevel analysis of Swedish data from 1988 to 20112019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 729-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol use has decreased among Swedish adolescents in the past few decades. We examined peer and parent factors (i.e., time spent with peers, time spent with parents, and parental monitoring) that could contribute to explaining this trend by investigating their main effects and interaction effects with investigation years on alcohol use. We furthermore examined whether municipality-level socioeconomic conditions could contribute to explaining the trend. Methods: We used data from a repeated cross-sectional study that took place eight times between 1988 and 2011. The study targeted all ninth grade students (15-to-16-year-olds) in Värmland County, Sweden. Adolescents (N = 22,257) reported their monthly alcohol use, time spent with peers and parents, and parental monitoring. Municipality-level socioeconomic conditions were based on parent education levels. Results: Logistic multilevel regression analyses showed that peer and parent factors and municipality-level socioeconomic conditions were associated with alcohol use among adolescents. The interaction effects between peer and parent factors and investigation years were not significant. The decreased trend in time spent with peers was associated with the decreased trend in frequency of alcohol use over time. Conclusion: The findings of the current study provide an indication that the decreased trend in alcohol use that has been observed in Swedish adolescents over the past few decades may be related to changes in adolescents’ social interactions with peers.

  • 8.
    Molarius, A.
    et al.
    Karlstad University. Vasteras & Karlstad Univ, Competence Ctr Hlth, Vastmanland Cty Council, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Granstrom, F.
    Sormland City Council, Ctr Res & Dev, Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Feldman, I.
    Uppsala City Council, Dept Community Med, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Blomqvist, M. Kalander
    Varmland City Council, Dept Community Med, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Pettersson, H.
    Uppsala City Council, Dept Community Med, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ello, S.
    Varmland City Council, Dept Community Med, Karlstad, Sweden.;Orebro Cty Council, Dept Community Med & Publ Hlth, Orebro, Sweden..
    Can financial insecurity and condescending treatment explain the higher prevalence of poor self-rated health in women than in men?: A population-based cross-sectional study in Sweden2012In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, p. 37-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Molarius, Anu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Vastmanland Cty Council, Competence Ctr Hlth, S-72189 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Linden-Bostrom, Margareta
    Reg Orebro Cty, Dept Sustainable Dev, Orebro, Sweden.;Univ Orebro, Fac Med & Hlth, Orebro, Sweden..
    Granstrom, Fredrik
    Uppsala Univ, Ctr Clin Res Sormland, Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Jan
    Univ Orebro, Fac Med & Hlth, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Orebro, Sweden..
    Obesity continues to increase in the majority of the population in mid-Sweden-a 12-year follow-up2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 622-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim was to investigate trends in the prevalence of obesity by age and level of education in the general population in mid-Sweden from year 2000 to 2012. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to a random population sample aged 25-74 years in years 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012. The overall response rates were 67%, 65%, 60% and 53%, respectively, and the study included 29 017, 27 385, 25 910 and 24 152 respondents, respectively. Obesity (BMI a parts per thousand yen 30 kg/m(2)) was based on self-reported weight and height. Results: The age-standardized prevalence of obesity increased from 13% to 17% in women and from 12% to 17% in men between 2000 and 2012. Obesity increased in all age groups from 2000 to 2008 and continued to increase among the middle aged (45-64 years) between 2008 and 2012. The socioeconomic gradient in obesity changed during the study period since the absolute increase in obesity was steepest at the middle educational level. In 2012, the prevalence of obesity was almost twice as high at both middle and low educational levels compared with high educational level. The 'true' prevalence of adult obesity, corrected for self-reported weight and height, was around 20% in 2012 for both men and women. Conclusion: In the majority, among the middle-aged and those with secondary education, the prevalence of obesity continued to increase even between 2008 and 2012.

  • 10.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Relationship between economic development and risk of injuries in older adults and the elderly: A global analysis of unintentional injury mortality in an epidemiologic transition perspective2005In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 454-458Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ryen, Linda
    et al.
    Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, Karlstad; University of Gothenburg.
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Svensson, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Williams College, USA.
    From loss of life to loss of years: a different view on the burden of injury fatalities in Sweden 1972-20142018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 853-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Worldwide, about 5.8 million people die each year due to injuries. In Sweden, the corresponding number amounts to 3000. There are large differences among injury types regarding the age-profile of the fatalities and as most of them occur in older age groups, counting the absolute number of injury fatalities does not fully reflect the size of the burden of injury. Methods: Using age-and sex-specific life expectancy tables in combination with data on external causes of injury, the number of injury fatalities in Sweden for the time period 1972-2014 is converted to a sum of potential years of life lost (PYLL). We then fit cause and group-specific spline regression models to the data to estimate temporal trends in both fatality counts and PYLL. Results: There has been a steady reduction in the number of injury fatalities and in the sum of PYLL from the early 1970s to around the year 2000. Since then, there has been an increase in the number of injury fatalities and in the sum of PYLL. The upward trend is mainly explained by an increasing number of deaths due to poisonings and suicide, specifically among younger men. Conclusions: The increases in suicide and poisoning mortality offset the reductions in downward trending causes of injury mortality during the last decades. The share of PYLL is larger than the share of fatalities for both suicides and poisonings implying that an aging population does not cause the increase.

  • 12.
    Strandh, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Winefield, Anthony
    Centre for Applied Psychological Research, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Australia .
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Unemployment and mental health scarring during the life course2014In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 440-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been little research on the long-term relationship between unemployment experiences and mental health over the life course. This article investigates the relationship between youth unemployment as well as that of unemployment experiences during later periods and mental health at ages 16, 21, 30 and 42 years. Methods: The study makes use of the 'Northern Swedish Cohort' (NSC), a 27-year prospective cohort study. The cohort, investigated at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42 years, consisted of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in Sweden. Of the original 1083 participants, 94.3% of those still alive were still participating at the 27-year follow up. Mental health, measured through a three-item index of nervous symptoms, depressive symptoms and sleeping problems, was analysed using a repeated measures linear mixed models approach using ages 16, 21, 30 and 43 years. Unemployment exposure was measured as exposure to at least a 6-month spell during three periods; 18-21, 21-30 and 30-42 years. Results: Youth unemployment was shown to be significantly connected with poorer mental health at all three target ages, 21, 30 and 42 years. Later singular unemployment experiences did not appear to have the same long-term negative effects. There was however an accumulation in poorer mental health among respondents with unemployment experiences during two, and even more so three, of the periods. Conclusion: There are long-term mental health scarring effects of exposure to youth unemployment and multiple exposure to unemployment during the life course

  • 13.
    Sundh, Mona
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Does a minimum-age law for purchasing tobacco make any difference?: Swedish experiences over eight years2007In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 171-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose was to study possible changes in adolescents' opportunities for purchasing tobacco during the period 1996–2005. The study also investigated regional differences in adolescents' opportunities for purchasing tobacco, and elucidated the efforts by the authorities to affect the compliance with the minimum-age law of 18. Methods: In 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005, 3150 test purchases of tobacco were conducted in controlled forms by 48 adolescents in three regions of Sweden. In addition, in 2005, 28 structured telephone interviews were conducted with key people in tobacco prevention work. Results: In 1996, 84% of all test purchases in shops with a voluntary age-limit ended with the test purchasers succeeding in purchasing tobacco. This may be compared with 48% in 2005, 8 years after the age-limit law was introduced. The result of the test purchases and of the interviews showed differences between the three regions in compliance and in activities connected with the minimum-age tobacco law. Conclusions: The study shows that the minimum-age law for the purchase of tobacco has had an effect on adolescents' opportunities for purchasing tobacco and that compliance has improved since its introduction in 1997. The result also indicates avenues for further improving compliance with the age-limit law.

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