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  • 1.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety.
    The effect of stricter licensing on road traffic injury events involving 15 to 17-year-old moped drivers in Sweden: a time series intervention study2015In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 83, p. 154-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the effect of the introduction of the AM driving license on non-fatal moped-related injuries in Sweden. With the introduction of the new license category in October 2009, prospective moped drivers are now required to pass a mandatory theory test following a practical and theoretical course. In addition, obtaining a license to operate a moped is now considerably more costly.

    METHODS:Time series intervention analysis on monthly aggregated injury data (1st Jan 2007-31st Dec 2013) was performed using generalized additive models for location, shape and scale (GAMLSS) to quantify the effect size on injury events involving teenage (15-17 years) moped drivers, while controlling for trend and seasonality. Exposure was adjusted for by using the number of registered mopeds in traffic as a proxy.

    RESULTS:The introduction of AM license was associated with a 41% reduction in the rate of injury events involving 15-year-old moped drivers (IRR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.48-0.72]), and a 39% and 36% decrease in those involving 16-year-old (IRR 0.61 [95% CI: 0.48-0.79]) and 17-year-old drivers (IRR 0.64 [95% CI: 0.46-0.90]), respectively. The effect in the 15-year-old stratum was decreased roughly by half after adjusting for exposure, but remained significant, and the corresponding estimates in the other age groups did not change noticeably.

    CONCLUSIONS:This study provides quasi-experimental evidence of an effect on non-fatal moped-related injuries as a result of stricter licensing rules. Only part of the effect could be explained by a reduction in the number of mopeds in traffic, indicating that other mechanisms must be studied to fully understand the cause of the reduction in injuries.

  • 2.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Publ Safety, Karlstad, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Holmberg, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Publ Safety, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Estimating the effects of a studded footwear subsidy program on pedestrian falls among older adults in Gothenburg, Sweden2019In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 132, article id UNSP 105282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of a studded footwear subsidy program in Gothenburg, Sweden, where a free pair of anti-slip devices was distributed to all residents aged over 65 years as a pedestrian falls prevention measure. Using a difference-in-differences approach with internal age-based controls, we find evidence of a short-term effect on emergency department visits due to slips on snow and ice during the first year of the intervention ( -45% [95% CI: - 54, - 9] in 2013), which equates to 21.8 injuries prevented (95% CI: 3.34, 39.4). A cost-benefit analysis based on this result suggests that the short-term benefits outweigh the total costs of the intervention (benefit-cost ratio: 6.9 [95% CI: 1.05-12.46]), indicating that this type of subsidy program may be an important tool for the prevention of pedestrian falls among older adults during icy weather conditions. However, replication at other sites is recommended before drawing any strong and general conclusions.

  • 3.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Jernbro, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Does gender moderate the association between intellectual ability and accidental injuries?: Evidence from the 1953 Stockholm Birth Cohort study2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 106, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Daruvala, Dinky
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Preferences for lives, injuries, and age: A stated preference survey2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1814-1821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract

    One of the more difficult ethical questions from a public decision-making perspective is whether the estimation of benefits from risk reducing projects should be influenced by factors such as age groups and risk domains. For example, should a project that saves the lives of elderly people be assigned a more different benefit value in cost-benefit analyses than one that saves the same number of children's lives? This paper examines the preferences of the general public in Sweden on these issues. We design a choice experiment in which subjects are required to make six pair-wise choices where the characteristics of each choice are accident type (fire and traffic), number of fatalities and serious injuries avoided, and age of those saved (515-, 3545- and 6575-year-olds). We find that avoiding the fatality of one 515-year-old is equivalent to avoiding 1.4 fatalities of 3545-year-olds. Likewise, avoiding the fatality of one 515-year-old is equivalent to avoiding 3.3 fatalities of 6575-year-olds. We find no significant differences between the causes of accident. One avoided fatality is found to be equivalent to around 3.5 avoided severe injuries, which is lower than the official value of 6 used by the Swedish Road Administration

  • 5.
    Petzäll, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Petzäll, Jan
    Swedish Transport Agcy, Rd Traff Dept, SE-78123 Borlange, Sweden.
    Jansson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Nursing.
    Time saved with high speed driving of ambulances2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 818-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation with road ambulances is increasing because of a concentration of hospitals to larger units, with high quality in the acute care of the patients. The concentration implies longer distances to receiving units, which increases the transportation time. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the time difference in ambulance transportation with high speed emergency driving, compared to non-emergency driving in normal traffic pace. Data was collected from 30 emergency high speed ambulance transportations in urban and rural areas. These transportations were then repeated experimentally with an ambulance driving at normal traffic pace. The average speed and duration for the emergency transportations were shorter than for the experimental driving, both in urban and rural areas. The mean time saved was 2.9 min (urban areas) and 8.9 min (rural areas). Regardless of the patient's clinical status or need of care the emergency transportations were carried out in higher speed than the experimental driving. However, patients with life threatening conditions were not included in this study. Procedures and methods should be developed to identify the patients for which fast transportation has clinical relevance to the outcomes.

  • 6.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics. Dept. of Economics, Swedish Business School, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The Value of a Statistical Life in Sweden: Estimates from Two Studies using the "Certainty Approach" Calibration2009In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 430-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stated preference methods using surveys to elicit willingness to pay have been shown to suffer from hypothetical bias and scope/scale bias. Hypothetical bias usually means that willingness to pay is exaggerated in the hypothetical scenario and scope/scale bias means that there is an insensitivity in willingness to pay with regard to the amount of goods or the size of a good being valued. Experimental results in social psychology and economics have shown that only trusting the most certain respondents can potentially solve the problem with hypothetical bias and scope/scale bias. This paper presents the results of two different surveys in Sweden estimating the willingness to pay to reduce traffic mortality risks by only including the most certain respondents. Using the full sample, estimates of the value of a statistical life (VOSL) are $4.2 and $7.3 million. Estimates of VOSL on the subset of the samples only including the most certain respondents are lower and consistent between the two surveys with values of $2.9 and $3.1 million.

  • 7.
    Svensson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Vredin-Johansson, Maria
    Willingness to Pay for Private and Public Road Safety in Stated Preference Studies: Why the Difference?2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 1205-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
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