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  • 1. Bamberg, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Behaviour Theory and Soft Transport Policy Measures2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to propose a theoretical grounding of soft transport policy measures that aim at promoting voluntary reduction of car use. A general conceptual framework is first presented to clarify how hard and soft transport policy measures impact on car-use reduction. Two different behavioural theories that have been used to account for car use and car-use reduction are then integrated in a self-regulation theory that identifies four stages of the process of voluntarily changing car use: setting a car-use reduction goal, forming a plan for achieving the goal, initiating and executing the plan, and evaluating the outcome of the plan execution. A number of techniques are described that facilitate the different stages of the process of voluntary car-use reduction and which should be used in personalized travel planning programs.

  • 2.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Moerdijk, Sjef
    Centre for Transport and Navigation, The Netherlands.
    The road to happiness: Measuring Dutch car drivers’ satisfaction with travel2013In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 27, no May, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that travellers’ anticipated trip utility may differ from the utility they actually experience when making the trip. This implies that it is important to investigate not only the factors underlying trip decision making, but also the actual experience of the trip. To that end, this paper presents an empirical test of the satisfaction with travel scale (STS) that was developed to measure travellers’ satisfaction with travel. STS measures travel satisfaction in terms of two affective (positive activation versus negative de-activation and positive de-activation versus negative activation) and one cognitive dimension. The STS was applied in the Netherlands in a survey of car users. The results suggest that the reliability of the measurement scales is satisfactory to good, and that they are indicative of an overarching concept of travel satisfaction. Regression analyses carried out with the three STS dimensions as dependent variables show that STS is influenced by experienced traffic safety, annoyance with other road users, the trip being tiring, being distracted by billboards, and lack of freedom to choose speed and lane. In addition, travel purpose and personal characteristics play a role. Overall, the findings provide support for the validity of the STS as a tool to measure satisfaction with travel. It is concluded that using tools such as STS may provide relevant insights into how qualitative and design-related factors influence the attractiveness of trips made by car or other travel modes.

  • 3.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Maier, Raphaela
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Applying a motivational stage-based approach in order to study a temporary free public transport intervention2019In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 81, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines temporary free public transport as an intervention for increasing public transport use, hence promoting sustainable mobility. The aims of the study are twofold: (1) to understand how psychological mechanisms relate to motivational stage-based models of behavioral change, and the role of such a model when implementing temporary free public transport, and (2) to determine the effectiveness of temporary free public transport on car-use behavior, public transport satisfaction and attitudes. A literature review of studies reporting temporary free public transport interventions was first carried out, resulting in 13 studies that yielded non-conclusive results. We then conducted an intervention and follow-up surveys of 190 participants who tested public transport for free for one month in the County of Värmland (Sweden). The results show that psychological mechanisms are crucial determinants of motivational stage-based models, whereby personal norms, attitudes and perceived behavioral control form the stage of change, and that social norms have an indirect effect through personal norms. Although an increased use of public transport was observed, only minor reduction in car use occurred. It was also found that participants moved up their motivational ladders, indicating a stronger motivation to reduce their car use post-intervention, something that may lead to a change in behavior over time. It is concluded that, although weak effects were observed on behavior in the short-term perspective, a temporary free public transport intervention may not be a waste of money, nevertheless, in a long-term perspective.

  • 4.
    Kistler, Beat
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia..
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lohmann, Gui
    Griffith University, Australia..
    Passenger representation within the light-handed regulation - Insights from the Australian air transport market2018In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 71, p. 106-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article critically reviews the representation of passengers within the light-handed regulation (LHR) that has been in place in the Australian air transport market since 2002. The focus is the commercial negotiations between airlines and airports concerning investments that affect passengers as key stakeholders, end-users, and payers. The article draws on literature on consumer representation and willingness to pay, as well as data from 21 in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that within the current arrangement, passengers are dependent on airlines as their representatives, although their interests may differ concerning investments in airport infrastructure and services. This dependency is leveraged by the current airline duopoly in the Australian domestic air transport market because passengers have no transport alternatives among which to choose. Airports charging passengers their fees (and eventually negotiating prices for improved services) directly is not deemed a suitable option because it could increase the airports' market power and affect the passenger experience negatively. Recommendations, such as involving an independent representation body and diversifying service provision at the airport, are discussed as possibilities for increasing passengers' influence.

  • 5.
    Lohmann, Gui
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Licence to build, licence to charge? Market power, pricing and the financing of airport infrastructure development in Australia2017In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 59, p. 28-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017, airport privatisation in Australia reached a 20-year milestone, with its regulatory framework been shifted to a light-handed regulation in 2002. The light-handed regulation (LHR), as in place at Australia's top four airports, has been suggested as the ‘frontier of international policy’, leading to increasing interest among transport policymakers and researchers. This article offers an in-depth examination of the LHR with focus on a) the market-power of the regulated airports, b) the commercial price negotiations between airports and airlines, and c) the airports' behaviour towards infrastructure investment. The article reports on data from 21 semi-structured interviews conducted with key stakeholder groups affected by, or with expertise in, the LHR. Findings suggest that despite airports possessing significant market power, particularly in the domestic market, the light-handed approach seems to balance the forces in a market where an airline duopoly prevails (Qantas and Virgin Australia groups). In addition, both airports and airlines perceive that commercial price negotiations are improving and refrain from a return to a stronger regulation environment. For airlines, value-for-money is the primary concern in new infrastructure investments. Interviewees also outlined specific recommendations for improving the LHR framework, including a more accessible arbitrator and improved methodologies to monitor prices and quality of service. The findings point towards the significance of vertical relationships, long-term arrangements, and transparency as key aspects of the LHR and the development of airport infrastructure.

  • 6.
    Redman, Lauren
    et al.
    Uppsala University .
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Hartig, Terry
    University of Gothenburg.
    Quality attributes of public transport that attract car users: A research review2013In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 25, no January, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector presents contentious issues with respect to sustainable development, particularly regarding the use of private motorised vehicles in urban areas. Public transport (PT) together with cycling and walking are generally agreed to be sustainable alternatives to private car use. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of those aspects of PT quality most likely to attract car users. Toward achieving this aim, relevant research was sought to answer the following two questions: What quality attributes of PT services are attractive to users? And what changes in quality attributes of PT services would encourage modal shift from private motor vehicles to PT? Using a qualitative systematic review, it is concluded that while service reliability and frequency are important PT attributes in general, those attributes most effective in attracting car users are largely affective and connected to individual perceptions, motivations and contexts. Reduced fare promotions and other habit-interrupting transport policy measures can succeed in encouraging car users to try PT services initially. Attributes over and above basic accessibility, reliability and mobility provision, perceived by the target market as important service attributes, must then be provided in sustaining the switch from car use after promotional tactics have expired.

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